Diplotaxis muralis (annual wall-rocket) is a species of flowering plant in the mustard family. This plant is native to Europe, Asia, and Africa, but it is found throughout the temperate world, where it has naturalized. This is an erect mustard-like plant rarely reaching half a meter in height. It has lobed leaves and its stems are topped with dense inflorescences of yellow, or occasionally light purple, flowers with small oval petals and large anthers. The fruit is a podlike silique two to four centimeters long.
It is an annual, but sometimes grows as a perennial, growing up to 15–60 cm (5.9–23.6 in) tall on unbranched stems. It has lobed leaves, which form a rosette at the base of the plant. They are 2–9 cm (0.79–3.54 in) long and 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) wide. It blooms in summer, between May to September in the UK, and between April to August in China. The flowers are yellow, with oblong sepals and longer, obovate petals. Later, it produces a fruit capsule, long cylindrical with a short beak. It contains 2 rows of yellow brown seeds, which are ovoid or ellipsoid shaped.
It was first published by Augustin Candolle in Syst. Nat. Vol.2 on page 634 in 1821, based on an earlier description by Carl Linnaeus. Linnaeus had named it 'Sisymbrium murale' in his seminal publication 'Species Plantarum' in 1753.
It is commonly known as 'annual wall-rocket' or 'wall rocket', in the UK,
It has 2 known subspecies;
- Diplotaxis muralis subsp. ceratophylla (Batt.) Mart.-Laborde
- Diplotaxis muralis subsp. simplex (Viv.) Jafri
Distribution and habitat
It is found in North Africa, within Algeria, Libya, Ethiopia, Morocco and Tunisia. Within Asia it is found in the Caucasus, Georgia (country) and Turkey. In middle Europe, it is in Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia and Switzerland. In southeastern Europe, within Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Malta, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine. Also in southwestern Europe, it is found in France, Portugal and Spain.
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