Dipteryx alata

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Dipteryx alata
Cumaru.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
(unranked):
(unranked):
(unranked):
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
D. alata
Binomial name
Dipteryx alata
Synonyms

Coumarouna alata (Vogel) Taub.
Dipteryx pteropus Mart.
Dipteryx pterota Benth.

Baru is a primitive species of the legume genus (Dipteryx alata) in the family Fabaceae, from the early branch Dipterygeae[1] It is a large tree, usually referred to as "Baruzeiro" (Baru tree) in Portuguese, with its fruits and specially its seeds known as Baru - in Portuguese, "castanha de baru" or "amêndoa de baru", literally translated as "baru nut" and "baru almond", respectively. Other less-used names besides Baru are Cumaru, Cumbaru, Barujo, Coco-feijão, Cumarurana, Emburena-brava, Feijão-coco, and Pau-cumaru.

It is found only in the Cerrado savannah of Midwestern Brazil and part of eastern Bolivia, being threatened with habitat loss by intensive farming. Historically it has been used as lumber, for charcoal production and for shade in pastures. The fruits can be used as feed for cattle and are also a food source for birds and small mammals, such as rodents, bats, and monkeys. The seeds are highly nutritious part of the local communities' diet.

Fruits of Dipteryx alata.l

The tree can measure up to 25 m in height, 0.7 m in diameter and have a useful lifespan of 60 years. A tree will produce about 150 kg of fruit per harvest in alternating years, being pollinated by bees.

Its brown fruits are either collected from the ground or picked from the tree when they are almost ripe. The fruit usually weighs 25g, of which 30% is pulp, 65% is ligneous endocarp and 5% is seed (bean/almond).

Food and nutrition[edit]

Out of the fruit, the pulp is sweet and can be consumed fresh, but is also used to manufacture jams, jellies, and liquors; the seeds are flavorful and should be served after roasting, which deactivates a trypsin inhibitor component. These seeds can be eaten as a snack or used as an ingredient for baked goods, cereal bars, Pesto sauce, drinks, desserts, and ice cream; the oil extracted from the seeds may also be used as a culinary ingredient, comparable to olive oil, and as a cosmetic also.

Baru almonds are rich in:

Baru almond, roasted
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy2,238 kJ (535 kcal)
13.6 g
Sugars0.0 g
Dietary fiber9.2 g
42 g
Saturated7.6 g
Monounsaturated21.4 g
Polyunsaturated13.8 g
29 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Vitamin E
143%
21.4 mg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
11%
110 mg
Iron
37%
4.8 mg
Magnesium
46%
164 mg
Phosphorus
119%
832 mg
Potassium
21%
980 mg
Zinc
48%
4.6 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Uses[edit]

The uses for the Baru fruit can be summarized as[citation needed]:

Part of the Fruit Product/Sub-Product Uses
Pulp Pulp in natura Human food
Animal food
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Dehydrated Pulp Human food
Animal food
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Flour Human food
Alcohol/Liqueur Human consumption
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Cosmetics
Industrial
Residues Farming (organic fertilizer)
Seed Raw seed Human food
Animal food
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Agricultural (seeding)
Roasted Almond Human Food
Flour Human Food
Milk Human Food
Oil Human food
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Cosmetics
Industrial
Cake Human food
Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
Cosmetics
Industrial
Paste/Butter Human food
Ligneous endocarp Charcoal Fuel
Pyroligneous acid and tar Industrial
Ligneous Endocarp Artisanry


Sources[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cardoso, D.; De Queiroz, L. P.; Pennington, R. T.; De Lima, H. C.; Fonty, E.; Wojciechowski, M. F.; Lavin, M. (2012). "Revisiting the phylogeny of papilionoid legumes: New insights from comprehensively sampled early-branching lineages". American Journal of Botany. 99 (12): 1991–2013. doi:10.3732/ajb.1200380. PMID 23221500.
  • World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. Dipteryx alata. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.blavla Downloaded on 10 July 2007.
  • Chemical composition of seeds and oil of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) native from Pirenópolis, State of Goiás, Brazil
  • Fernandes, Daniela C; Freitas, Jullyana B; Czeder, Ludmila P; Naves, Maria Margareth V (2010). "Nutritional composition and protein value of the baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) almond from the Brazilian Savanna". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 90 (10): 1650–5. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3997. PMID 20564449.
  • De Oliveira Sousa, Amanda Goulart; Fernandes, Daniela Canuto; Alves, Aline Medeiros; De Freitas, Jullyana Borges; Naves, Maria Margareth Veloso (2011). "Nutritional quality and protein value of exotic almonds and nut from the Brazilian Savanna compared to peanut". Food Research International. 44 (7): 2319–25. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2011.02.013. INIST:24462545.
  • Siqueira, Egle Machado de Almeida; Marin, Alinne Martins Ferreira; Da Cunha, Marcela de Sá Barreto; Fustinoni, Adriana Medeiros; De Sant'Ana, Lívia Pimentel; Arruda, Sandra Fernandes (2012). "Consumption of baru seeds [Dipteryx alata Vog.], a Brazilian savanna nut, prevents iron-induced oxidative stress in rats". Food Research International. 45: 427–33. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2011.11.005. INIST:25499152.
  • Fernandes, Daniela Canuto; Alves, Aline Medeiros; Castro, Gabriela Salim Ferreira; Jordao Junior, Alceu Afonso; Naves, Maria Margareth Veloso (2015). "Effects of Baru Almond and Brazil Nut Against Hyperlipidemia and Oxidative Stress in Vivo". Journal of Food Research. 4 (4): 38–46. doi:10.5539/jfr.v4n4p38.