Dirk Schulze-Makuch

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Dirk Schulze-Makuch
Schulze-Makuch Dec2010.JPG
Dirk Schulze-Makuch in December 2010
Born (1964-01-29) 29 January 1964 (age 52)
Giessen, Germany
Nationality American
Fields Astrobiology
Institutions Technical University, Berlin
German Aerospace Centre, Berlin
Washington State University
University of Texas at El Paso
University of Wisconsin
Justis-Liebig-University Giessen Germany
Alma mater Justis-Liebig-University Giessen
Known for (with L.N. Irwin) Life in the Universe (book)
Notable awards Friedrich-Wilhelm Bessel Award (2010)

Dirk Schulze-Makuch (born 1964) is a professor at the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Washington State University. He is best known for his publications on extraterrestrial life, being coauthor of four books on the topic: A One Way Mission to Mars: Colonizing the Red Planet (2011), We Are Not Alone: Why We Have Already Found Extraterrestrial Life (2010), Cosmic Biology: How Life could Evolve on Other Worlds (2010), and Life in the Universe: Expectations and Constraints (2004, 2008). In 2012 he published with David Darling Megacatastrophes! Nine Strange Ways the World Could End. In 2013 he published the second edition of his science fiction novel Alien Encounter. Together with Paul Davies he proposed in 2010 exploration of Mars by a one-way trip to the planet.[1]

Education and career[edit]

His upbringing was in Giessen, Germany, where he received his Diplom-Degree (M.S.) in Geology from Justus Liebig University in 1991. In 1996 he obtained his Ph.D. in Geosciences from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. After having worked as Senior Project Hydrogeologist at Envirogen, a Princeton-based research and consulting firm, for which he investigated subsurface hydrocarbon spills, he became in 1997 Adjunct Professor at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. In 1998 he joined the University of Texas at El Paso as assistant professor, investigating microbe and chemical transport in groundwater, and microbial interaction in a planetary environment. From there he joined Washington State University in 2004: first as Associate Professor, since 2010 as Professor at the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, with focus on astrobiology and planetary habitability.

Scientific research[edit]

Schulze-Makuch's research interests and publications range from astrobiology,[2][3][4] hydrobiology,[5][6] archeology,[7][8] to cancer.[9] To the viewer he may be best known for his work in astrobiology,[10][11][12][13][14] in particular the possible existence of life on Venus,[15][16] Mars,[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] Titan,[26][27] Europa[28][29][30] and Io.[31] His book Life in the Universe (with L. N. Irwin) considers alternative physiologies for extraterrestrial life.


Removal of Biological Pathogens Using Surfactant Modified Zeolite. Patent No. US 7,311,839 B2. Date of patent: dec. 25, 2007.[32]


Friedrich-Wilhelm Bessel Award (2010) by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

Media activity[edit]

The work of Schulze-Makuch has received much attention. It has been the subject of TV programs on the BBC, the National Geographic and the Discovery Channel, and of numerous articles in magazines such as New Scientist, The Guardian and Der Spiegel.


Academic books[edit]

Popular science books[edit]

  • How To Develop The Solar System and Beyond: A Roadmap to Interstellar Space (with A. Sinclair and six more authors) (2012) ASIN B009KWNO02
  • Megacatastrophes! Nine Strange Ways the World Could End (with D. Darling) (2012) ISBN 978-1-85168-905-7
  • A One Way Mission to Mars: Colonizing the Red Planet (with P. Davies and ten more authors; J.S. Levine, editor) (2011) ISBN 978-0-9829552-4-6
  • We Are Not Alone: Why We Have Already Found Extraterrestrial Life (with D. Darling) (2010) ISBN 978-1-85168-719-0
  • Cosmic Biology: How Life Could Evolve on Other Worlds (with L.N. Irwin) (2010) ISBN 978-1-4419-1646-4

Science fiction novel[edit]


  1. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D.; Davies, P. (2010). "To Boldly Go: A One-Way Human Mission to Mars". Journal of Cosmology 12: 3619–3626. 
  2. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D., Irwin, L.N., and Fairen, A.G. (2013). "Drastic environmental change and its effects on a planetary biosphere". Icarus 225 (1): 775. Bibcode:2013Icar..225..775S. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.05.001. 
  3. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D. and Davila, A.F. (2010). "Searching for Life Beyond our Planet: Are We There Yet?". Eos 91 (32): 280. Bibcode:2010EOSTr..91..280S. doi:10.1029/2010EO320004. 
  4. ^ McKay, C.P., Schulze-Makuch, D., Boston, P.J., ten Kate, I.L., Davila, A.F., and Shocks, E. (2011). "The next phase in our search for life — An expert discussion". Astrobiology 11. doi:10.1089/ast.2011.1122. 
  5. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D. and Cherkauer, D.S. (1998). "Variations in hydraulic conductivity with scale of measurement during aquifer tests in heterogeneous, porous carbonate rocks". Hydrogeology Journal 6 (2): 204–215. Bibcode:1998HydJ....6..204S. doi:10.1007/s100400050145. 
  6. ^ Abdel-Fattah, A., Langford, R., and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2007). "Applications of particle-tracking techniques to bank infiltration: a case study from El Paso, Texas, USA". Environmental Geology 11 (3): 505. Bibcode:2008EnGeo..55..505A. doi:10.1007/s00254-007-0996-z. 
  7. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D. (1992). "Rammner's Current Line Perturbation Method as used to prospect in an early Roman Marching-Camp". Journal of Applied Geosciences 11: 75–86. 
  8. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D. (1996). "Survey of the outline of an early Roman Marching Camp in Germany by Rammner's Current Line Perturbation Method". Journal of Archaeological Science 23 (6): 883–887. doi:10.1006/jasc.1996.0083. 
  9. ^ António, M.R.S. and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2009). "The immune system as key to cancer treatment: triggering its activity with microbial agents". Bioscience Hypotheses 2 (6): 388–392. doi:10.1016/j.bihy.2009.08.003. 
  10. ^ Irwin, L.N. and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2001). "Assessing the plausibility of life on other worlds". Astrobiology 1 (2): 143–160. Bibcode:2001AsBio...1..143I. doi:10.1089/153110701753198918. PMID 12467118. 
  11. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D., and Irwin, L.N. (2006). "The prospect of alien life in exotic forms on other worlds". Naturwissenschaften 93 (4): 155–172. Bibcode:2006NW.....93..155S. doi:10.1007/s00114-005-0078-6. PMID 16525788. 
  12. ^ Shapiro, R.S. and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2009). "The search for alien life in our solar system: strategies and priorities". Astrobiology 9 (4): 335–343. Bibcode:2009AsBio...9..335S. doi:10.1089/ast.2008.0281. 
  13. ^ Brooks, H. and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2010). "The Solar Wind Power Satellite as an alternative to a traditional Dyson Sphere and its implications for remote detection". International Journal of Astrobiology 9 (2): 89–99. Bibcode:2010IJAsB...9...89H. doi:10.1017/S1473550410000066. 
  14. ^ António, M.R.S. and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2010). "The power of social structure: how we became an intelligent lineage". International Journal of Astrobiology 10 (1): 15–23. Bibcode:2011IJAsB..10...15D. doi:10.1017/s1473550410000169. 
  15. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D. and Irwin, L.N. (2002). "Reassessing the possibility of life on Venus: Proposal for an Astrobiology Mission". Astrobiology 2 (2): 197–202. Bibcode:2002AsBio...2..197S. doi:10.1089/15311070260192264. 
  16. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D., Grinspoon, D.H., Abbas, O., Irwin, L.N. and Bullock, M. (2004). "A sulfur-based UV adaptation strategy for putative phototrophic life in the Venusian atmosphere". Astrobiology 4: 11–18. Bibcode:2004AsBio...4...11S. doi:10.1089/153110704773600203. 
  17. ^ Fairen, A.G., and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2013). "The overprotection of Mars". Nature Geoscience 6: 510. Bibcode:2013NatGe...6..510F. doi:10.1038/ngeo1866. 
  18. ^ Dohm, J.M; et al. (2009). "New evidence for a magmatic influence on the origin of Valles Marineris, Mars". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 185: 12–27. Bibcode:2009JVGR..185...12D. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.11.029. 
  19. ^ Fan, C., Schulze-Makuch, D., Xie, H., and Lu, N. (2009). "Investigation of water signatures at gully-exposed sites on Mars by hyperspectral image analysis". Planetary and Space Science 57 (93–104): 1. arXiv:0810.1560. Bibcode:2009P&SS...57....1G. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2008.09.014. 
  20. ^ Fairén, A.G.; et al. (2009). "Evidence for Amazonian acidic liquid water on Mars: a reinterpretation of MER mission results". Planetary and Space Science 57 (3): 276–287. Bibcode:2009P&SS...57..276F. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2008.11.008. 
  21. ^ Houtkooper, J.M., and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2009). "Possibilities for the detection of hydrogen peroxide-water based life on Mars by the Phoenix Lander". Planetary and Space Science 57 (4): 449–453. Bibcode:2009P&SS...57..449H. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2008.08.018. 
  22. ^ Davila, A.F., Skidmore, M., Fairén, A.G., Cockell, C., and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2010). "New priorities in the robotic exploration of Mars: The case for in situ search of extant life". Astrobiology 10 (7): 705–710. Bibcode:2010AsBio..10..705D. doi:10.1089/ast.2010.0538. 
  23. ^ Fairén, A.G.; et al. (2010). "Noachian and more recent phyllosilicates in impact craters on Mars". PNAS 107 (4): 12,095–12,100. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107...12C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912404107. 
  24. ^ Fan, C., Xie, H., Schulze-Makuch, D., and Ackley, S. (2010). "A formation mechanism for hematite-rich spherules on Mars". Planetary and Space Science 58 (3): 401–410. Bibcode:2010P&SS...58..401F. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.11.001. 
  25. ^ Houtkooper, J.M. and Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schulze-Makuch (2010). "Do perchlorates have a role for Martian life?". Journal of Cosmology 5: 930–939. Bibcode:2010JCos....5..930H. 
  26. ^ Abbas, S.H. and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2007). "Synthesis of biologically important precursors on Titan". Journal of Scientific Exploration 21 (4): 673–687. 
  27. ^ Abbas, S.H., Schulze-Makuch, D. (2009). "Plausible organic synthesis on Titan's surface". ASP Conference Series 420: 183–186. 
  28. ^ Irwin, L.N. and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2003). "Strategy for modeling putative ecosystems on Europa". Astrobiology 3 (4): 813–821. Bibcode:2003AsBio...3..813I. doi:10.1089/153110703322736114. 
  29. ^ Figueredo, P.H., Greeley, R., Neuer, S., Irwin, L.N., and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2003). "Locating potential biosignatures on Europa from surface geology observations". Astrobiology 3 (4): 851–861. Bibcode:2003AsBio...3..851F. doi:10.1089/153110703322736132. 
  30. ^ Abbas, S. and Schulze-Makuch, D. (2008). ". Amino acid synthesis in Europa's subsurface environment". International Journal of Astrobiology 7 (3–4): 193–203. Bibcode:2008IJAsB...7..193A. doi:10.1017/S1473550408004114. 
  31. ^ Schulze-Makuch, D. (2010). "Io: Is life possible between fire and ice?". Journal of Cosmology 5: 912–919. Bibcode:2010JCos....5..912S. 
  32. ^ "Patent US7311839 - Removal of biological pathogens using surfactant-modified zeolite - Google Patents". Google.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 

External links[edit]