Dipivefrine

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Dipivefrine
Dipivefrine.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Propine, Pivalephrine
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
MedlinePlus a686005
Pregnancy
category
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
administration
Eye drops
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Identifiers
Synonyms Dipivefrin
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H29NO5
Molar mass 351.437 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Dipivefrine (INN) or dipivefrin (USAN), trade name Propine among others, is a prodrug of epinephrine, and is used to treat open-angle glaucoma.[1][2] It is available[citation needed] as a 0.1% ophthalmic solution. It is no longer available in the United States.[3]

Contraindications[edit]

Use in narrow-angle glaucoma may be dangerous because it could make the eye susceptible to an attack of angle closure,[2] causing an increase in pressure and pain, and possibly loss of vision.

Side effects[edit]

The most common side effects of dipivefrine are burning, stinging and other irritations of the eye. Possible, but uncommon, side effects are those of epinephrine: tachycardia (fast heartbeat), hypertension (high blood pressure) and arrhythmias (irregular heartbeat).[2]

Pharmacology[edit]

Dipivefrine penetrates the cornea and is then hydrolysed to epinephrine by esterase enzymes. It increases outflow of the aqueous humour and also reduces its formation (mediated by its action on α1 and α2 receptors), thus reducing pressure inside the eye. It also increases the conductivity of trabecular filtering cells (a β2 receptor mediated action). It is preferred to epinephrine because it is longer acting, more consistent in its action and better tolerated.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b KD Tripari. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology (5 ed.). Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(P) Ltd. p. 88. ISBN 81-8061-187-6. 
  2. ^ a b c Dipivefrin FDA Professional Drug Information.
  3. ^ Zhang L, Weizer JS, Musch DC (2017). "Perioperative medications for preventing temporarily increased intraocular pressure after laser trabeculoplasty". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD010746. PMID 28231380. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010746.pub2.