Dirty paper coding
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In telecommunications, dirty paper coding (DPC) or Costa precoding is a technique for efficient transmission of digital data through a channel subjected to some interference known to the transmitter. The technique consists of precoding the data in order to cancel the effect caused by the interference.
The term dirty paper coding comes from Max Costa who imagined a paper which is partially covered with dirt that is indistinguishable from ink. The theorem says that if the writer knows where the dirt is to start with, she can convey just as much information by writing on the paper as if it were clean, even though the reader does not know where the dirt is. In this case the dirt is interference, the paper is the channel, the writer on the paper is the transmitter, and the reader is the receiver. In information-theoretic terms, dirty-paper coding achieves the channel capacity, without a power penalty and without requiring the receiver to gain knowledge of the interference state.
Instances of dirty paper coding include Costa precoding (1983). Suboptimal approximations of dirty paper coding include Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) published in 1971 and the vector perturbation technique of Hochwald et al. (2005).
DPC and DPC-like techniques require knowledge of the interference state in a non causal manner, such as channel state information of all users and other user data. Hence, the design of a DPC-based system should include a procedure to feed side information to the transmitters.
In 2003, Caire and Shamai applied DPC to the multi-antenna multi-user downlink, which is referred to as the 'broadcast channel' by information theorists. Since then, there has been widespread use of DPC in wireless networks and into an interference aware coding technique for dynamic wireless networks.
- M. Costa (May 1983). "Writing on dirty paper" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 29 (3): 439–441. doi:10.1109/TIT.1983.1056659. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-01-21.
- M. Tomlinson (March 1971). "New automatic equalizer employing modulo arithmetic". Electron. Lett. 7 (5–6): 138–139. doi:10.1049/el:19710089.
- H. Harashima; H. Miyakawa (August 1972). "Matched-transmission technique for channels with intersymbol interference". IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-20: 774–780.
- B. M. Hochwald; C. B. Peel; A. L. Swindlehurst (March 2005). "A vector-perturbation technique for near-capacity multiantenna multiuser communication - Part II: Perturbation". IEEE Trans. Commun. 53 (3): 537–544. doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2004.841997.
- Caire, Guissepe; Shamai, Shlomo (July 2003). "On the Achievable Throughput of a Multiantenna Gaussian Broadcast Channel". IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY. 49 (3).
- C. T. K. Ng; A. Goldsmith (October 2004). "Transmitter Cooperation in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks: Does Dirty-Paper Coding Beat Relaying?". IEEE Information Theory Workshop. San Antonio, Texas. pp. 277–282.
- Momin Uppal; Zhixin Liu; Vladimir Stankovic; Anders Høst-Madsen; Zixiang Xiong (February 2007). "Capacity Bounds and Code Designs for Cooperative Diversity". Information theory and applications.
- "Writing on Dirty Paper", the original publication by Max Costa