This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
In analytic geometry, the direction cosines (or directional cosines) of a vector are the cosines of the angles between the vector and the three coordinate axes. Equivalently, they are the contributions of each component of the basis to a unit vector in that direction. Direction cosines are an analogous extension of the usual notion of slope to higher dimensions.
Three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates
where ex, ey, ez are the standard basis in Cartesian notation, then the direction cosines are
It follows that by squaring each equation and adding the results
Here α, β and γ are the direction cosines and the Cartesian coordinates of the unit vector v/|v|, and a, b and c are the direction angles of the vector v.
More generally, direction cosine refers to the cosine of the angle between any two vectors. They are useful for forming direction cosine matrices that express one set of orthonormal basis vectors in terms of another set, or for expressing a known vector in a different basis.
- Kay, D. C. (1988). Tensor Calculus. Schaum’s Outlines. McGraw Hill. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-07-033484-6.
- Spiegel, M. R.; Lipschutz, S.; Spellman, D. (2009). Vector analysis. Schaum’s Outlines (2nd ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 15, 25. ISBN 978-0-07-161545-7.
- Tyldesley, J. R. (1975). An introduction to tensor analysis for engineers and applied scientists. Longman. p. 5. ISBN 0-582-44355-5.
- Tang, K. T. (2006). Mathematical Methods for Engineers and Scientists. 2. Springer. p. 13. ISBN 3-540-30268-9.
- Weisstein, Eric W. "Direction Cosine". MathWorld.