Dirichlet boundary condition
In the mathematical study of differential equations, the Dirichlet (or first-type) boundary condition is a type of boundary condition, named after Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805–1859). When imposed on an ordinary or a partial differential equation, it specifies the values that a solution needs to take along the boundary of the domain.
In finite element method (FEM) analysis, essential or Dirichlet boundary condition is defined by weighted-integral form of a differential equation. The dependent unknown u in the same form as the weight function w appearing in the boundary expression is termed a primary variable, and its specification constitutes the essential or Dirichlet boundary condition.
The question of finding solutions to such equations is known as the Dirichlet problem. In applied sciences, a Dirichlet boundary condition may also be referred to as a fixed boundary condition.
For an ordinary differential equation, for instance,
For a partial differential equation, for example,
For example, the following would be considered Dirichlet boundary conditions:
- In mechanical engineering and civil engineering (beam theory), where one end of a beam is held at a fixed position in space.
- In thermodynamics, where a surface is held at a fixed temperature.
- In electrostatics, where a node of a circuit is held at a fixed voltage.
- In fluid dynamics, the no-slip condition for viscous fluids states that at a solid boundary, the fluid will have zero velocity relative to the boundary.
Other boundary conditions
- Cheng, A.; Cheng, D. T. (2005). "Heritage and early history of the boundary element method". Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements. 29 (3): 268–302. doi:10.1016/j.enganabound.2004.12.001.
- Reddy, J. N. (2009). "Second order differential equations in one dimension: Finite element models". An Introduction to the Finite Element Method (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-07-126761-8.