Dir (clan)

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Main article: Somali people
Dir
(در(النبيلة
Regions with significant populations
 Somalia n/a
 Djibouti n/a
 Ethiopia n/a
 Kenya n/a
 United Kingdom n/a
Languages
Somali
Religion
Islam (Sunni, Sufism),
Related ethnic groups
Isaaq, Darod, Hawiye, Rahanweyn, other Somali people

The Dir, official name: Abukar (Somali: Dir , Dirweyn , Direed or Beesha Direed, Arabic: در , قبيلة در , بنو در , قبيلة أبوكار , بنو أبوكار , ‎‎), Dhar, Dur is a major and one of the noble Somali clan families.

They are geographically spread across 4 countries or Shanta Soomaaliyeed , the 5 Somali regions that make up Greater Somalia: Djibouti(former: French Somaliland(1)), Somalia(former: British Somaliland(2) and Italian Somaliland(3)), Kenya, The North Eastern Province(4) and the Ethiopia, the Somali region, but also in the Oromia and Afar regions(5).[1][2][3][4]

History[edit]

The Dir clan is famously known for leading a revolt against the Italians. This revolt was mainly led by the Biimaal section of the Dir. The Biimaal clan is widely known for leading a resistance against the colonials in southern Somalia.The Biimaal violantly resisted the imposition of colonialism and fought against the Italian colonialists of Italian Somaliland in a twenty-year war known as the Biimaal revolt in which many of their warriors assassinated several Italian governors. This revolt can be compared to the war of the Mad Mullah in northern Somalia.[5][6][7] The Biimaal mainly lives in Southern Somalia, the Somali region of Ethiopia, which their Gaadsen sub-clan mainly inhabits and in the NEP region of Kenya.[8][9] The Biimaal are pastoralists. They were also successful merchants and traders in the 19th century.[10] In the 19th century they have engaged in multiple wars with the Geledi clan, which they were victorious in. [10][11]

The chartered city of Dire Dawa or in Somali known as Dire Dhabe is named after the ancestor Dir. According to the "Futuh Al Habasha: Conquest of Abyssinia", the area or settlement was only called Dir around 5 centuries ago.[12]

I.M. Lewis and many sources maintain that the Dir together with the Hawiye trace ancestry through Irir son of Samaale to Banu Hashim Arabian origins with Aqeel Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib.[13][14][15][16][17] Dir is regarded as the father-in-law of Darod, the progenitor of the Darod clan[18]Although some sources state it was the daughter of Hawiye who Darod married.[19][20][21]

Lineage[edit]

Dir or Abukar had four sons named:

  • Haytham bin Abukar -Madahweyne Dir
  • Salah bin Abukar - Mandaluug Dir
  • Nuur bin Abukar - Madoobe Dir
  • Khalid bin Abukar - Meha Dir

According to others, Dir had a fifth son, Qaldho Dir.

Branches[edit]

The main sub-clans of the Dir today are the

  • Isaaq , although this clan claims paternal descent from one Ishaq ibn Ahmed[27]

Distribution[edit]

Madahweyne in Ethiopia[edit]

The Dir in Ethiopia are represented by the Madahweyne Dir. The subclans of the Madahweyne (Madahweyne Dir) include: Gariir, Gurgura clan, Layiile,Akisho and Garre clan. Other Dir clans in Ethiopia are the Issa of Madoobe Dir, Samaroon Siciid (Gadabuursi) of Mandaluug Dir, Garre-Quranyow and tuff Maxamed, Gadsan, Fiqi Muhumand, Fiqi Yahye and Fiqi Cumar (Qubeys), Fiqi Khairre (Saleban Abdalle) of Meha Dir and others.

Most of the Dir clans in Ethiopia live in the Dire Dawa area, the Jijiga Zone, and along the Awash River. The rest of the Ethiopian Dir clans live in southern parts near the Somali border near Dolo Odo and as far as Guure Dhamoole and Negele Boran where the Garre Quranyow Maxamed Xiniftire subclans of Meha Dir live. Also the Guure(Akishe) are the dominant Somali clan in the Liben Zone at the extreme south of the Somali Region.

Surre clan[edit]

Main article: Surre (clan)

The majority of western scholars (both Italian and British) simply referred to the Surre as the "Dir of central Somalia" without differentiating them, but recent studies in Somalia revealed that the majority of the Dir in Mudug Hiiran, Gedo and Jubba are divided into two branches, the Qubeyes and Abdalles, both descendants of Surre. Qubeys and Abdallahs, both Surre subclans, inhabit central Somalia, with Qubeys being mainly local to Puntland regions such as Mudug.[28]

Biimaal[edit]

Other branches of the Dir include the ancient Biamal clan, which occupy an area from 35 km from Mogadishu south to Jilib and Kismaayo, not far from border with Kenya. The Biimaal fought against the Italian colonial rulers of Southern Somalia in a twenty-year war known as the Biimaal Revolt, in which the Dir assassinated several Italian governors.

Fiqicilmi is one of the main subclans of Biamal. The Fiqicilmi clan inhabits Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya. And the Fiqicilmi has the following subclans:

  • Omar Faqi
  • Adan Faqi
  • Abdirahman Faqi
  • Ibrahim Faqi
  • Mohamoud Faqi
  • Diini Faqi

Gaadsan, a subclan of Biamal, is one of the largest clans of the Dir. Their homelands are divided amongst three countries: Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya. In Ethiopia, Gaadsan clan reside in three woredas: Liben (Jarrati, Waladaya, Doolow and Guuredhamole), Gode (Iimey and Boola), and Misraq Gashamo (Nusdariiq, Marsin, Kabtinuur and Qabridhare). The Gaadsan in Somalia mainly live in Bakool, Gedo, Middle Jubba and the Lower Juba Regions. In Kenya there is a third division of Gaadsan, known as Gaadsan-Kenya, the brother of Wardey Clan (subclan of Madaxweyne Dir). Both Gadsan and Wardey have settled on the largest and wealthiest lands of Somali Kenya such as Bangal, Garseeni, and Hoolla.

Gurgura Madahweyne Dir in Dire Dawa[edit]

The Gurgura Dir is a sub-clan of the Madahweyne Dir. The Gurgura, Madigan (Gasare subclan) and the Barsuug Madaxweyne Dir are among the Somali Dir clans mentioned in the Fatuh ul-Habasha, the account of Imam Ahmed Gragn's campaigns against the Christians of the Ethiopian highlands in the 16th century.[page needed]

Political groups[edit]

Political groups associated with the Dir clans include the following groups in Somalia and Ethiopia:

Clan tree[edit]

The following list is based on the Nuova Antologia(1890), I'm Lewis's book: People of the Horn of Africa and a paper published in march 2002 by Ambroso Guido : CLANSHIP, CONFLICT AND REFUGEES: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOMALIS IN THE HORN OF AFRICA.[29][22][30]

Dir

(Gurgura, Gurre, Gariire whom are of the Madahweyn Dir or Madawini written in I.M Lewis book:Peoples of the Horn of Africa)

There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.[36][37]

In the south central part of Somalia the World Bank shows the following clan tree:[38]

  • Dir
    • Isaaq
      • Garhajis
      • Habar Je'lo
      • Habar Awal
      • Habar Tol
    • Gadabursi
    • Isse
    • Biyomal
    • Gadsan
    • Qubeys
    • Abdalla

Historical publications[edit]

  • Bughyaat al-amaal fii taariikh as-Soomaal, published in Mogadishu, Shariif 'Aydaruus Shariif 'Ali

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://dspace-roma3.caspur.it/bitstream/2307/4150/1/Clanship,%20conflict%20and%20refugees_An%20introduction%20to%20Somalis%20in%20the%20Horn%20of%20Africa.pdf CLANSHIP, CONFLICT AND REFUGEES: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOMALIS IN THE HORN OF AFRICA Guido Ambroso Page 6
  2. ^ Garre live in Southern Somalia, North Eastern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia. In Southern Somalia, they live in Kofur near Mogadishu and El Wak District in Gedo Province. In Ethiopia, they live in Moyale, Hudet and Woreda of Liban zone. In Kenya, the Garre inhabit Wajir North and Moyale. UNDP paper http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf
  3. ^ Hayward, R. J.; Lewis, I. M. (2005-08-17). Voice and Power. Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 9781135751753. 
  4. ^ The Quranyo section of the Garre claim descent from Dirr, who are born of the Irrir Samal. UNDP Paper in Keyna http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf
  5. ^ Ciisa-Salwe, Cabdisalaam M. (1996-01-01). The collapse of the Somali state: the impact of the colonial legacy. HAAN. p. 19. ISBN 9781874209270. 
  6. ^ Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001-01-01). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 23. ISBN 9780313313332. 
  7. ^ PhD, Dr Badal Kariye BA, BSIT, MA, MBA & (2010-07-23). The Kaleidoscopic Lover: The Civil War in the Horn of Africa & My Itinerary for a Peaceful Lover. Author House. p. 83. ISBN 9781452004648. Twenty year war 
  8. ^ Schlee, Günther (1989-01-01). Identities on the Move: Clanship and Pastoralism in Northern Kenya. Manchester University Press. pp. 107, 108, 275 and 99. ISBN 9780719030109. Biimal 
  9. ^ Kefale, Asnake (2013-07-31). Federalism and Ethnic Conflict in Ethiopia: A Comparative Regional Study. Routledge. p. 89. ISBN 9781135017989. gadsan 
  10. ^ a b Olson, James Stuart (1996-01-01). The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 97. ISBN 9780313279188. 
  11. ^ PhD, Dr Badal Kariye BA, BSIT, MA, MBA & (2010-07-23). The Kaleidoscopic Lover: The Civil War in the Horn of Africa & My Itinerary for a Peaceful Lover. Author House. p. 83. ISBN 9781452004648. 
  12. ^ ʻArabfaqīh, Shihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ʻAbd al-Qādir (2003-01-01). The conquest of Abyssinia: 16th century. Annotation: Dir, According to Huntingford a settlement which may be modern Dire Dawa. Tsehai Publishers & Distributors. p. 24. 
  13. ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995). The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press Inc. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-932415-98-1. 
  14. ^ Lewis, Ioan. M. (1994). Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press Inc. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-932415-92-9. 
  15. ^ Lewis, I.M. (2008). Understanding Somali and Somaliland Society: Culture History and Society. Hurst. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-85065-898-6. 
  16. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Saints and Somalis: Popular Islam in a Clan-based Society. The Red Sea Press. p. 99-Chapter 8. ISBN 9781569021033. 
  17. ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 246. ISBN 9780932415998. 
  18. ^ Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (2003-02-25). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. p. 71. ISBN 9780810866041. 
  19. ^ Burton, Sir Richard Francis; Burton, Lady Isabel. The Works of Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton: First footsteps in East Africa. Tylston & Edwards. p. 74. where he married a daughter of the Hawiyah tribe: rival races declare him to have been a Galla slave 
  20. ^ Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society. Longmans, Green. 1921-01-01. p. 54. was shipwrecked on the Somali coast where he married a Hawiyah woman 
  21. ^ Burton, Richard Francis (1856-01-01). First Footsteps in East Africa. Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans. p. 104. where he married a daughter of the Hawiyah tribe 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. Red Sea Press. ISBN 9781569021057. At the end of the book "Tribal Distribution of Somali Afar and Saho" 
  23. ^ Africa Confidential. Miramoor Publications Limited. 1994-01-01. p. 17. 
  24. ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 131. ISBN 9780932415998. 
  25. ^ Verdier, Isabelle (1997-05-31). Ethiopia: the top 100 people. Indigo Publications. p. 13. ISBN 9782905760128. 
  26. ^ Regional & Federal Studies Volume 24, Issue 5, 2014 Special Issue: Federalism and Decentralization in Sub-Saharan Africa Ethnic Decentralization and the Challenges of Inclusive Governance in Multiethnic Cities: The Case of Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
  27. ^ I.M. Lewis, A Modern History of the Somali, fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), p. 22
  28. ^ Uppsala Conflict Data Program. "Qubeys subclan (Dir) - Suleiman subclan of Habar Gidir clan (Hawiye)". UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia. Uppsala University. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  29. ^ 1. The Dir are a clan-family located essentially in N.W. Somalia, Djibouti, eastern Ethiopia. They are composed of four major clans, Isaq, Issa, Gadabursi and Bimal (or Biyomal) of which only the latter lives in southern Somalia (together with the smaller Gadsen). They rarely act as a united corporate political unit, except in the south where they are a minority. While I.M. Lewis treats the Isaq as a clanfamily at the level of Darod or Hawiye, most Somalis, including some Isaq I interviewed in Hargeisa, agree that they are genealogically part of Dir and that sheikh Isaq was a brother of Issa and (probably) of Samaron (Gadabursi). CLANSHIP, CONFLICT AND REFUGEES: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOMALIS IN THE HORN OF AFRICA Guido Ambroso March 2002 http://dspace-roma3.caspur.it/bitstream/2307/4150/1/Clanship,%20conflict%20and%20refugees_An%20introduction%20to%20Somalis%20in%20the%20Horn%20of%20Africa.pdf
  30. ^ Clan tables after page 64 CLANSHIP, CONFLICT AND REFUGEES: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOMALIS IN THE HORN OF AFRICA Guido Ambroso March 2002 http://dspace-roma3.caspur.it/bitstream/2307/4150/1/Clanship,%20conflict%20and%20refugees_An%20introduction%20to%20Somalis%20in%20the%20Horn%20of%20Africa.pdf
  31. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1998-01-01). Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho. Red Sea Press. p. 25. ISBN 9781569021057. 
  32. ^ Protonotari, Francesco (1890-01-01). Nuova antologia (in Italian). Direzione della Nuova Antologia. p. 343. 
  33. ^ Hayward, R. J.; Lewis, I. M. (2005-08-17). Voice and Power. Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 9781135751753. 
  34. ^ The Quranyo section of the Garre claim descent from Dirr, who are born of the Irrir Samal. UNDP Paper in Keyna http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf
  35. ^ Page 19 Somaliland: The Strains of Success Crisis Group Africa Briefing N°113 Nairobi/Brussels, 5 October 2015 http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/africa/horn-of-africa/somalia/b113-somaliland-the-strains-of-success.pdf
  36. ^ Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.55 Figure A-1
  37. ^ Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure, p. 43
  38. ^ Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.56 Figure A-2