List of diplomatic missions of Australia

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Diplomatic missions of Australia

Australian diplomatic missions are posts representing the Commonwealth of Australia in foreign countries. They are mostly maintained by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, with some smaller posts being run by Austrade. There are currently over 100 Australian missions overseas.[1]

As Australia is a Commonwealth country, its diplomatic missions in the capitals of other Commonwealth countries are referred to as High Commissions (as opposed to embassies).

Under the terms of the Canada–Australia Consular Services Sharing Agreement, the two countries provide consular services to each other's citizens at a number of locations around the world. At this time, there are 12 cities where Canadians can obtain consular services from Australian offices, and 19 locations where Canadian offices provide consular services to Australians. In an emergency, Australians can also seek assistance from British diplomatic missions around the world in the absence of an Australian consulate or embassy.

Honorary consulates are excluded from this listing.

History[edit]

After federation in 1901, Australia's presence abroad was largely limited to state and Commonwealth agents and trade offices. The United Kingdom played a defining role in Australia's foreign policy, limiting its need for missions abroad. In 1939 there were only two External Affairs officers posted overseas: one in London (known as Australia House), and one in Washington attached to the UK Embassy.

The Second World War necessitated increased co-operation with foreign countries independent of the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. By 1940, a base of four missions had been established in Washington, Ottawa, London, and Tokyo, and as World War II progressed missions to Australia's wartime allies were established in Nouméa, Chongqing, and Moscow.

Australian diplomatic missions today number at over 100, although the number of Australian diplomats overseas has dramatically been reduced. Missions have been closed in Bern, Almaty, Damascus, Kupang, Lusaka, Algiers, Cape Town, Dar es Salaam, and Bridgetown.

Current missions[edit]

Africa[edit]

Host country Host city Mission Concurrent accreditation Ref.
 Egypt Cairo Embassy
Countries:
[2]
 Ethiopia Addis Ababa Embassy [3]
 Ghana Accra High Commission [4]
 Kenya Nairobi High Commission
Countries:
[5]
 Mauritius Port Louis High Commission
Countries:
[6]
 Morocco Rabat Embassy [7]
 Nigeria Abuja High Commission
Countries:
International Organizations:
[8]
 South Africa Pretoria High Commission
International Organizations:
[9]
 Zimbabwe Harare Embassy [10]

Americas[edit]

Host country Host city Mission Concurrent accreditation Ref.
 Argentina Buenos Aires Embassy
Countries:
[11]
 Brazil Brasília Embassy [12]
São Paulo Consulate-General [12]
 Canada Ottawa High Commission [13]
Toronto Consulate-General [13]
Vancouver Consulate [13]
 Chile Santiago de Chile Embassy
Countries:
[14]
 Colombia Bogotá Embassy
Countries:
[15]
 Mexico Mexico City Embassy [16]
 Peru Lima Embassy
Countries:
[17]
 Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain High Commission
International Organizations:
[18]
 United States Washington, D.C. Embassy [19]
Chicago Consulate-General [19]
Honolulu Consulate-General [19]
Houston Consulate-General [19]
Los Angeles Consulate-General [19]
New York City Consulate-General [19]
San Francisco Consulate-General [19]

Asia[edit]

Host country Host city Mission Concurrent accreditation Ref.
 Bangladesh Dhaka High Commission [20]
 Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan High Commission [21]
 Cambodia Phnom Penh Embassy [22]
 China Beijing Embassy [23]
Chengdu Consulate-General [23]
Guangzhou Consulate-General [23]
Hong Kong Consulate-General [23]
Shanghai Consulate-General [23]
Shenyang Consulate-General [23]
 East Timor Dili Embassy [24]
 India New Delhi High Commission
Countries:
[25]
Chennai Consulate-General [26]
Kolkata Consulate-General [27]
Mumbai Consulate-General [28]
 Indonesia Jakarta Embassy [29]
Denpasar Consulate-General [30]
Makassar Consulate-General [31]
Surabaya Consulate-General [32]
 Iran Tehran Embassy [33]
 Iraq Baghdad Embassy [34]
 Israel Tel Aviv Embassy [35]
 Japan Tokyo Embassy [36]
Osaka Consulate-General [36]
 Jordan Amman Embassy [37]
 Kuwait Kuwait City Embassy [38]
 Lebanon Beirut Embassy [39]
 Laos Vientiane Embassy [40]
 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur High Commission [41]
 Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Embassy [42]
 Myanmar Yangon Embassy [43]
   Nepal Kathmandu Embassy [44]
 Pakistan Islamabad High Commission [45]
 Palestine Ramallah Representative Office [46]
 Philippines Manila Embassy [47]
 Qatar Doha Embassy [48]
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[d] Taipei Office [49]
 Saudi Arabia Riyadh Embassy
Countries:
[50]
 Singapore Singapore High Commission [51]
 South Korea Seoul Embassy
Countries:
[52]
 Sri Lanka Colombo High Commission
Countries:
[53]
 Thailand Bangkok Embassy [54]
Phuket Consulate-General [55]
 Turkey Ankara Embassy
Countries:
[56]
Istanbul Consulate-General [56]
Çanakkale Consulate [56]
 United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi Embassy [57]
Dubai Consulate-General [57]
 Vietnam Hanoi Embassy [58]
Ho Chi Minh City Consulate-General [59]

Europe[edit]

Host country Host city Mission Concurrent accreditation Ref.
 Austria Vienna Embassy [60]
 Belgium Brussels Embassy
Countries:
International Organizations:
[61]
 Croatia Zagreb Embassy
Countries:
[62]
 Cyprus Nicosia High Commission [63]
 Denmark Copenhagen Embassy
Countries:
[64]
 France Paris Embassy
Countries:
[65]
Nouméa, New Caledonia Consulate-General [66]
Papeete, French Polynesia Consulate-General [67]
 Germany Berlin Embassy
Countries:
[68]
Frankfurt Consulate-General [68]
 Greece Athens Embassy
Countries:
[69]
  Holy See Rome[e] Embassy [70]
 Ireland Dublin Embassy [71]
 Italy Rome Embassy
Countries:
[72]
Milan Consulate-General [72]
 Malta Valletta High Commission
Countries:
[73]
 Netherlands The Hague Embassy [74]
 North Cyprus Nicosia High Commission annex office[f] [63]
 Poland Warsaw Embassy
Countries:
[75]
 Portugal Lisbon Embassy [76]
 Russia Moscow Embassy [77]
 Serbia Belgrade Embassy
Countries:
[78]
 Spain Madrid Embassy
Countries:
[79]
 Sweden Stockholm Embassy
Countries:
[80]
  Switzerland Geneva Consulate-General [81]
 Ukraine Kyiv Embassy
Countries:
[82]
 United Kingdom London High Commission [83]

Oceania[edit]

Host country Host city Mission Ref.
 Cook Islands Avarua High Commission [84]
 Fiji Suva High Commission [85]
 Kiribati Tarawa High Commission [86]
 Marshall Islands Majuro Embassy [87]
 Micronesia Kolonia Embassy [88]
 Nauru Aiwo High Commission [89]
 New Zealand Wellington High Commission [90]
Auckland Consulate-General [90]
 Niue Alofi High Commission [91]
 Palau Koror Embassy [92]
 Papua New Guinea Port Moresby High Commission [93]
Lae Consulate-General [93]
 Samoa Apia High Commission [94]
 Solomon Islands Honiara High Commission [95]
 Tonga Nukuʻalofa High Commission [96]
 Tuvalu Funafuti High Commission [97]
 Vanuatu Port Vila High Commission [98]

Multilateral organisations[edit]

Organization Host city Host country Mission Concurrent accreditation Ref.
Infobox ASEAN flag.svg Association of Southeast Asian Nations Jakarta Indonesia Mission [99]
 United Nations New York City United States Permanent Mission [100]
Geneva Switzerland Permanent Mission [81]
OECD logo.svg OECD Paris France Permanent Delegation [65]
 UNESCO Paris France Permanent Delegation [65]
 World Trade Organization Geneva Switzerland Permanent Mission [81]

Gallery[edit]

Closed missions[edit]

Africa[edit]

Host country Host city Mission Year closed Ref.
 Algeria Algiers Embassy 1991 [101]
 Libya Tripoli Embassy 2011
 Tanzania Dar Es Salaam High Commission 1987 [101]
 South Africa Cape Town Consulate 1984 [101]
 Zambia Lusaka High Commission 1991 [101]

Americas[edit]

Host country Host city Mission Year closed Ref.
 Barbados Bridgetown High Commission 2004
 United States Atlanta Consulate-General 2012 [102]
 Venezuela Caracas Embassy 2002 [103]

Asia[edit]

Host country Host city Mission Year closed Ref.
 Afghanistan Kabul Embassy 2021 [104]
 Indonesia Kupang Consulate 1999 [105]
 Japan Fukuoka Consulate-General 2019 [106]
Sapporo Consulate 2019 [107]
 Kazakhstan Almaty Embassy 1999 [108]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China Nanjing[g] Embassy 1949 [109]
 Republic of China (Taiwan) Taipei Embassy 1973 [110]
 Syria Damascus Embassy 1999 [111]

Europe[edit]

Host country Host city Mission Year closed Ref.
 Hungary Budapest Embassy 2013 [112]
  Switzerland Bern Embassy[h] 2012 [113]
 United Kingdom Manchester Consulate 2001 [114]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Accredited as an observer mission.
  2. ^ Accredited as an observer mission.
  3. ^ Accredited as an observer mission.
  4. ^ Australia does not have formal relations with Taiwan, since the establishment of relations with the People's Republic of China in 1973. Nonetheless, its office in Taipei functions as a de facto embassy.
  5. ^ The Australian Embassy to the Holy See is located outside Vatican territory in Rome.
  6. ^ According to the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the High Commission in Nicosia has an annex in North Nicosia.
  7. ^ Opened in 1941 as a legation in Chongqing, moved to Nanjing in 1946, and upgraded to an embassy in 1948.
  8. ^ To be reopened in 2022.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2001 - Australian Bureau of Statistics
  2. ^ "Australian Embassy Egypt". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  3. ^ "Australian Embassy, Ethiopia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  4. ^ "Australian High Commission, Accra". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  5. ^ "Australian High Commission, Republic of Kenya". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  6. ^ "Australian High Commission, Mauritius". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  7. ^ "Australian Embassy Morocco". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  8. ^ "Australian High Commission, Nigeria". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  9. ^ "Australian High Commission, Pretoria". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  10. ^ "Australian Embassy Zimbabwe". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  11. ^ "Embajada de Australia Argentina" (in Spanish). Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  12. ^ a b "Australian Embassy Brazil". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  13. ^ a b c "Australian High Commission Canada". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  14. ^ "Embajada de Australia Chile" (in Spanish). Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  15. ^ "Embajada de Australia Bogota" (in Spanish). Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  16. ^ "Australian Embassy Mexico". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  17. ^ "Australian Embassy, Lima". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  18. ^ "Australian High Commission, Trinidad and Tobago". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g "Australia in the USA". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  20. ^ "Australian High Commission, Bangladesh". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  21. ^ "Australian High Commission, Brunei Darussalam". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  22. ^ "Australian Embassy, Cambodia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Australian Embassy, China". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  24. ^ "Australian Embassy, Timor-Leste". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  25. ^ "Australian High Commission, New Delhi". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  26. ^ "Australian Consulate-General, Chennai, India". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  27. ^ "Australian Consulate-General, Kolkata, India". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  28. ^ "Australian Consulate-General, Mumbai, India". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  29. ^ "Australian Embassy, Indonesia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  30. ^ "Australian Consulate-General, Bali". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  31. ^ "Australian Consulate-General, Makassar, Indonesia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  32. ^ "Australian Consulate-General, Surabaya, Indonesia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  33. ^ "Australian Embassy, Islamic Republic of Iran". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  34. ^ "Australian Embassy, Iraq". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  35. ^ "Australian Embassy, Israel". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  36. ^ a b "Australian Embassy, Tokyo". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  37. ^ "Australian Embassy, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  38. ^ "Australian Embassy, Kuwait". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  39. ^ "Australian Embassy, Lebanon". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  40. ^ "Australian Embassy, Lao People's Democratic Republic". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  41. ^ "Australian High Commission, Malaysia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  42. ^ "Australian Embassy, Mongolia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  43. ^ "Australian Embassy, Myanmar". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  44. ^ "Australian Embassy, Nepal". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  45. ^ "Australian High Commission, Islamabad". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  46. ^ "Australian Representative Office, Ramallah". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  47. ^ "Australian Embassy, The Philippines". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  48. ^ "Australian Embassy, Qatar". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  49. ^ "Australian Office". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  50. ^ "Australian Embassy, Saudi Arabia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  51. ^ "Australian High Commission, Singapore". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  52. ^ "Australian Embassy, Republic of Korea". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  53. ^ "Australian High Commission, Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  54. ^ "Australian Embassy, Thailand". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  55. ^ "Australian Consulate-General, Phuket, Thailand". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  56. ^ a b c "Australian Embassy, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Georgia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  57. ^ a b "Australian Embassy, United Arab Emirates". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  58. ^ "Australian Embassy, Vietnam". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  59. ^ "Australian Consulate-General, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  60. ^ "Australian Embassy and Permanent Mission to the United Nations, Austria". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  61. ^ "Australian Embassy, Belgium, Luxembourg and Mission to the European Union and NATO". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  62. ^ "Australian Embassy, Republic of Croatia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  63. ^ a b "Australian High Commission, Cyprus". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  64. ^ "Australian Embassy, Denmark". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  65. ^ a b c "Australian Embassy, France". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  66. ^ "Australian Consulate-General, Noumea". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  67. ^ "Australian Consulate-General, Papeete, French Polynesia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  68. ^ a b "Australian Embassy, Germany". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  69. ^ "Australian Embassy, Greece". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  70. ^ "Australian Embassy, Holy See". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  71. ^ "Australian Embassy, Ireland". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  72. ^ a b "Australian Embassy, Rome". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  73. ^ "Australian High Commission, Malta". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  74. ^ "Australian Embassy, The Netherlands". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  75. ^ "Australian Embassy, Poland". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  76. ^ "Australian Embassy, Portugal". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  77. ^ "Australian Embassy, Russian Federation". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  78. ^ "Australian Embassy, Serbia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  79. ^ "Australian Embassy, Spain". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  80. ^ "Australian Embassy, Sweden". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  81. ^ a b c "Australian Permanent Mission and Consulate-General Geneva". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  82. ^ "Australian Embassy, Ukraine". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  83. ^ "Australian High Commission, United Kingdom". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  84. ^ "Australian High Commission, Cook Islands". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  85. ^ "Australian High Commission, Fiji". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  86. ^ "Australian High Commission, Kiribati". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  87. ^ "Australian Embassy, Majuro, Marshall Islands". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  88. ^ "Australian Embassy, Federated States of Micronesia". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  89. ^ "Australian High Commission, Republic of Nauru". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  90. ^ a b "Australian High Commission, New Zealand". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  91. ^ "Australian High Commission, Niue". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  92. ^ "Australian Embassy, Palau". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  93. ^ a b "Australian High Commission, Papua New Guinea". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  94. ^ "Australian High Commission, Independent State of Samoa". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  95. ^ "Australian High Commission, Solomon Islands". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  96. ^ "Australian High Commission, Kingdom of Tonga". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  97. ^ "Australian High Commission, Tuvalu". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  98. ^ "Australian High Commission, Port Vila". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  99. ^ "Australian Mission to ASEAN". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  100. ^ "Permanent Mission of Australia to the United Nations". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  101. ^ a b c d https://www.aph.gov.au/~/media/wopapub/house/committee/jfadt/africa%2009/subs/Sub%2094_pdf.ashx
  102. ^ "Australia's consulate in Atlanta closes". News.com.au. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  103. ^ Brown, Bob (14 May 2008). "MATTERS OF PUBLIC INTEREST - Venezuela and Brazil" (Senate Hansard). Parliament of Australia. p. 1737. Archived from the original on 21 September 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  104. ^ "Australia to Close Embassy in Afghanistan within Days". Voice of America. 26 May 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  105. ^ "Australia Shuts Its Consulate In West Timor". The New York Times. 18 September 1999. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  106. ^ "Australian Consulate-General Fukuoka". Archived from the original on 6 July 2016.
  107. ^ "The Consulate of Australia in Sapporo is closing.|What's New|".
  108. ^ "Kazakhstan country brief". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  109. ^ "The Chungking Legation: Australia's first diplomatic mission to China, 80 years ago". theconversation.com. 28 October 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2022.<
  110. ^ https://www.naa.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-05/fs-247-australias-diplomatic-relations-with-china.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  111. ^ "ParlInfo - Search Results".
  112. ^ Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Hungary country brief, Australian Government, archived from the original on 22 September 2015
  113. ^ "Australia to reopen embassy in Switzerland". Swissinfo. 29 October 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  114. ^ "The wizards of Oz - Manchester Evening News". 10 August 2004.

External links[edit]