Dirk Helbing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Dirk Helbing
Dirk Helbing portrait by Jannick Timm.png
Born (1965-01-19) January 19, 1965 (age 57)
Aalen, Germany [1]
Alma materUniversity of Göttingen (1986)[1]
Known forSocial force model, crowd simulation, traffic simulation, pedestrian microsimulation, complex systems, computational social science
AwardsGolden Idea Award 2012 [2]
Scientific career
FieldsComplex Systems, Computational Social Science
InstitutionsETH Zurich (2007-)[3]
TU Delft (2015)[4]
University of Oxford (2010)[5]
(host: Peter Hedström)
Harvard University (2010)[6]
(hosts: Martin Nowak, Nicholas A. Christakis)
INRETS (2004)
(host: Patrick Lebacque)[7]
TU Dresden (2000)[8]
Collegium Budapest, Hungary (2000) [9]
Tel Aviv University (1999)
(hosts: Isaac Goldhirsch, Eshel Ben-Jacob)[10]
Eötvös Loránd University (1998)
(host: Tamás Vicsek)
Xerox PARC (1998)
(host: Bernardo Huberman)[11]
Weizmann Institute of Science (1997)
(host: David Mukamel) [12]
University of Stuttgart (1996)[13]
Doctoral advisorWolfgang Weidlich
Other academic advisorsManfred R. Schroeder

Dirk Helbing (born January 19, 1965) is Professor of Computational Social Science at the Department of Humanities, Social and Political Sciences and affiliate of the Computer Science Department at ETH Zurich.


Dirk Helbing studied physics and mathematics at the University of Göttingen. He completed his doctoral thesis at Stuttgart University, on modeling social processes by means of game-theoretical approaches, stochastic methods, and complex systems theory.[14] In 1996, he completed further studies on traffic dynamics and optimization.

In 2000, he became a full professor and Managing Director of the Institute for Transport and Economics at Dresden University of Technology.[15] Helbing was elected as a member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina in 2008[16] and of the World Academy of Art and Science in 2016.[17] In January 2014 Prof. Helbing received an honorary PhD from Delft University of Technology (TU Delft).[18][19] Since June 2015 he is affiliate professor at the faculty of Technology, Policy and Management at TU Delft, where he leads the PhD school in "Engineering Social Technologies for a Responsible Digital Future".[20]

Research activities[edit]

Dirk Helbing started out as a physicist. His diploma thesis focussed on pedestrian, crowd, and evacuation modeling and simulation.[21] During his PhD and habilitation in physics,[22] he helped to establish the fields of socio-, econo- and traffic physics.[23][24] He was also co-founder of the Physics of Socio-Economic Systems Division of the German Physical Society (DPG).[25] As a visiting scientist at Tel Aviv University and the Weizmann Institute in Israel, the Eötvös University in Budapest, and Xerox PARC in California, he focused on a broad variety of complex systems - including the self-organisation of pedestrians,[26] traffic jams,[27] bacterial patterns,[28] and Mexican waves.[29] At Dresden University of Technology he became the Managing Director of the Institute of Transport & Economics,[30] worked on traffic assistant systems (i.e. early self-driving cars)[31][32] and a self-organized traffic light control system,[33][34][35] which was patented.[36] He found that crowd disasters are caused by a phenomenon called "crowd turbulence" and worked on ways to describe, reduce and respond to such disasters.[37] As professor of Sociology at ETH Zurich, he worked on evolutionary game theory[38][39] and agent-based computer simulations of social processes and phenomena.[40]

The work of Prof. Helbing has been widely cited in the media and academia and he has written more than 10 papers in Nature,[41] Science[42] and PNAS.[43] In 2012, he won the Idee Suisse Award.[44] He co-founded the Competence Center for Coping with Crises in Complex Socio-Economic Systems,[45] the Risk Center,[46] the Institute for Science, Technology and Policy (ISTP)[47] and the Decision Science Laboratory (DeSciL).[48] While coordinating the FuturICT initiative,[49][50] he helped to further develop disciplines such as data science, computational social science, and global systems science in Europe.[51] This work resulted in the establishment of the Nervousnet Platform, a smartphone app enabling users to share data to be used to achieve scientific and social goals and lay the groundwork for digital democracy.[52][53] Helbing worked for the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Complex Systems.[54] He was elected member of the External Faculty of the Santa Fe Institute[55] and now belongs to the External Faculty of the Complexity Science Hub Vienna.[56] He sits in the Boards of the Global Brain Institute in Brussels[57] and the International Centre for Earth Simulation in Geneva.[58] He is also involved in the activities of "Staatslabor" (a Swiss government science initiative)[59] as well as the establishment of the Blockchain [X][60] initiative and the Blockchain Lab in Delft.[61][62] He is a member of a Swiss governmental advisory group on the societal impact of digitization[63][64] and was lead author of a "Digital Manifesto" on how to safeguard democratic values in the digital age.[65] Prof. Helbing is an adviser to the Citizen Science Center Zurich [66] and is an advocate of a European Charter of Digital Human Rights.[67]

Dirk Helbing is known for the social force model,[68] in particular its application to self-organising phenomena in pedestrian crowds.[69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76] Besides the slower-is-faster effect,[75][77] he introduced the freezing-by-heating effect [78] and the phase diagram of congested traffic states.[79][80][81] Helbing also proposed a microscopic foundation of evolutionary game theory[82] and has studied self-organized behavioral conventions.[83] His work has applied the principles of collective intelligence and self-organized control to the optimization of urban [84] and freeway traffic.[85] He has conducted research into norms and conflict, and the role of success-driven motion for the establishment of cooperation among selfish individuals,[86] socio-inspired technology and techno-social systems,[87][88] the spread of disaster [89][90] and crisis management.[91]

Living Earth Simulator[edit]

Helbing was the Principal Investigator on a project named FuturICT Knowledge Accelerator and Crisis Relief System, a computing system working on big datasets, conceived as sort of a crystal ball of the world.[92] The core of the system is the Living Earth Simulator, a computing machine attempting "to model global-scale systems — economies, governments, cultural trends, epidemics, agriculture, technological developments, and more — using torrential data streams, sophisticated algorithms, and as much hardware as it takes".[92] However, the project lost in the final round of the application for funding from the European Commission of €1 billion.[92] Despite this, the ideas developed by the group have influenced international research programs.[93] Since 2017, the FuturICT 2.0 project is being funded by the European Commission's FLAG-ERA program.[94]

Noteworthy projects and presentations by Dirk Helbing's research teams in Dresden, Zurich and Delft[edit]

  • Derivation of the replicator equation in evolutionary game theory[95] and of the self-organization of behavioral conventions from behavioral imitation.[96]
  • Creation of an electronic traffic assistance system to reduce traffic jams on freeways (an early algorithm for self-driving cars).[97]
  • Invention of a patented[98] self-organized traffic light control system for cities.[99]
  • Semiconductor logistic project with Infineon Technologies increasing throughput by 30%.[100]
  • Development of the "social force model", frequently used for pedestrian and crowd simulation.[101]
  • Establishment of an expert team to improve the safety of pilgrimages.[102]
  • Data-based agent-based simulation study on the Middle Eastern conflict in Jerusalem.[103]
  • Publication "How to save human lives: What complexity science and information systems can contribute".[104]
  • Patent: "Interaction Support Processor" - Ethically aligned design for information systems.[105]
  • Nervousnet App - the Internet of Things as a Citizen Web (in development).[106]
  • Grippenet App for anonymous cooperative health monitoring (in development).[107]
  • Speech at the Out of the Box Conference with World Thinkers and the Dalai Lama on May 16, 2012.[108]
  • Declaration of "Digital Democracy" at the Falling Walls Conference in Berlin on November 9, 2015.[109]
  • Talk at the "Build Peace" Conference in Zurich on September 11, 2016: "A New Paradigm for World Peace Is Possible".[110]
  • BIOTS - Blockchain and Internet of Things School at ETH Zurich, founded in 2016.[111]
  • Co-founded Zurich Hub for Ethics and Technology in (2016).[112]
  • Article in Nature, "Sustainable development: Turn war rooms into peace rooms", Dirk Helbing and Peter Seele, September 28, 2017.[113]
  • Interview at "Petersberger Gespräche" 2017 (Bonn, German) on September 16, 2017: "Artificial Intelligence - from feasibility and superintelligence to planning and envisioning the future".[114]


  1. ^ a b "NZZ Podium: Prof. Dr. Dirk Helbing". Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  2. ^ "Golden Idea Award". Idee Suisse (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  3. ^ "Helbing, Dirk, Prof. Dr". www.ethz.ch (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  4. ^ "People". www.tudelft.nl. Archived from the original on 2016-07-25. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  5. ^ "Professor Dirk Helbing, "Cooperation, Norms and Conflict: Towards Stimulating the Foundations of Society"". Oxford Martin. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  6. ^ "Previous Guest Researchers". www.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-10-26. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  7. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Lämmer, Stefan; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick (2005). "Self-Organized Control of Irregular or Perturbed Network Traffic". Optimal Control and Dynamic Games. Advances in Computational Management Science. Vol. 7. pp. 239–74. arXiv:physics/0511018. doi:10.1007/0-387-25805-1_15. ISBN 0-387-25804-3. S2CID 13493932.
  8. ^ "Mitarbeiter der Professur Ökonometrie und Statistik, insb. im Verkehrswesen". www.tu-dresden.de (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  9. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Farkas, Illés; Vicsek, Tamás (2000). "Simulating dynamical features of escape panic". Nature. 407 (6803): 487–90. arXiv:cond-mat/0009448. Bibcode:2000Natur.407..487H. doi:10.1038/35035023. PMID 11028994. S2CID 310346.
  10. ^ Helbing, Dirk (1998). A Perspective Look at Nonlinear Media: From Physics to Biology and Social Sciences. Berlin: Springer. p. 122. ISBN 978-3-662-14190-8.
  11. ^ Helbing, D.; Huberman, B. A.; Maurer, S. M. (2000). "Optimizing Traffic in Virtual and Real Space". Traffic and Granular Flow '99. pp. 193–204. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-59751-0_18. ISBN 978-3-642-64109-1. S2CID 119431705.
  12. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Mukamel, David; Schütz, Gunter M. (1999). "Global Phase Diagram of a One-Dimensional Driven Lattice Gas". Physical Review Letters. 82 (1): 10–13. arXiv:cond-mat/9901158. Bibcode:1999PhRvL..82...10H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.10. S2CID 52250340.
  13. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Tilch, Benno (1998). "Generalized force model of traffic dynamics". Physical Review E. 58 (1): 133–138. arXiv:cond-mat/9806243. Bibcode:1998PhRvE..58..133H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.58.133. S2CID 119095859.
  14. ^ "NZZ Podium: Dirk Helbing". Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in Swiss High German). Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  15. ^ "Mitarbeiter der Professur Ökonometrie und Statistik, insb. im Verkehrswesen". TU Dresden. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  16. ^ "Mitgliederverzeichnis". www.leopoldina.org (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  17. ^ "World Academy of Art & Science: General Listing". www.worldacademy.org. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  18. ^ "Honorary Doctorates - Delft Outlook". Delft Outlook. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  19. ^ "Ehrungen und Preise an ETH-Angehörige 2014". www.ethz.ch (in German). Archived from the original on 2017-09-26. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  20. ^ "PhD Program in Engineering Social Technologies for a Responsible Digital Future". TU Delft (in Dutch). Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  21. ^ Helbing, Dirk (1990-01-01). "Physikalische Modellierung des dynamischen Verhaltens von Fußgängern (Physical Modeling of the Dynamic Behavior of Pedestrians)". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2413177. SSRN 2413177.
  22. ^ Dirk., Helbing (1996-01-01). Stochastische Methoden, nichtlineare Dynamik und quantitative Modelle sozialer Prozesse. Shaker. ISBN 9783861115472. OCLC 75838775.
  23. ^ Anhäuser, Marcus (2010-05-19). "Sie verstehen zu überleben". sueddeutsche.de (in German). ISSN 0174-4917. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  24. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Treiber, Martin (1998-12-11). "Jams, Waves, and Clusters". Science. 282 (5396): 2001–2003. doi:10.1126/science.282.5396.2001. ISSN 0036-8075. S2CID 60811443.
  25. ^ Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. 2009. “Arbeitskreis ‘Physik Sozio-ökonomischer Systeme’ Gegründet.” http://www.dpg-physik.de/dpg/gliederung/fv/soe/historie/phbl.html Archived 2017-06-07 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Molnár, Péter (1995). "Social force model for pedestrian dynamics". Physical Review E. 51 (5): 4282–4286. arXiv:cond-mat/9805244. Bibcode:1995PhRvE..51.4282H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282. PMID 9963139. S2CID 29333691.
  27. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Huberman, Bernardo A. (1998). "Coherent moving states in highway traffic". Nature. 396 (6713): 738–740. arXiv:cond-mat/9805025. Bibcode:1998Natur.396..738H. doi:10.1038/25499. S2CID 18430246.
  28. ^ Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Cohen, Inon; Golding, Ido; Gutnick, David L.; Tcherpakov, Marianna; Helbing, Dirk; Ron, Ilan G. (2000). "Bacterial cooperative organization under antibiotic stress". Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications. 282 (1–2): 247–282. Bibcode:2000PhyA..282..247B. doi:10.1016/S0378-4371(00)00093-5.
  29. ^ Farkas, I.; Helbing, D.; Vicsek, T. (2002). "Social behaviour: Mexican waves in an excitable medium". Nature. 419 (6903): 131–132. arXiv:cond-mat/0210073. Bibcode:2002Natur.419..131F. doi:10.1038/419131a. PMID 12226653. S2CID 4309609.
  30. ^ TU Dresden. "Mitarbeiter der Professur Ökonometrie und Statistik, insb. im Verkehrswesen" (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  31. ^ Kesting, Arne; Treiber, Martin; Helbing, Dirk (2007). "General Lane-Changing Model MOBIL for Car-Following Models". Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 1999: 86–94. doi:10.3141/1999-10. S2CID 39345746.
  32. ^ Kesting, Arne; Treiber, Martin; Schönhof, Martin; Kranke, Florian; Helbing, Dirk (2007). "Jam-Avoiding Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and its Impact on Traffic Dynamics". Traffic and Granular Flow'05. pp. 633–43. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-47641-2_62. ISBN 978-3-540-47640-5. S2CID 17325754.
  33. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Siegmeier, Jan; Lämmer, Stefan (2013). "Self-Organized Network Flows". Modelling and Optimisation of Flows on Networks. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Vol. 2062. pp. 335–55. arXiv:physics/0702173. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32160-3_6. ISBN 978-3-642-32159-7.
  34. ^ News, Rachel Ehrenberg, Science. "Adaptive Traffic Lights Could Achieve 'The Green Wave'". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-05-12. {{cite magazine}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  35. ^ Haene, Stefan (2012-05-14). "Die revolutionäre Idee des Professors: Der Verkehr steuert die Ampeln". Tages-Anzeiger, Tages-Anzeiger (in German). ISSN 1422-9994. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  36. ^ Dirk Helbing, Stefan Lammer (2008-09-25), Method For Coordination of Concurrent Processes or for Control of the Transport of Mobile Units Within a Network (in German), retrieved 2017-05-10
  37. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Johansson, Anders; Al-Abideen, Habib Zein (2007). "Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study". Physical Review E. 75 (4): 046109. arXiv:physics/0701203. Bibcode:2007PhRvE..75d6109H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.75.046109. PMID 17500963. S2CID 21398961.
  38. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Szabó, György (2010). "Evolutionary Establishment of Moral and Double Moral Standards through Spatial Interactions". PLOS Computational Biology. 6 (4): e1000758. arXiv:1003.3165. Bibcode:2010PLSCB...6E0758H. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000758. PMC 2861625. PMID 20454464.
  39. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Szabó, György (2010). "Punish, but not too hard: How costly punishment spreads in the spatial public goods game". New Journal of Physics. 12 (8): 083005. arXiv:1007.0431. Bibcode:2010NJPh...12h3005H. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/12/8/083005. S2CID 9443807.
  40. ^ Helbing, Dirk (2012). "Agent-Based Modeling". Social Self-Organization. Understanding Complex Systems. pp. 25–70. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-24004-1_2. ISBN 978-3-642-24003-4.
  41. ^ "Dirk Helbing Publications in Nature - Google Scholar" (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  42. ^ "Dirk Helbing Publications in Science - Google Scholar" (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  43. ^ "Dirk Helbing Publications in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Google Scholar" (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  44. ^ www.inware.ch. "Golden Idea Award" (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  45. ^ "Competence Center for "Coping with Crisis in Socio-Economic Systems"" (in German). ETH. Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  46. ^ ETH. "Risk Center Alumni". Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  47. ^ "Prof. Dirk Helbing". Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  48. ^ ETH Zurich. "Decision Science Laboratory" (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  49. ^ "Dr Seldon, I presume". The Economist (in German). 2013-02-23. Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  50. ^ Alexander Stirn (2012-04-10), "EU-Forschungswettbewerb: Simulator für Soziales", Die Zeit (in German), Hamburg, ISSN 0044-2070, retrieved 2017-05-10
  51. ^ Helbing, Dirk (2013). "Globally networked risks and how to respond". Nature. 497 (7447): 51–59. Bibcode:2013Natur.497...51H. doi:10.1038/nature12047. PMID 23636396. S2CID 4428023.
  52. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Pournaras, Evangelos (2015-11-05). "Society: Build digital democracy". Nature. 527 (7576): 33–34. Bibcode:2015Natur.527...33H. doi:10.1038/527033a. PMID 26536943.
  53. ^ "Offene Daten für eine smarte Gesellschaft". www.netzwoche.ch (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  54. ^ World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Complex Systems (January 2013), World Economic Forum (ed.), Perspectives on a Hyperconnected World: Insights from the Science of Complexity (PDF) (in German)
  55. ^ "Modeling suggests crowds are best navigated around the edges | Santa Fe Institute". Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  56. ^ Complexity Science Hub Vienna. "External Faculty". Archived from the original on 2017-05-22. Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  57. ^ The Global Brain Institute. "Members" (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  58. ^ ICES Foundation. "Profile: Dirk Helbing" (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  59. ^ "Blockchain: Use-Cases im öffentlichen Sektor". staatslabor.ch. Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  60. ^ "Blockchain[X] – Platform for Business, Government and Academia to profit from Blockchain". Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  61. ^ "Blockchain Labs: Faculty Team". Retrieved 2017-05-10.
  62. ^ Burger, Stephanie (2018-01-29). "Auf dem Weg zur Blockchain-Gesellschaft". Mittelbayerische (in German). Retrieved 2018-04-14.
  63. ^ "Bund ernennt Big-Data-Gruppe - gegen seinen Willen" (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-03.
  64. ^ "Digitalisierte Gesellschaft" (in German). Retrieved 2017-05-03.
  65. ^ "IT-Revolution: Digitale Demokratie statt Datendiktatur" (in German). Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  66. ^ "Citizen Science Center Zurich - About". Citizen Science Center Zurich. Retrieved 2018-04-14.
  67. ^ "Digitale Charta für Europa vorgestellt". www.netzwoche.ch (in German). Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  68. ^ "Dirk Helbing's Publons profile".
  69. ^ "The wisdom of crowds". The Economist. 2011-12-17. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  70. ^ "How Fluid Dynamics Can Help You Navigate Crowds". Smithsonian. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  71. ^ Rogers, Adam. "The Hajj Stampede Is a Fluid Dynamics Problem". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  72. ^ Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg (25 October 2007). "Making Mecca Safe for Pilgrims: Panic Specialists Bring Order to the Hajj - SPIEGEL ONLINE - International". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  73. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Molnár, Péter (1995). "Social force model for pedestrian dynamics". Physical Review E. 51 (5): 4282–4286. arXiv:cond-mat/9805244. Bibcode:1995PhRvE..51.4282H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282. PMID 9963139. S2CID 29333691.
  74. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Molnár, Péter; Farkas, Illés J; Bolay, Kai (2001). "Self-organizing pedestrian movement". Environment and Planning B. 28 (3): 361–383. doi:10.1068/b2697. S2CID 16276539.
  75. ^ a b Helbing, Dirk; Farkas, Illés; Vicsek, Tamás (2000). "Simulating dynamical features of escape panic". Nature. 407 (6803): 487–490. arXiv:cond-mat/0009448. Bibcode:2000Natur.407..487H. doi:10.1038/35035023. PMID 11028994. S2CID 310346.
  76. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Buzna, Lubos; Johansson, Anders; Werner, Torsten (2005). "Self-organized pedestrian crowd dynamics: Experiments, simulations, and design solutions". Transportation Science. 39 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1287/trsc.1040.0108.
  77. ^ Dizikes, Peter (March 17, 2016). "When slower is faster". MIT News. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  78. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Farkas, Illés J; Vicsek, Tamás; Werner, Torsten (2000). "Freezing by heating in a driven mesoscopic system". Physical Review Letters. 84 (6): 1240–1243. arXiv:cond-mat/9904326. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..84.1240H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.1240. PMID 11017488. S2CID 18649078.
  79. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Treiber, Martin (1998). "Gas-kinetic-based traffic model explaining observed hysteretic phase transition". Physical Review Letters. 81 (14): 3042–3045. arXiv:cond-mat/9810277. Bibcode:1998PhRvL..81.3042H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.3042. S2CID 119045169.
  80. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Treiber, Martin (2008). "Derivation of a fundamental diagram for urban traffic flow". European Physical Journal B. 70 (2): 229–241. arXiv:0807.1843. Bibcode:2009EPJB...70..229H. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2009-00093-7. S2CID 18557947.
  81. ^ Budiansky, Stephen. "The Physics of Gridlock". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  82. ^ A mathematical model for behavioral changes by pair interactions, D. Helbing (1992) Pages 330–348 in: G. Haag, U. Mueller, and K. G. Troitzsch (eds.) Economic Evolution and Demographic Change. Formal Models in Social Sciences (Springer, Berlin).
  83. ^ D. Helbing (1994). "A mathematical model for the behavior of individuals in a social field" (PDF). Journal of Mathematical Sociology. 19 (3): 189–219. arXiv:cond-mat/9805194. doi:10.1080/0022250x.1994.9990143. S2CID 18777712.
  84. ^ Lämmler, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk (2008). "Self-control of traffic lights and vehicle flows in urban road networks". Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment. 2008 (4): P04019. arXiv:0802.0403. Bibcode:2008JSMTE..04..019L. doi:10.1088/1742-5468/2008/04/P04019. S2CID 2787848.
  85. ^ Kesting, Arne; Treiber, Martin; Schönhof, Martin; Helbing, Dirk (2008). "Adaptive cruise control design for active congestion avoidance". Transportation Research C. 16 (6): 668–683. doi:10.1016/j.trc.2007.12.004.
  86. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Yu, Wenjian (2009). "The outbreak of cooperation among success-driven individuals under noisy conditions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (10): 3680–3685. arXiv:0903.4054. Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.3680H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811503106. PMC 2646628. PMID 19237576.
  87. ^ Gilbert, Nigel; Xenitidou, Maria; Helbing, Dirk; Jelasity, M.; Medo, M.; Pouwelse, J.; Roth, C.; Ziembowicz, M.; Zistler, A. (2014-01-01). "Quality collectives : evolving socio-technical systems to support quality". QLectives Working Paper: 1.
  88. ^ Zwitter, Dirk Helbing, Bruno S. Frey, Gerd Gigerenzer, Ernst Hafen, Michael Hagner, Yvonne Hofstetter, Jeroen van den Hoven, Roberto V. Zicari, Andrej. "Will Democracy Survive Big Data and Artificial Intelligence?". Scientific American. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  89. ^ Simonsen, Ingve; Buzna, Lubos; Peters, Karsten; Bornholdt, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk (2008). "Transient dynamics increasing network vulnerability to cascading failures". Physical Review Letters. 100 (21): 1–4. arXiv:0704.1952. Bibcode:2008PhRvL.100u8701S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.218701. PMID 18518644. S2CID 18218779.
  90. ^ Frank, Adam. "Word Of The Day: Hyper-Risk". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  91. ^ Buzna, Lubos; Peters, Karsten; Ammoser, Hendrik; Kühnert, Christian; Helbing, Dirk (2007). "Efficient response to cascading disaster spreading". Physical Review E. 75 (5): 056107. arXiv:physics/0611244. Bibcode:2007PhRvE..75e6107B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.75.056107. PMID 17677133. S2CID 6221342.
  92. ^ a b c David Weinberger, The Machine That Would Predict the Future,Scientific American, Dec 2011, Vol. 305, Issue no. 6
  93. ^ DARPA (23 June 2016). "Breakout Session 5: Frontiers in Social Science" (PDF). Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  94. ^ "FLAG-ERA JTC 2016 Project Kick-off Seminar". FLAG-ERA. 28 April 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  95. ^ Helbing, Dirk (1996-03-01). "A stochastic behavioral model and a 'Microscopic' foundation of evolutionary game theory". Theory and Decision. 40 (2): 149–179. arXiv:cond-mat/9805340. doi:10.1007/BF00133171. ISSN 0040-5833. S2CID 14185669.
  96. ^ Haag G, Mueller U, and Troitzsch K G. (1992). Economic Evolution and Demographic Change. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-48808-5.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  97. ^ Kesting, Arne; Treiber, Martin; Helbing, Dirk (2010-10-13). "Enhanced intelligent driver model to access the impact of driving strategies on traffic capacity". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 368 (1928): 4585–4605. arXiv:0912.3613. Bibcode:2010RSPTA.368.4585K. doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0084. ISSN 1364-503X. PMID 20819823. S2CID 1769577.
  98. ^ WO 2006122528, Helbing, Dirk & Laemmer, Stefan, "Method for coordination of concurrent processes for control of the transport of mobile units within a network", published Jan 25, 2007 
  99. ^ Lämmer, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk (2008). "Self-control of traffic lights and vehicle flows in urban road networks". Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment. 2008 (4): P04019. arXiv:0802.0403. Bibcode:2008JSMTE..04..019L. doi:10.1088/1742-5468/2008/04/P04019. ISSN 1742-5468. S2CID 2787848.
  100. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Seidel, Thomas; Lmmer, Stefan; Peters, Karsten (2006). "Self-organization Principles in Supply Networks and Production Systems". Econophysics and Sociophysics. pp. 535–59. doi:10.1002/9783527610006.ch19. ISBN 9783527610006.
  101. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Molnár, Péter (1995-05-01). "Social force model for pedestrian dynamics". Physical Review E. 51 (5): 4282–4286. arXiv:cond-mat/9805244. Bibcode:1995PhRvE..51.4282H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.51.4282. PMID 9963139. S2CID 29333691.
  102. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Johansson, Anders; Al-Abideen, Habib Zein (2007-04-18). "Dynamics of crowd disasters: An empirical study". Physical Review E. 75 (4): 046109. arXiv:physics/0701203. Bibcode:2007PhRvE..75d6109H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.75.046109. PMID 17500963. S2CID 21398961.
  103. ^ Bhavnani, Ravi; Donnay, Karsten; Miodownik, Dan; Mor, Maayan; Helbing, Dirk (2014-01-01). "Group Segregation and Urban Violence". American Journal of Political Science. 58 (1): 226–245. doi:10.1111/ajps.12045. ISSN 1540-5907.
  104. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk; Chadefaux, Thomas; Donnay, Karsten; Blanke, Ulf; Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Moussaid, Mehdi; Johansson, Anders; Krause, Jens (2015-02-01). "Saving Human Lives: What Complexity Science and Information Systems can Contribute". Journal of Statistical Physics. 158 (3): 735–781. arXiv:1402.7011. Bibcode:2015JSP...158..735H. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1024-9. ISSN 0022-4715. PMC 4457089. PMID 26074625.
  105. ^ WO 2015118455, Helbing, Dirk, "Interaction Support Processor", published 2015-08-14 
  106. ^ "NervousNet". nervousnet.info. Retrieved 2017-06-23.
  107. ^ "GrippeNet: Startseite". de.grippenet.ch (in German). Retrieved 2017-06-23.
  108. ^ FuturICT (2017-06-26), Dirk Helbing's speech at the Out of the Box Conference with World Thinkers & HH the Dalai Lama, archived from the original on 2021-12-21, retrieved 2017-06-26
  109. ^ Falling Walls Berlin (2016-01-18), Dirk Helbing – Breaking the Wall to Digital Democracy (FW2015), archived from the original on 2021-12-21, retrieved 2017-06-23
  110. ^ FuturICT (2016-09-27), A New Paradigm for World Peace is Possible!, archived from the original on 2021-12-21, retrieved 2017-06-23
  111. ^ "BIOTS - Blockchain And the Internet of Things". Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  112. ^ "About Zurich Hub for Ethics and Technology". Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  113. ^ Helbing, Dirk; Seele, Peter (2017-09-27). "Sustainable development: Turn war rooms into peace rooms". Nature. 549 (7673): 458. Bibcode:2017Natur.549..458H. doi:10.1038/549458c. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 28959973.
  114. ^ Peterberger Gespräche (2017-09-16), Interview with Professor Dirk Helbing, retrieved 2018-03-02

External links[edit]