Dirasha language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Dirasha
Gidole
D'iraassh
Native toEthiopia
RegionOmo Region, in the hills west of Lake Chamo, around Gidole town.
Native speakers
65,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3gdl
Glottologdira1242[2]

Dirasha (also known as Ghidole, Diraasha, Dirayta, Gidole, Gardulla, Dhirasha) is a member of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. It is spoken in the Omo region of Ethiopia, in the hills west of Lake Chamo, around the town of Gidole.

A number of speakers also use Oromo or Konso. According to Wondwosen, the "Dirasha" is the name of the people, and the name of the language is given variously as "Dirashitata, Dirayta and Diraytata" (2006:3,4).

The language has a three ejective consonant phonemes and two implosive consonant phonemes, fitting the pattern of the Ethiopian Language Area. It has two tones and five vowels. Duration (or gemination) is distinctive for both consonants and vowels (Wondwosen 2006:9,10).

Phonetics [3][4][5][edit]

Phonetic Inventory: Consonant IPA Symbols[edit]

Place of Articulation
Manner

of

Articulation

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p t c k ʔ
Ejective t’ č’ k’
Implosive ɓ ɗ
Fricative f s š h
Affricate č
Nasal m n ñ ŋ
Lateral l
Flap r
Glide w y

*When /n/ and /ʔ/ occur as /nʔ/, they contract to form ŋ.

/n/ and /ʔ/ must occur in that sequence, with no intervening vowels or consonants.

*Dirayta transcription utilizes symbols that differ from those of the traditional IPA chart.

Discrepancies
Dirayta Symbol IPA Equivalent
š ʃ
y j
č
ñ ɲ

*Each ejective may be written two ways.

Ejective Equivalents
Dirayta Symbol I Dirayta Symbol II
t'
č’ č̣
k'

Phonetic Inventory: Vowel IPA Symbols[edit]

Tongue Advancement
Tongue

Height

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o ɔ
Low a

Low and High Tones[edit]

-Dirayta is a 2-tone language.

-Low Tone: Absence of accentual markings

Low Tone: Monosyllabic CVVC words
Vowel Sample Word: Dirayta Sample Word: English Translation
i hiip local beer
e meet child
a paas cleaver
u Could not locate example
o Could not locate example
ɔ Could not locate example

-High Tone: Represented by acute accent diacritic above vowel (í, é, á, ú, ó, ɔ́)

-Mandatory for monosyllabic CVC and disyllabic CVC/CVVC words

High Tone Accentual Patterns: Monosyllabic CVC Words
Vowel Sample Word: Dirayta Sample Word: English Translation
í Could not locate example
é hén five
á káp mouth
ú Could not locate example
ó pón dry season
ɔ́ Could not locate example

-For disyllabic words, only one syllable may contain high tone.

-High tone is (mostly) assigned to the first vowel within the initial syllable. However, high tone may be assigned to the first vowel within the ultimate syllable.

High Tone Accentual Patterns: Disyllabic CVC/CVVC Words
Vowel Sample Word: Dirayta Sample Word: English Translation
í šíra

ʃíra

liver
é ʔérpa lie
é ʔéetot evening meal
é saytét oil
é waalét long-necked calabash
á párat year
á máakot snake
ú kúnɗa fruit
ó sóha meat
ó móohot sky-god
ó porrót barley
ɔ́ Could not locate example

-For trisyllabic words, high tone is (mostly) assigned to the ultimate syllable. However, high tone may be assigned to BOTH initial and ultimate syllables.

High Tone Accentual Patterns: Trisyllabic CVC/CVVC Words
Vowel Sample Word: Dirayta Sample Word: English Translation
í ɗímaʔmaʔ rib-cage
é mat'aatét round white potato
á káč̣erra cloth
á palawwát type of bird
á, á háwallát type of dumpling
á, ó k'áalalót

áalalót

thin ale-gruel
ú mút'ura

múṭura

heart
ú, é k'úrt'ummét

úrṭummét

fish
ó kópila shield
ó, á k'óhanát

óhanát

afternoon coffee session
ɔ́ Could not locate example

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  1. ^ Ethiopia 2007 Census
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Dirasha". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Abire, W.T. (2006). "Aspects of Diraytata: Morphology and Syntax" (PDF).
  4. ^ Wedekind, K. (2002). "Sociolinguistic Survey Report of the Languages of the Gawwada (Dullay), Diraasha (Gidole), Muusiye (Bussa) Areas". SIL (Société Internat. de Linguistique).
  5. ^ Hayward, R. J. (February 1981). "Nominal suffixes in Dirayta (Gidole)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 44 (01): 126. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00104446. ISSN 0041-977X.