Diphtheria vaccine

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Diphtheria vaccine
DT-vaccine.jpg
DT vaccine in Japan
Vaccine description
Target diseaseCorynebacterium diphtheriae
TypeToxoid
Clinical data
MedlinePlusa607027
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular injection
ATC code
Identifiers
ChemSpider
  • none
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Diphtheria vaccine is a vaccine against Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the bacterium that causes diphtheria.[1] Its use has resulted in a more than 90% decrease in number of cases globally between 1980 and 2000.[2] The first dose is recommended at six weeks of age with two additional doses four weeks apart, after which it is about 95% effective during childhood.[2] Three further doses are recommended during childhood.[2] It is unclear if further doses later in life are needed.[2]

The diphtheria vaccine is very safe.[2] Significant side effects are rare.[2] Pain may occur at the injection site.[2] A bump may form at the site of injection that lasts a few weeks.[3] The vaccine is safe in both pregnancy and among those who have a poor immune function.[3]

The diphtheria vaccine is delivered in several combinations.[4] Some combinations (Td and DT vaccines) include tetanus vaccine, others (known as DPT vaccine or DTaP vaccine depending on the pertussis antigen used) comes with the tetanus and pertussis vaccines, and still others include additional vaccines such as Hib vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, or inactivated polio vaccine.[2] The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended its use since 1974.[2] About 84% of the world population is vaccinated.[5] It is given as a intramuscular injection.[2] The vaccine needs to be kept cold but not frozen.[3]

The diphtheria vaccine was developed in 1923.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[7] The wholesale price in the developing world of a version that contains tetanus toxoid is between 0.12 and 0.99 USD per dose as of 2014.[8] In the United States it is less than 25 USD.[9]

Effectiveness[edit]

About 95% of people vaccinated develop immunity, and vaccination against diphtheria has resulted in a more than 90% decrease in number of cases globally between 1980 and 2000.[2] About 86% of the world population was vaccinated as of 2016.[5]

Side effects[edit]

Severe side effects from diphtheria toxoid are rare.[2] Pain may occur at the injection site.[2] A bump may form at the site of injection that lasts a few weeks.[3] The vaccine is safe during pregnancy and among those who have a poor immune function.[3] DTP vaccines may cause additional adverse effects such as fever, irritability, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and, in 6–13% of vaccine recipients, vomiting.[2] Severe adverse effects of DTP vaccines include fever over 40.5°C/104.9°F (1 in 333 doses), febrile seizures (1 in 12,500 doses), and hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes (1 in 1,750 doses).[2][10] Side effects of DTaP vaccines are similar but less frequent.[2] Tetanus toxoid containing vaccines (Td, DT, DTP and DTaP) may cause brachial neuritis at a rate of 0.5 to 1 case per 100,000 toxoid recipients.[11][12]

Recommendations[edit]

The World Health Organization has recommended vaccination against diphtheria since 1974.[2] The first dose is recommended at six weeks of age with two additional doses four weeks apart, after receiving these three doses about 95% of people are immune.[2] Three further doses are recommended during childhood.[2] Booster doses every ten years are no longer recommended.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Diphtheria immunization (vaccine)". Archived from the original on 2 March 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Diphtheria vaccine: WHO position paper- August 2017" (PDF). Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 92 (31): 417–435. 4 August 2017. hdl:10665/258681. PMID 28776357.
  3. ^ a b c d e Atkinson, William (May 2012). Diphtheria Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (12 ed.). Public Health Foundation. pp. 215–230. ISBN 9780983263135. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016.
  4. ^ "Diphtheria Vaccination". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
  5. ^ a b "Diphtheria". World Health Organization (WHO). 3 September 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  6. ^ Macera, Caroline (2012). Introduction to Epidemiology: Distribution and Determinants of Disease. Nelson Education. p. 251. ISBN 9781285687148. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  7. ^ "World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019". World Health Organization. 2019. hdl:10665/325771. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ "Vaccine, Diphtheria-Tetanus". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  9. ^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 313. ISBN 9781284057560.
  10. ^ Braun, M. Miles; DuVernoy, Tracy S.; et al. (The VAERS Working Group) (October 2000). "Hypotonic–Hyporesponsive Episodes Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1996–1998". Pediatrics. 106 (4): e52. PMID 11015547.
  11. ^ "Tetanus". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 15 April 2019.
  12. ^ Health, Australian Government Department of (10 October 2017). "Immunisation". Australian Government Department of Health.

External links[edit]