# Dirichlet beta function

In mathematics, the Dirichlet beta function (also known as the Catalan beta function) is a special function, closely related to the Riemann zeta function. It is a particular Dirichlet L-function, the L-function for the alternating character of period four.

## Definition

The Dirichlet beta function is defined as

$\beta (s)=\sum _{n=0}^{\infty }{\frac {(-1)^{n}}{(2n+1)^{s}}},$ or, equivalently,

$\beta (s)={\frac {1}{\Gamma (s)}}\int _{0}^{\infty }{\frac {x^{s-1}e^{-x}}{1+e^{-2x}}}\,dx.$ In each case, it is assumed that Re(s) > 0.

Alternatively, the following definition, in terms of the Hurwitz zeta function, is valid in the whole complex s-plane:

$\beta (s)=4^{-s}\left(\zeta \left(s,{1 \over 4}\right)-\zeta \left(s,{3 \over 4}\right)\right).$ proof

Another equivalent definition, in terms of the Lerch transcendent, is:

$\beta (s)=2^{-s}\Phi \left(-1,s,{{1} \over {2}}\right),$ which is once again valid for all complex values of s.

Also the series representation of Dirichlet beta function can be formed in terms of the polygamma function

$\beta (s)={\frac {1}{2^{s}}}\sum _{n=0}^{\infty }{\frac {(-1)^{n}}{\left(n+{\frac {1}{2}}\right)^{s}}}={\frac {1}{(-2)^{2s}(s-1)!}}\left[\psi ^{(s-1)}\left({\frac {1}{4}}\right)-\psi ^{(s-1)}\left({\frac {3}{4}}\right)\right].$ ## Euler product formula

It is also the simplest example of a series non-directly related to $\zeta (s)$ which can also be factorized as an Euler product, thus leading to the idea of Dirichlet character defining the exact set of Dirichlet series having a factorization over the prime numbers.

At least for Re(s) ≥ 1:

$\beta (s)=\prod _{p\equiv 1\ \mathrm {mod} \ 4}{\frac {1}{1-p^{-s}}}\prod _{p\equiv 3\ \mathrm {mod} \ 4}{\frac {1}{1+p^{-s}}}$ where p≡1 mod 4 are the primes of the form 4n+1 (5,13,17,...) and p≡3 mod 4 are the primes of the form 4n+3 (3,7,11,...). This can be written compactly as

$\beta (s)=\prod _{p\geq 3 \atop p{\text{ prime}}}{\frac {1}{1-\,(-1)^{\frac {p-1}{2}}\textstyle p^{-s}}}.$ ## Functional equation

The functional equation extends the beta function to the left side of the complex plane Re(s) ≤ 0. It is given by

$\beta (1-s)=\left({\frac {\pi }{2}}\right)^{-s}\sin \left({\frac {\pi }{2}}s\right)\Gamma (s)\beta (s)$ where Γ(s) is the gamma function.

## Special values

Some special values include:

$\beta (0)={\frac {1}{2}},$ $\beta (1)\;=\;\arctan(1)\;=\;{\frac {\pi }{4}},$ $\beta (2)\;=\;G,$ where G represents Catalan's constant, and

$\beta (3)\;=\;{\frac {\pi ^{3}}{32}},$ $\beta (4)\;=\;{\frac {1}{768}}\left(\psi _{3}\left({\frac {1}{4}}\right)-8\pi ^{4}\right),$ $\beta (5)\;=\;{\frac {5\pi ^{5}}{1536}},$ $\beta (7)\;=\;{\frac {61\pi ^{7}}{184320}},$ where $\psi _{3}(1/4)$ in the above is an example of the polygamma function. More generally, for any positive integer k:

$\beta (2k+1)={{({-1})^{k}}{E_{2k}}{\pi ^{2k+1}} \over {4^{k+1}}(2k)!},$ where $\!\ E_{n}$ represent the Euler numbers. For integer k ≥ 0, this extends to:

$\beta (-k)={{E_{k}} \over {2}}.$ Hence, the function vanishes for all odd negative integral values of the argument.

For every positive integer k:

$\beta (2k)={\frac {1}{2(2k-1)!}}\sum _{m=0}^{\infty }\left(\left(\sum _{l=0}^{k-1}{\binom {2k-1}{2l}}{\frac {(-1)^{l}A_{2k-2l-1}}{2l+2m+1}}\right)-{\frac {(-1)^{k-1}}{2m+2k}}\right){\frac {A_{2m}}{(2m)!}}{\left({\frac {\pi }{2}}\right)}^{2m+2k},$ [citation needed]

where $A_{k}$ is the Euler zigzag number.

Also it was derived by Malmsten in 1842 that

$\beta '(1)=\sum _{n=1}^{\infty }(-1)^{n+1}{\frac {\ln(2n+1)}{2n+1}}\,=\,{\frac {\pi }{4}}{\big (}\gamma -\ln \pi )+\pi \ln \Gamma \left({\frac {3}{4}}\right)$ s approximate value β(s) OEIS
1/5 0.5737108471859466493572665 A261624
1/4 0.5907230564424947318659591 A261623
1/3 0.6178550888488520660725389 A261622
1/2 0.6676914571896091766586909 A195103
1 0.7853981633974483096156608 A003881
2 0.9159655941772190150546035 A006752
3 0.9689461462593693804836348 A153071
4 0.9889445517411053361084226 A175572
5 0.9961578280770880640063194 A175571
6 0.9986852222184381354416008 A175570
7 0.9995545078905399094963465
8 0.9998499902468296563380671
9 0.9999496841872200898213589
10 0.9999831640261968774055407

There are zeros at -1; -3; -5; -7 etc.