Direct marketing is a form of communicating an offer, where organizations communicate directly to a pre-selected customer and supply a method for a direct response. Among practitioners, it is also known as direct response marketing. By contrast, advertising is of a mass-message nature.
Response channels include 800-numbers, reply cards, reply forms to be sent in an envelope, websites and email addresses.
The prevalence of direct marketing and the unwelcome nature of some communications has led to regulations and laws such as the CAN-SPAM Act, requiring that consumers in the United States be allowed to opt-out.
Intended targets are selected from larger populations based on vendor-defined criteria, including average income for a particular ZIP code, purchasing history and presence on other lists. The goal is "to sell directly to consumers" without letting others "join (the) parade."
A 2010 study by the Direct Marketing Association reports that in 2010, marketers —commercial and nonprofit—spent $153.3 billion on direct marketing, which accounted for 54.2% of all ad expenditures in the United States. Measured against total US sales, these advertising expenditures generated approximately $1.798 trillion in incremental sales. In 2010, direct marketing accounted for 8.3% of the total US gross domestic product. In 2010, there were 1.4 million direct marketing employees in the US. Their collective sales efforts directly supported 8.4 million other jobs, accounting for a total of 9.8 million US jobs.
Direct marketing, using catalogues, was practiced in 15th-century Europe. The publisher Aldus Manutius of Venice printed a catalogue of the books he offered for sale. In 1667, the English gardener, William Lucas, published a seed catalogue, which he mailed to his customers to inform them of his prices. Catalogues spread to colonial America, where Benjamin Franklin is believed to have been the first cataloguer in British America. In 1744, he produced a catalogue of scientific and academic books.
Meeting the demands of the consumer revolution and growth in wealth of the middle classes that helped drive the Industrial Revolution in Britain, the Following the industrial revolution of the late 18th-century, a growing middle class created new demand for goods and services. Entrepreneurs, including Matthew Boulton and pottery manufacturer, Josiah Wedgwood, pioneered many of the marketing strategies used today, including direct marketing.
The Welsh entrepreneur Pryce Pryce-Jones set up the first modern mail order in 1861. Starting off as an apprentice to a local draper in Newtown, Wales, he took over the business in 1856 and renamed it the Royal Welsh Warehouse, selling local Welsh flannel.
Improvements in transportation systems combined with the advent of the Uniform Penny Post in the mid-19th century provided the necessary conditions for rapid growth in mail order services. In 1861, Pryce-Jones hit upon a unique method of selling his wares. He distributed catalogs of his wares across the country, allowing people to choose the items they wished and order them via post; he would then dispatch the goods to the customer via the railways. It was an ideal way of meeting the needs of customers in isolated rural locations who were either too busy or unable to get into Newtown to shop directly. This was the world's first mail-order business, an idea which would change the nature of retail in the coming century.
One of Price-Jones most popular products was the Euklisia Rug, the forerunner of the modern sleeping bag, which Pryce-Jones exported around the world, at one point landing a contract with the Russian Army for 60,000 rugs. By 1880, he had more than 100,000 customers and his success was rewarded in 1887 with a knighthood.
In the 19th century, the American retailer, Aaron Montgomery Ward, believed that using the technique of selling products directly to the customer at appealing prices could if executed effectively and efficiently, revolutionize the market industry and therefore be used as a model for marketing products and creating customer loyalty. The term "direct marketing" was coined long after Montgomery Ward's time.
In 1872, Ward produced the first mail-order catalog for his Montgomery Ward mail order business. By buying goods and then reselling them directly to customers, Ward was consequently removing the middlemen at the general store and, to the benefit of the customer, drastically lowering the prices. The Direct Mail Advertising Association, the predecessor of the present-day Direct Marketing Association, was first established in 1917. Third class bulk mail postage rates were established in 1928.
In 1967, Lester Wunderman identified, named, and defined the term "direct marketing". Wunderman—considered to be the father of contemporary direct marketing—is behind the creation of the toll-free 1-800 number and numerous loyalty marketing programs including the Columbia Record Club, the magazine subscription card, and the American Express Customer Rewards program.
Direct marketing is attractive to many marketers because its results, positive or otherwise, can be measured directly. For example, if a marketer sends out 1,000 solicitations by mail and 100 respond to the promotion, the marketer can say with confidence that the campaign led directly to a 10% conversion. This metric is known as the 'response rate', and it is one of many clearly quantifiable success metrics employed by direct marketers. In contrast, general advertising uses indirect measurements, such as awareness or engagement, since there is no direct response from a consumer. Measurement of results is a fundamental element in successful direct marketing.
One of the other significant benefits of direct marketing is that it enables promoting products or services that might not be known to consumers. Products or services with a sound value proposition, matched with an attractive offer, supported with effective communication, delivered through a suitable direct marketing channel and targeting the relevant customer segment can result in a very effective cost of acquisition. Relative to other channels of distribution (say retailing) direct marketing as a practice principally relies on the proposition, offer, communication, choice of channel and the target customer and so less dependent on the brand strength. Despite the proven ability of direct marketing to generate measurable results, most companies continue to use general or branding advertising to market their products or services.
The Internet has made it easier for marketing managers to measure the results of a campaign. This is often achieved by using a specific website landing page directly relating to the promotional material. A call to action will ask the customer to visit the landing page, and the effectiveness of the campaign can be measured by taking the number of promotional messages distributed and dividing it into the number of responses. Another way to measure the results is to compare the projected sales or generated leads for a given term with the actual sales or leads after a direct advertising campaign. Some companies use conversion rate as a key metric while others use revenue as the key metric.
Challenges and solutions
Success can vary based on factors such as:
- Offer (best offer may yield up to 3 times the response, as compared with the worst offer)
- Timing (best timing for the campaign may yield up to 2 times the response, as compared with the worst timing)
- Ease of response (best/multiple ways offered to respond may yield up to 1.35 times the response, as compared with not-so-friendly response mechanism/s)
- Media employed. The medium/media used to deliver a message can have a significant impact on responses. It is difficult to truly personalize a DRTV or radio message. One can even attempt to send a personalized message via email or text message, but a high-quality direct mail envelope and the letter will typically have a better chance of generated a response in this scenario.
- Fulfillment - Mail fulfillment is the physical act of printing and then the postage and distribution of it. And this is an important stage within the Direct Marketing process. This stage is known as direct mail fulfillment – and includes tasks such as data cleansing, material preparation, collation, folding, closing, bundling, packaging and courier collection. This stage is also something that cannot be overlooked as it can truly define the success of a direct marketing campaign.
Some direct marketers use of individual "opt-out" lists, variable printing, and better-targeted list practices to improve success percentages. Additionally, in order to avoid unwanted mailings, members of the marketing industry have established preference services that give customers more control over the marketing communications they receive in the mail.
The term "junk mail", referring to unsolicited commercial ads delivered via post office or directly deposited in consumers' mail boxes, can be traced back to 1954. The term "spam," meaning "unsolicited commercial e-mail," can be traced back to March 31, 1993, although in its first few months it merely referred to inadvertently posting a message so many times on UseNet that the repetitions effectively drowned out the normal flow of conversation.
To address the concerns of unwanted emails or spam, in 2003, The US Congress enacted the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act to curb unwanted email messages. Can-Spam gives recipients the ability to stop unwanted emails and set out tough penalties for violations. Additionally, ISPs and email service providers have developed increasingly effective Email Filtering programs. These filters can interfere with the delivery of email marketing campaigns, even if the person has subscribed to receive them, as legitimate email marketing can possess the same hallmarks as spam. There are a range of email service providers that provide services for legitimate opt-in emailers to avoid being classified as spam.
Consumers have expressed concerns about the privacy and environmental implications of direct marketing. In response to consumer demand and increasing business pressure to increase the effectiveness of reaching the right customer with direct marketing, companies specialize in targeted direct advertising to great effect, reducing advertising budget waste and increasing the effectiveness of delivering a marketing message with better geo-demography information, delivering the advertising message to only the customers interested in the product, service, or event on offer. Additionally, members of the advertising industry have been working to adopt stricter codes regarding online targeted advertising.
Channels available include a variety of media: cell phone text messaging, email, websites, online adverts, database marketing, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters. Use of Television advertisements, newspapers, magazine advertisements, and outdoor advertising are not direct, although they may have a direct response aspect, such as an 800-number.
Sending marketing messages through email or email marketing is one of the most widely-used direct-marketing methods. One reason for email marketing's popularity is that it is relatively inexpensive to design, test, and send an email message. It also allows marketers to deliver messages around the clock, and to accurately measure responses.
With the expansion of digital technology and tools, direct marketing is increasingly taking place through online channels. Most online advertising is delivered to a focused group of customers and has a trackable response.
- Display Ads are interactive ads that appear on the Web next to content on Web pages or Web services. Formats include static banners, pop-ups, videos, and floating units. Customers can click on the ad to respond directly to the message or to find more detailed information. According to research by eMarketer, Display Advertising, including Social Media display ads, was 45.9% of all ad spending in 2018 and is expected to grow to 60.5% of ad spending by 2023.
- Search: 49% of US spending on Internet ads goes to search, in which advertisers pay for prominent placement among listings in search engines whenever a potential customer enters a relevant search term, allowing ads to be delivered to customers based upon their already-indicated search criteria. This paid placement industry generates more than $10 billion for search companies. Marketers also use search engine optimization to drive traffic to their sites.
- Social Media Sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, also provide opportunities for direct marketers to communicate directly with customers by creating content to which customers can respond.
Through mobile marketing, marketers engage with prospective customers and donors in an interactive manner through a mobile device or network, such as a cellphone, smartphone, or tablet. Types of mobile marketing messages include: SMS (short message service)—marketing communications are sent in the form of text messages, also known as texting. MMS (multi-media message service)—marketing communications are sent in the form of media messages.
In October 2013, the Federal Telephone Consumers Protection Act made it illegal to contact an individual via cell phone without prior express written consent for all telephone calls using an automatic telephone dialing system or a prerecorded voice to deliver a telemarketing message (known as Robocall) to wireless numbers and residential lines. An existing business relationship does not provide an exception to this requirement.
Mobile Applications: Smartphone-based mobile apps contain several types of messages. Push Notifications are direct messages sent to a user either automatically or as part of a campaign. They include transactional, marketing, geo-based, and more. Rich Push Notifications are full HTML Push Notifications. Mobile apps also contain Interactive ads that appear inside the mobile application or app; Location-Based Marketing: marketing messages delivered directly to a mobile device based on the user's location; QR Codes (quick-response barcodes): This is a type of 2D barcode with an encoded link that can be accessed from a smartphone. This technology is increasingly being used for everything from special offers to product information. Mobile Banner Ads: Like standard banner ads for desktop Web pages but smaller to fit on mobile screens and run on the mobile content network
Another common form of direct marketing is telemarketing, in which marketers contact customers by phone. The primary benefit to businesses is increased lead generation, which helps businesses increase sales volume and customer base. The most successful telemarketing service providers focus on generating more "qualified" leads that have a higher probability of getting converted into actual sales.
In the United States, the National Do Not Call Registry was created in 2003 to offer consumers a choice of whether to receive telemarketing calls at home. The FTC created the National Do Not Call Registry after a comprehensive review of the Telemarketing Sales Rule (TSR). The do-not-call provisions of the TSR cover any plan, program, or campaign to sell goods or services through interstate phone calls.
The 2012 modification, which went into effect on October 16, 2013, stated that prior express written consent will be required for all auto dialed and/or pre-recorded calls/texts sent/made to cell phone; and for pre-recorded calls made to residential land lines for marketing purposes.
Further, a consumer who does not wish to receive further prerecorded telemarketing calls can "opt-out" of receiving such calls by dialing a telephone number (required to be provided in the prerecorded message) to register his or her do-not-call request. The provisions do not cover calls from political organizations or charities.
Voicemail marketing emerged from the market prevalence of personal voice mailboxes, and business voicemail systems. One particular form is known as Ringless voicemail. Voice-mail courier is a similar form of voice-mail marketing with both business-to-business and business-to-consumer applications.
Broadcast faxing, in which faxes are sent to multiple recipients, is now less common than in the past. This is partly due to laws in the United States and elsewhere which regulate its use for consumer marketing. In 2005, President Bush signed into law S.714, the Junk Fax Prevention Act of 2005 (JFPA), which allows marketers to send commercial faxes to those with whom they have an established business relationship (EBR), but imposes some new requirements. These requirements include providing an opt-out notice on the first page of faxes and establishing a system to accept opt-outs at any time of the day. Roughly 2% of direct marketers use fax, mostly for business-to-business marketing campaigns.
Couponing is used in print and digital media to elicit a response from the reader. An example is a coupon which the reader receives through the mail and takes to a store's check-out counter to receive a discount.
Digital Coupons: Manufacturers and retailers make coupons available online for electronic orders that can be downloaded and printed. Digital coupons are available on company websites, social media outlets, texts, and email alerts. There are an increasing number of mobile phone applications offering digital coupons for direct use.
Daily Deal Sites offer local and online deals each day, and are becoming increasingly popular. Customers sign up to receive notice of discounts and offers, which are sent daily by email. Purchases are often made using a special coupon code or promotional code. The largest of these sites, Groupon, has over 83 million subscribers.
Direct response marketing
Direct Response Marketing is designed to generate an immediate response from consumers, where each consumer response (and purchase) can be measured, and attributed to individual advertisements. This form of marketing is differentiated from other marketing approaches, primarily because there are no intermediaries such as retailers between the buyer and seller, and therefore the buyer must contact the seller directly to purchase products or services. Direct-response marketing is delivered through a wide variety of media, including DRTV, radio, mail, print advertising, telemarketing, catalogues, and the Internet.
Direct response mail order
Direct response television
Direct marketing via television (commonly referred to as DRTV) has two basic forms: long form (usually half-hour or hour-long segments that explain a product in detail and are commonly referred to as infomercials) and short form, which refers to typical 30-second or 60-second commercials that ask viewers for an immediate response (typically to call a phone number on screen or go to a website). TV-response marketing—i.e. infomercials—can be considered a form of direct marketing, since responses are in the form of calls to telephone numbers given on-air. This allows marketers to reasonably conclude that the calls are due to a particular campaign, and enables them to obtain customers' phone numbers as targets for telemarketing. One of the most famous DRTV commercials was for Ginsu Knives by Ginsu Products, Inc. of Rhode Island. Several aspects of ad, such as its use of adding items to the offer and the guarantee of satisfaction were much copied, and came to be considered part of the formula for success with short-form direct-response TV ads (DRTV).
Forms of direct response marketing on television include standard short form television commercials, infomercials and home shopping networks. Short-form direct-response commercials have time lengths ranging from 30 seconds to 2 minutes. Long form infomercials are typically 30 minutes long. An offshoot of the infomercial is the home shopping industry. In this medium, items can potentially be offered with reduced overhead.
Direct response radio
In direct response radio, ads contain a call to action with a specific tracking mechanism. Often, this tracking mechanism is a "call now" prompt with a toll-free phone number or a unique Web URL. Results of the ad can be tracked in terms of calls, orders, customers, leads, sales, revenue, and profits that result from the airing of those ads.
Direct response magazines and newspapers
Magazine and newspaper ads often include a direct response call-to-action, such as a toll-free number, a coupon redeemable at a brick-and-mortar store, or a QR code that can be scanned by a mobile device—these methods are all forms of direct marketing, because they elicit a direct and measurable action from the customer.
By 1982, "the rising cost of an industrial sales call" (compared to 1971) led to business press outlets becoming a "primary reference for buying."
Other direct response media
Other media, such as magazines, newspapers, radio, social media, search engine marketing and e-mail can be used to elicit the response. A survey of large corporations found e-mail to be one of the most effective forms of direct response.
The term advertising, or direct mail, is used to refer to communications sent to potential customers or donors via the postal service and other delivery services. Direct mail is sent to customers based on criteria such as age, income, location, profession, buying pattern, etc. Direct mail includes advertising circulars, catalogs, free-trial CDs, pre-approved credit card applications, and other unsolicited merchandising invitations delivered by mail to homes and businesses. Bulk mailings are a particularly popular method of promotion for businesses operating in the financial services, home computer, and travel and tourism industries.
In many developed countries, direct mail represents such a significant amount of the total volume of mail that special rate classes have been established. In the United States and United Kingdom, for example, there are bulk mail rates that enable marketers to send mail at rates that are substantially lower than regular first-class rates. In order to qualify for these rates, marketers must format and sort the mail in particular ways—which reduces the handling (and therefore costs) required by the postal service. In the US, marketers send over 90 billion pieces of direct mail per year.
Advertisers often refine direct mail practices into targeted mailing, in which mail is sent out following database analysis to select recipients considered most likely to respond positively. For example, a person who has demonstrated an interest in golf may receive direct mail for golf-related products or perhaps for goods and services that are appropriate for golfers. This use of database analysis is a type of database marketing. The United States Postal Service calls this form of mail "advertising mail" (admail for short).
In 1983, 15.1% of US postal revenue came from direct mail.
Another form of direct marketing, insert media are marketing materials that are inserted into other communications, such as a catalog, newspaper, magazine, package, or bill. Coop or shared mail, where marketing offers from several companies are delivered via a single envelope, is also considered insert media.
Out-of-home direct marketing refers to a wide array of media designed to reach the consumer outside the home, including billboards, transit, bus shelters, bus benches, aerials, airports, in-flight, in-store, movies, college campus/high schools, hotels, shopping malls, sport facilities, stadiums, taxis—that contain a call-to-action for the customer to respond.
Direct selling is the sale of products by face-to-face contact with the customer, either by having salespeople approach potential customers in person, or through indirect means such as Tupperware parties.
Grassroots marketing involves advertising in the local community. The goal is to involve the community in discussions about the business through local events, meetings, and projects.
The ICC Consolidated Code of Advertising and Marketing relates to all direct marketing activities in their entirety, whatever their form, medium or content. It sets the standards of ethical conduct to be followed by marketers, practitioners or other contractors providing services for direct marketing purposes or in the media.
The fulfillment of any obligation arising from a direct marketing activity should be prompt and efficient.
Whenever an offer is made, all the commitments to be fulfilled by the marketer, the operator and the consumer should be made clear to consumers, either directly or by reference to sales conditions available to them at the time of the offer.
When the presentation of an offer also features products not included in the offer, or where additional products need to be purchased to enable the consumer to use the product on offer, this should be made clear in the original offer.
High-pressure tactics which might be construed as harassment should be avoided, and, marketers should ensure that they respect local culture and tradition to avoid offensive questions.
Right of withdrawal
Where consumers have a right of withdrawal (the consumer's right to resend any goods to the seller, or to cancel the order for services, within a certain time limit and thus annulling the sale), the marketer should inform them of the existence of this right, how to obtain further information about it, and how to exercise it. Where there is an offer to supply products to the consumer on the basis of "free examination", "free trial", "free approval" and the like, it should be made clear in the offer who will bear the cost of returning products and the procedure for returning them should be as simple as possible. Any time limit for the return should be clearly disclosed.
Identity of the marketer
The identity of the marketer and/or operator and details of where and how they may be contacted should be given in the offer, so as to enable the consumer to communicate directly and effectively with them. This information should be available as a permanent reference which the consumer can keep, i.e. via a separate document offline, an online document, email or SMS; it should not, for example, appear only on an order form which the consumer is required to return. At the time of delivery of the product, the marketer's full name, address and telephone number should be supplied to the consumer.
Respecting consumer wishes
Where consumers have indicated the wish not to receive direct marketing communications by signing on to a preference service, or in any other way, this should be respected. Marketers who are communicating with consumers internationally should, where possible, ensure that they avail themselves of the appropriate preference service in the markets to which they are addressing their communications and respect consumers' wishes not to receive such communications (see also General Provisions, article 19, data protection and privacy). Where a system exists, enabling consumers to indicate a wish not to receive unaddressed mail (e.g. mailbox stickers), this should be respected.
Overall responsibility for all aspects of direct marketing activities, whatever their kind or content, rests with the marketer. However, responsibility also applies to other participants in direct marketing activities and that needs to be taken into account. As well as marketers, these may include: operators, telemarketers or data controllers, or their subcontractors, who contribute to the activity or communication; publishers, media-owners or contractors who publish, transmit or distribute the offer or any other communication.
- Artificial intelligence marketing
- As seen on TV
- Customer relationship management
- Direct marketing associations
- Field marketing
- Leaflet distribution
- Personalized marketing
- Street marketing
- TalkBack Reader Response System
- Robert D. McFadden (14 January 2019). "Lester Wunderman, Father of Direct Marketing, Dies at 98". The New York Times.
- "personalized ads .. preselected people .. products and services that they might actually want(vs.) scattershot .. printed publications and broadcast media.
- unwanted phone calls, unwanted email, for some people unwanted cluttering of the mailbox, especially if they're paying for a rented limited size private mailbox
- USA the opt-out does not include everything. Survey phone calls and political phone calls are legal, within certain hours of the day - including "dinner" hour(s). SOURCE: US FTC - 877-701-9595
- The Power of Direct Marketing: ROI, Sales, Expenditures, and Employment in the US, 2009-2010 Edition
- "A Brief History of Mail Order Catalogs". Archived from the original on 11 November 2013.
- "They Broke It". New York Times. 12 January 2017.
- "Why the Industrial Revolution Happened Here". BBC. 13 January 2017.
- Pryce Pryce-Jones, Newtown businessman who introduced mail order shopping to the world Archived 2008-02-13 at the Wayback Machine BBC.co.uk
- "A Brief History of Newtown". Newtown Town Council. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
- "Sir Pryce Pryce-Jones". Archived from the original on 11 November 2013.
- Pryce Jones and the Royal Welsh Warehouse Archived 2013-11-11 at the Wayback Machine Powys - A day in the life
- "Euklisia Rug". A-day-in-the-life.powys.org.uk. Archived from the original on 25 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "A History of the World - Object : Euklisia Rug". BBC. 1 January 1970. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Pryce-Jones: Pioneer of the Mail Order Industry". BBC. Archived from the original on 25 April 2014.
- "The Next Generation of Direct Marketing." Brandweek 50, no. 36. D1-D4, 2009, p. 6.
- O'guinn, Thomas (2008). Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. p. 625. ISBN 978-0-324-56862-2.
- "Postal Services OPERATIONS". Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "Marketing Legend Lester Wunderman Live on 'The Alan Levy Show'". Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- Penny Singer (24 January 1988), Behind the flood of mail: Name Brokers
- Admin, George (25 August 2020). "What is Direct Mail?".
- Entry for junk, Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved February 19, 2008.
- Origin of the term "spam" to mean net abuse, Brad Templeton's website. Retrieved February 19, 2008.
- FCC: Spam, Unwanted Text Messages and Email
- What is a "Whitelist" and why do I want to work with a "Whitelisted" Mail Distributor? Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine[failed verification]
- Edmund Lee. (7 June 2011). "More Advertisers Adopt Stricter Codes Around Digital Privacy". Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- if each visitor can receive a different/directed message
- "How Companies Learn Your Secrets". The New York Times. 16 February 2012.
- "A Eulogy for the Long, Intimate Email". The New York Times. 11 July 2015.
- "eMarketer Digital Ad Spending 2019". eMarketer. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
- DMA 2011 Statistical Fact Book, Chapter 4
- "Telemarketing Sales Rule". Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- FCC Report and Order, February 15, 2012 "Rules and Regulations Implementing the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991", CG Docket No. 02-278. 
- Tara Siegel Bernard (3 June 2017). "No, Your Phone Didn't Ring. So Why Voice Mail From a Telemarketer?". The New York Times.
- DMA 2010 Response Rate Report
- Rusli, Evelyn M.; De La Merced, Michael J. "Groupon Plans I.P.O. With $30 Billion Valuation". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Direct Response Advertising Glossary"; February 8, 2011.
- Huff, Priscilla. "Why the Internet is Causing Mail Order to Boom". Home Business Magazine. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- Dennis Hevesi (30 June 2012). "Barry Becher, a Creator of Ginsu Knife Commercials, Dies at 71". The New York Times.
- Dickler, Jessica. "Home Shopping Networks Go High End". CNN Money. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- Advertising Age. 10 May 1982. p. M-10. Missing or empty
- Miller, Steve. "Study: E-Mail is The Most Effective Form of Direct Response". Adweek. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- DMA 2011 Statistical Fact Book, Chapter 2, page 46
- quoting U.S. Sen. Ted Stevens: Advertising Age. 17 January 1983. p. M-32. Missing or empty
- Sipe, Marion (26 September 2017). "What Is a Grassroots Marketing Strategy?". Bizfluent. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- "C16 – Use of telemarketing". International Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Article C14 – Respecting consumer wishes". International Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Media related to Direct marketing at Wikimedia Commons