A diploma mill (also known as a degree mill) is an unaccredited higher education institution that offers illegitimate academic degrees and diplomas for a fee. These degrees may claim to give credit for relevant life experience, but should not be confused with legitimate prior learning assessment programs. They may also claim to evaluate work history or require submission of a thesis or dissertation for evaluation to give an appearance of authenticity. Diploma mills are frequently supported by accreditation mills, set up for the purpose of providing an appearance of authenticity. The term may also be used pejoratively to describe an accredited institution with low academic admission standards and a low job placement rate. An individual may or may not be aware that the degree they have obtained is not wholly legitimate. In either case, legal issues can arise if the qualification is used in resumés.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Characteristics
- 3 Legal considerations
- 3.1 Australia
- 3.2 Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 3.3 Canada
- 3.4 China
- 3.5 Denmark
- 3.6 Finland
- 3.7 Germany
- 3.8 Hong Kong
- 3.9 India
- 3.10 Ireland
- 3.11 Malaysia
- 3.12 Mexico
- 3.13 Netherlands
- 3.14 New Zealand
- 3.15 Nigeria
- 3.16 Norway
- 3.17 Pakistan
- 3.18 Philippines
- 3.19 Portugal
- 3.20 Romania
- 3.21 Russia
- 3.22 South Korea
- 3.23 Sri Lanka
- 3.24 Sweden
- 3.25 Switzerland
- 3.26 United Kingdom
- 3.27 United States
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The term "diploma mill" originally denotes an institution providing diplomas on an intensive and profit-making basis, like a factory. More broadly, it describes any institution that offers qualifications which are not accredited and/or are not based on proper academic assessment.
While the terms "degree mill" and "diploma mill" are commonly used interchangeably, within the academic community a distinction is sometimes drawn. A "degree mill" issues diplomas from unaccredited institutions which may be legal in some states but are generally illegitimate, while a "diploma mill" issues counterfeit diplomas bearing the names of real universities.
Academic diplomas may be legitimately awarded without any study as a recognition of authority or experience. When given extraordinarily, such degrees are called honorary degrees or honoris causa degrees. Also, in some universities, holders of a lower degree (Bachelor's degree) may be awarded honorary higher degrees (Master's) without study.
Related practices are direct document forgery of certificates and corrupt buying of degrees from otherwise legitimate universities, although neither require a separate "mill".
Diploma mills share a number of features that differentiate them from respected institutions, although some legitimate institutions may exhibit some of the same characteristics.
Accreditation and authenticity
The most notable feature of diploma mills is that they lack accreditation by a nationally recognized accrediting agency. (Note, however, that not all unaccredited institutions of higher learning are diploma mills). Diploma mills therefore employ various tactics in an attempt to appear more legitimate to potential students.
Some diploma mills claim accreditation by an accreditation mill while referring to themselves as being "fully accredited". Accreditation mills based in the United States may model their websites after real accrediting agencies overseen by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). Another typical ploy is for mills to claim to be internationally recognized by organizations such as UNESCO. UNESCO has no authority to recognize or accredit higher education institutions or agencies, and has published warnings against education organizations that claim UNESCO recognition or affiliation.
Some diploma and degree mills have played a role in creating unrecognized accrediting bodies as well. These diploma and degree mills may further confuse matters by claiming to consider work history, professional education, previous learning and may even require the submission of a dissertation or thesis in order to give an added appearance of legitimacy.
As diploma mills are typically licensed to do business, it is common practice within the industry to misrepresent their business license as indicating government approval of the institution. Promotional materials may use words denoting a legal status such as "licensed", "state authorized", or "state-approved" to suggest an equivalence to accreditation.
Some advertise other indicators of authenticity that are not relevant to academic credentials. For example, the University of Northern Washington advertises that its degrees are "attested and sealed for authenticity by a government appointed notary". In reality notarization only certifies that the document was signed by the person named.
Diploma mills are frequently named to sound confusingly similar to those of prestigious accredited academic institutions. Despite the fact that trademark law is intended to prevent this situation, diploma mills continue to employ various methods to avoid legal recourse. Several diploma mills have adopted British-sounding names, similar but not identical to the names of legitimate universities, apparently to take advantage of the United Kingdom's reputation for educational quality in other parts of the world. Some examples of British-sounding names used by diploma mills are "Shaftesbury University", "University of Dunham", "Redding University", and "Suffield University".
The school’s website may well not have an .edu domain, or other country-specific equivalent, since registration of such names is typically restricted. However, enforcement has sometimes been lax, and an .edu domain cannot be taken as verification of school quality or reputation. Some diploma mills use an .ac top-level domain name, which resembles genuine second-level academic domain names like ac.uk but is in fact the ccTLD for Ascension Island. To prevent misuse of their names in this way, some legitimate academic institutions have registered .ac domains.
Compared to legitimate institutions, diploma mills tend to have drastically lowered academic requirements, if any at all. Depending on the institution, students may be required to purchase textbooks, take tests, and submit homework, but degrees are commonly conferred after little or no study.
Instead of "hard sciences", where competence is easier to verify, the subjects offered by a diploma mill are often esoteric and may be based on a pseudoscience like astrology or naturopathy. Such subjects are only vaguely defined, making external verification of educational standards difficult.
Degree mills typically offer little or no interaction with professors. Even if comments and corrections to coursework are given, they may have no bearing on the degree which is awarded. In other cases professors may serve only to write compliments to the student that can be given as references.
Since diploma mills provide little in the way of teaching, there is usually no need for teaching facilities. The school tends to have no library, personnel, publications or research. In short, very little that is tangible can be found about the institution. If teaching is offered, the professors may themselves hold advanced degrees from the diploma mill itself or from other unaccredited institutions. They may also sport legitimate qualifications that are unrelated to the subject they teach.
Doctoral theses and dissertations from the institution will not be available from University Microfilms International, a national repository, or even the institution's own library, if it has one. The address given by the bogus institution is often a postal box, mail forwarding service or suite number. There are legitimate distance learning institutions with limited facilities, however, but legitimate universities make their authority clear. For academics, publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals are important for establishing scientific credentials. However, in diploma mills, the research is either absent, fake or purely self-published without any external review. This may be unfortunately hard to spot, since fake journals also exist. Faculty pages with bios and research may even be stolen from legitimate universities.
Promotion and fees
Buyers often use the diplomas to claim academic credentials for use in securing employment. For example a schoolteacher might buy a degree from a diploma mill in order to advance to superintendent. Degrees from a diploma mill can be obtained within a few days, weeks or months from the time of enrollment, and back-dating is possible. Academic credit may be offered for "life experience," a point often featured heavily in the selling points of the institution. This should not be confused with legitimate programs offering recognition of prior learning, which allow students to gain academic credit based on past training, experience or independent study.
Tuition and fees are charged on a per-degree basis rather than by term or by course. In most of the European Union, tertiary education is free of charge to students who pass highly competitive entrance examinations. In this environment, schools that have a tuition fee, lack entrance requirements, and are possibly based in another country, may be diploma mills, particularly when they match other criteria listed here. Diploma mills are often advertised using e-mail spam or other questionable methods. Legitimate institutions use traditional advertising and high school recruitment. Prospective students are encouraged to "enroll now" before tuition or fees are increased. They may be told that they qualify for a fellowship, scholarship or grant, or offered deals to sign up for multiple degrees at the same time. Promotional literature might contain grammatical and spelling errors, words in Latin, extravagant or pretentious language, and sample diplomas. The school's website may look amateurish or unprofessionally made.
Degrees and diplomas issued by diploma mills have been used to obtain employment, raises, or clients. Even if issuing or receiving a diploma mill qualification is legal, passing it off as an accredited one for personal gain is a crime in many jurisdictions. In some cases the diploma mill may itself be guilty of an offense, if it knew or ought to have known that the qualifications it issues are used for fraudulent purposes. Diploma mills could also be guilty of fraud if they mislead customers into believing that the qualifications they issue are accredited or recognized, or make false claims that they will lead to career advancement, and accept money on the basis of these claims.
Similar to tax havens, diploma mills frequently employ jurisdiction shopping, operating in another country or legal jurisdiction where running diploma mills is legal, standards are lax or prosecution is unlikely. Splitting the business across jurisdictions can be a way to avoid authorities. A school might operate in one jurisdiction but use a mailing address in a different jurisdiction, for example. When situated in such a diploma mill-friendly country, the school very often has no students from that country, and is run entirely by non-native staff.
Some unaccredited institutions include disclaimers in respect of accreditation in the small print of their contracts.
- "It is like putting a time bomb in your résumé. It could go off at any time, with dire consequences. The people who sell fake degrees will probably never suffer at all, but the people who buy them often suffer mightily. And – particularly if their "degree" is health-related – their clients may be seriously harmed."
In Australia, it is a criminal offence to call an institution a university, or issue university degrees, without authorization through an act of federal or state parliaments.
The corporate regulator Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) places strict controls on corporations wishing to use the term "university" and if the applicant does not intend to provide education services the name must not imply a connection with an existing university.
The Corporations Regulations 2001 lists the 39 academic organisations permitted to use the title "university".
The use of higher education terms (such as "degree") is protected in state legislation, e.g. Higher Education (Qld) Act 2003.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
According to the laws on higher education in Bosnia and Herzegovina the terms "university", "faculty", "academy" and "university of applied sciences" can be used only by accredited educational institutions. Accreditation is independently assessed by the Agency for Development of Higher Education and Quality Assurance and formally conferred by the Ministry of Education and Science for each canton, entity or district. Only these institutions are allowed to award academic degrees and diplomas.
Illegal use of academic titles or academic degrees and "non-accredited diplomas" may lead to prosecution, conviction, fines or even imprisonment.
In Canada all universities and colleges are under the direct supervision of the provincial and territorial governments, and there are no accreditation authorities, so the problem of degree mills is relatively rare. For example, in Ontario the Post-secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act, 2000 regulates degree-granting authority. Any institution that wishes to offer a degree and/or use the term "university" must be authorized to do so under an Act of the Legislature or by the Minister of Training, Colleges and Universities.
A list of recognized Canadian higher education institutions are available on CICIC website.
Most, but not all, universities and colleges in the People's Republic of China are public institutions. The Ministry of Education, which has legal authority to regulate college enrollment and degree awarding, publishes a yearly list of qualified higher-education institutions. Institutions not on the list cannot admit students or award degrees.
Also, no institution may call itself a "university" or "college" without approval by a provincial-level education department. Any institution, public or private, which wishes to name itself after a geographic region larger than a province (e.g. "South China ... University") must go through the Ministry of Education. A new regulation forbids any new university or college from being named "national", "of China" or similar names.
As of May 2015, China has 210 diploma mills.
Most universities and colleges are public institutions; universities are self-governing, but financed by the state. However, some schools, like Tvind's teacher college, provide education which is only accredited outside Denmark.
All universities and colleges are public institutions; universities are state institutions or foundations, and vocational universities are municipal organs. There are no private higher educational institutions and no legal mechanism to found or accredit any. Universities are explicitly defined in the Universities Act. Other than universities proper, vocational post-secondary schools (AMK, ammattikorkeakoulu), called "Universities of Applied Sciences" in English, can be established with permission from the cabinet. The degrees are protected by law. The list of AMKs can be viewed from the Ministry of Education website.
For purposes of professional qualification, the use of foreign degree qualifications is regulated: if the name of a degree can be confused with a Finnish degree that requires more academic credit, the confusion must be eliminated. Although diploma mills have not operated in Finland, countermeasures in university admissions have become necessary because of degrees from foreign diploma mills. Furthermore, there are no laws against conferring unaccredited degrees or degrees accredited abroad, as long as a Finnish degree or equivalent is not claimed.
In Germany, it is a criminal offense to call an institution a Universität (university) or Fachhochschule, or to issue academic degrees, without authorization through an act of the respective state's Ministry of Education. It is also a criminal offense to falsely claim a degree in Germany if it is not accredited.
Some corporate training programs in Germany use the English term "corporate university". Such use of the term is tolerated since it is widely understood that such programs are not actual universities. Similarly, Fachhochschulen frequently use the English term "university of applied science". Neither are permitted to use the German word Universität.
It is illegal under Hong Kong laws chapter 320 Post Secondary Colleges Ordinance section 8 to call an organisation a "university" without approval from the Chief Executive in Council.
Under Hong Kong laws chapter 200 Crimes Ordinance section 73, anyone who knowingly uses false documents with the intention of inducing somebody to accept them as genuine is liable to 14 years' imprisonment. Section 76 assigns the same penalty for anyone who make or possesses machines that create such false documents.
The University Grants Commission (UGC) states, in section 22 of the University Grants Commission Act of 1956:
"The right of conferring or granting degrees shall be exercised only by a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, a Provincial Act or a State Act or an institution deemed to be a University under section 3 or an institution specially empowered by an Act of Parliament to confer or grant degrees."
UGC has published a warning dated July 2012 against Indian Institute of Planning and Management (IIPM) about the unrecognized status of IIPM.
Legitimate higher education qualifications in Ireland are placed on, or formally aligned, with the National Framework of Qualifications. This framework was established by the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland in accordance with the Qualifications (Education and Training) Act (1999). It is illegal under the Universities Act (1997) for any body offering higher education services to use the term "university" without the permission of the Minister for Education and Science. It is likewise illegal under the Institutes of Technologies Acts (1992–2006) to use the term "institute of technology" or "regional technology college" without permission.
The Private Higher Education Institutions act also places restrictions on the creation and operation of any private higher education institution that conducts any course of study or training programme for which a certificate, diploma or degree is awarded. 
Furthermore, all legitimate higher education qualifications are placed on or formally affiliated with the Malaysian Qualifications Framework under the provisions of the Malaysian Qualifications Agency Act 2007. Limited exemptions are however granted to organizations and institutions "where the teaching is confined exclusively to the teaching of any religion" or "any place declared by the Minister by notification in the Gazette not to be an educational institution" under the Education Act 1996.
In July 2007, the Secretariat of Public Education (SEP) of Mexico issued an alert listing eleven institutions that were unaccredited in Mexico: Atlantic International University, Pacific Western University, Endicott College, Alliant International University, United States International University, Newport University, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Westbridge University, West Coast University, Bircham International University, and Vision International University.
In the Netherlands it is illegal for non-accredited, non-recognized institutes to bestow any legally protected academic title. The NVAO is the only agency allowed to accredit courses. Since the implementation of the Bologna process, Dutch universities have started to bestow the English titles MSc and PhD instead of their Dutch equivalents. These English versions of the title are not protected under Dutch law. A diploma mill may thus bestow someone with a PhD title without violating Dutch law, but the recipient will not be allowed to use the protected titles "doctor" or "dr."
Partnerships with foreign educational institutions are possible. This is called the "U-bocht construction". In this case, the curricula are neither accredited by NVAO nor recognized by the Dutch Department of Education. Graduates receive a foreign diploma issued by the educational institution which has a partnership with a Dutch educational institution. The status of such a diploma depends upon the laws and accreditation system of the country where the diploma is granted.
Diplomas from accredited universities are accepted in the Netherlands since the Bologna protocol. Diploma's from non EU institutions must be screened and validated first before they are accepted for appointments requiring a validated starting level (e.g. entering a health profession).
The New Zealand Education Act prohibits use of the terms "degree" and "university" by institutions other than the country's eight accredited universities. In 2004 authorities announced their intention to take action against unaccredited schools using the words "degree" and "university," including the University of Newlands, an unaccredited distance-learning provider based in the Wellington suburb of Newlands. Other unaccredited New Zealand institutions reported to be using the word "university" included the New Zealand University of Golf in Auckland, the online Tawa-Linden and Tauranga Universities of the Third Age, and the Southern University of New Zealand. Newlands owner Rochelle M. Forrester said she would consider removing the word "university" from the name of her institution in order to comply with the law.
The National University Commission (NUC) was formed in 1999 to clamp down on diploma mill activity in the country. A concentrated effort by the NUC has resulted in a significant drop in diploma mill activity in Nigeria. An International Higher Education article states, "Attainment of the Nigerian vision of being one of the top 20 economies by 2020 will be compromised by the injection of such poor-quality graduates into the economy. Herein lies the distaste for and the raison d'être for the government's clampdown on degree mills."
In Nigeria, online degrees from unaccredited institutions are banned and should not be accepted by employers.
Accreditation of universities and other institutions of higher education ("Universitet", "Høyskole(Høgskole)"), is governed by the state institution NOKUT, Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education. There have been cases where people submitting diplomas from a "Diploma Mill" to this agency for convalidation, have been prosecuted for fraud.
The government-established Higher Education Commission (HEC) is responsible for all matters related to the accreditation of universities in Pakistan. All recognized universities in Pakistan are listed on the HEC website. Axact company was found involved in overseas sandal including fake degrees and diplomas.
Title IV (Crimes Against Public Interest), section V articles 174 and 175 of the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines criminalize the falsification of medical certificates, certificates of merit or service and the like. Article 174 imposes a penalty on anyone who produces such certificates and article 175 on anyone who knowingly procures and uses such a certificate. Despite this, news and magazine articles appear from time to time reporting businesses operating along Claro M. Recto Avenue in Manila which offer fake documents for sale.
A number of scandals and a decrease in the reputation of higher education institutions led to a state-run inspection of private higher education in 2007. In some fields, a number of private, and state-run polytechnic or university institutions, did not provide degree programs of academic integrity comparable to those provided at the most reputed departments of the major Portuguese state-run classic universities. In the late 2000s, there was a growing movement to define institutions awarding non-accredited degrees as diploma mills in order to raise awareness about the problem. In 1999 alone over 15,000 Portuguese students were enrolled in or recently graduated from unaccredited courses in the fields of engineering and architecture. At the same time, only one accredited engineering course was offered by a private university, and over 90% of accredited courses in the fields of engineering, architecture, and law were provided by state-run universities. Since 2007, the state plans to enforce more stringent rules for all public and private degree-conferring institutions. However, in 2010 a financial crisis began in Portugal (as part of the world financial crisis of 2007–08) leaving the process at a standstill and eroding the average Portuguese higher education standards even further.
The Romanian newspaper Gândul has reported that the Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University from Bucharest started 34 Master's degree curricula which have no legal ground. According to the rector of the university, Corina Dumitrescu, the law has a loophole, since it uses a continuous present for institutional evaluation, which is uncharacteristic of the Romanian language. She says that in her opinion institutional evaluation (required by law) may also happen after the curricula have been taught. The actual wording in Romanian is "universitate acreditată supusă periodic evaluării instituţionale", and Dumitrescu argues that "care se supun" means that an accredited institution can be evaluated "today, tomorrow or the day after tomorrow" (and presumably, any time), not that it needs to have been evaluated in the past. For the study year 2010-2011, 16 Master's curricula from nine of its faculties are listed as accredited in Order no. 4630/2010 of the Department of Education.
The Spiru Haret University distance learning department has been considered in Romania a diploma mill. Although it received accreditation from Romania's National Council of Academic Evaluation in 2002, step by step its accreditations were cancelled for a large number of distance learning specializations. Also, there are some voices which dispute the level of the distance learning programs offered. The scandal peaked in the summer of 2009, when the Minister of Education suggested that the way license diplomas are obtained could become the object of an inquiry of the Romanian public prosecutors.
Petre Andrei University from Iaşi has been demanded to comply with the Law no. 408/2002, otherwise it will be liquidated. The same holds for Apolonia University from Iaşi (speaking of Law no. 481/2002 instead of Law no. 408/2002).
University Al. Ghica and University Europa Ecor, both from the town of Alexandria, Romania, made the object of an operation of the Romanian National Anti-corruption Prosecution Office, for selling 15,000 false diplomas in exchange for Euro 3,000 per diploma. Their profits have been estimated to about Euro 45 million per year.
The Minister Daniel Petru Funeriu has declared that the Spiru Haret University will become illegal. "The new law provides very clearly what happens in such situations: the institution of higher education which has unaccredited curricula automatically becomes illegal and enters into liquidation" said Funeriu for Bună Ziua Iași, showing that this is of application for any university with unaccredited curricula, not just for the Spiru Haret University. On February 10, 2011 have to have been stopped any specializations and curricula which are neither accredited nor temporarily authorized, according to Art. 361 paragraph 4 of the Law of National Education. The continuation of such curricula causes the liquidation of the university and the criminal responsibility for those guilty of breaking the law.
According to the newspaper Gândul, the situation of those who graduated unaccredited and unauthorized studies will be decided in September, following a project drawn up by ARACIS and consulting the National Rectors' Council. Funeriu recognized that it applies to several universities and that his department does not have the right to cancel diplomas.
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It is illegal to falsely claim a degree in South Korea if it is not accredited. In March 2006 prosecutors in Seoul were reported to have broken up a crime ring selling bogus music diplomas from Russia, which helped many land university jobs and seats in orchestras. People who falsely used these degrees were criminally charged.
In early 2007, Shin Jeong-ah (신정아) was criminally charged for forging and misusing a degree from Yale University. The case had a far-reaching impact as she was a professor at Dongguk University and also held a position at an art gallery known to have ties with economical and political figures.
Until 1999 only state universities could grant degrees, but amendments to the Universities Act now allow private institutions to be granted degree-awarding status by the University Grants Commission. Universities can also be established by an act of parliament.
In June 2007, the Swedish Minister for Employment, Sven-Otto Littorin, was discovered to have an MBA degree from Fairfax University. Though aware that claiming an MBA from this diploma mill would be illegal in many states in the USA, Littorin tried to convince the Swedish media and people of the legitimacy of his qualification. He was eventually forced to remove the reference from his official CV, but he remained in office.
Qualifications, diplomas and titles earned from Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology (ETH Zurich, EPFL), from cantonal (state-run) universities, from private universities recognized by state authorities, and from Fachhochschule-institutions (Universities of Applied Sciences run or recognized by official authorities, federal and cantonal) are protected. Accreditation is conferred by the Conference of University Rectors of Switzerland (CRUS) and the Swiss Center of Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Higher Education (OAQ). Under Swiss law, it is a criminal offense, under unfair competition legislation, to profit by any unfounded academic or occupational qualifications. The private use of such a title, however, is legal. Thus, one can call oneself an LL.M., but one must not use the title when competing for clients.
In the UK, it is illegal to offer something that may be mistaken for a UK degree unless the awarding body is on a list maintained by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Degrees must be awarded by "recognised bodies", which include universities and other higher education institutions with "degree awarding powers". However degree programmes may be advertised and run by a much wider range of "listed bodies" whose academic standards and quality are assured by a "recognised body" which formally awards the degree.
UK Trading Standards officers have had notable success in countering a large diploma mill group based abroad that was using British place-names for its "universities".
Medical diploma mills have operated, and have been blacklisted, in the United States for over 120 years. The country does not have a federal law that would unambiguously prohibit diploma mills, and the term "university" is not legally protected on a national level. The United States Department of Education lacks direct plenary authority to regulate schools and, consequently, the quality of an institution's degree. However, the Federal Trade Commission works to prevent fraudulent, deceptive and unfair business practices including those in the field of education and alerts United States' consumers about diploma mills by delineating some tell-tale signs in its official web page. Under the terms of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, the U.S. Secretary of Education is required by law to publish a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies that the Secretary determines to be reliable authorities on the quality of education or training provided by the institutions of higher education that they accredit. Some degree mills have taken advantage of the Establishment Clause and Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment by representing themselves as seminaries, since in many jurisdictions religious institutions can legally offer degrees in religious subjects without government regulation. However as a result of the loophole religious groups like the Roman Catholic Church and the Southern Baptist Convention began creating their own accrediting bodies.
Although the DipScam operation in the 1980s led to a decline in diploma mill activity across the United States, the lack of further action by law enforcement, uneven state laws, and the rise of the Internet have combined to reverse many of the gains made in previous years. In 2005, the US Department of Education launched its Database of Accredited Postsecondary Institutions and Programs website to combat the spread of fraudulent degrees. A number of states have passed bills restricting the ability of organizations to award degrees without accreditation. Jurisdictions that have restricted or made illegal the use of credentials from unaccredited schools include Oregon, Michigan, Maine, North Dakota, New Jersey, Washington, Nevada, Illinois, Indiana, and Texas. Many other states are also considering restrictions on the use of degrees from unaccredited institutions.
- Author mill
- Essay mill
- List of animals with fraudulent diplomas
- List of unaccredited institutions of higher education
- List of unrecognized higher education accreditation organizations
- Job fraud
- Mickey Mouse degrees
- Ordination mill
- Predatory open access publishing
- Underwater basket weaving
- Who's Who scam
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