Discharge (band)

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Discharge
Dischargelogo.gif
Background information
Origin Stoke-on-Trent, England, UK
Genres
Years active 1977–87, 1991–99, 2001–present
Associated acts Broken Bones, Varukers, HellsBelles
Members Royston "Rainy" Wainwright
Anthony "Bones" Roberts
Terence "Tezz" Roberts
David "Proper" Caution
Jeff "JJ" Janiak
Past members Nigel Bamford
Anthony "Akko" Atkinson
Kelvin "Cal" Morris
Dave "Bambi" Ellesmere
Keith Haynes
"Garry" Moloney
Peter "Pooch" Purtill (also spelled "Pyrtle")
Les "The Mole" Hunt
Micky Gibson
Stephen "Fish" Brooks
Robert "Rocky Shades" Berkley
Andrew "Andy" Green
Anthony "Jake" Morgan
Nick Bushell
Labanthorsen "The Torn" Ekeroth
David "Davey" Quinn
Anthony "Rat" Martin
Russell "Rusty" Burke

Discharge are a British rock band formed in 1977 by Terence "Tezz" Roberts and Royston "Rainy" Wainwright. While the band had substantial line-up changes over its history, the classic line-up from the early 1980s featured bassist Wainwright, drummer Gary Maloney, Anthony "Bones" Roberts playing guitar, and vocalist Kelvin "Cal" Morris.[2]

The band is characterized by a minimalistic approach to music and lyrics, using a heavy, distorted, and grinding guitar-driven sound and raw, shouted vocals similar to a political speech, with lyrics on anarchist and pacifist themes, over intense drone-like rhythms. The band's sound has been called a "grave-black aural acid assault." [3] Discharge "paved the way for an astounding array of politically motivated, musically intense and deeply confrontational bands". Discharge was "explicitly political" and used a "revolutionary/activist" attitude that moved hardcore away from its pub rock origins and towards a "dangerous and provocative" territory.[4]

AllMusic calls the band's sound a "high-speed noise overload" characterized by "ferocious noise blasts" [5] The band's 1982 debut album, Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing, went to number two on the UK Indie Charts and number 40 in the UK Album Chart. Treble magazine calls HNSNSN one of the ten essential hardcore albums, in a list that includes Black Flag's Damaged and the Dead Kennedys' Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables. In the early 1980s, numerous singles and EPs placed in the top 10 of the UK Indie Charts, including the 1981 EP Why? (#1) and the 1982 single State Violence State Control.

Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing paved the way for thrash metal, black metal, crust punk, grindcore and various extreme metal subgenres. The band's "brutal, extremist approach" and "extreme thrash noise" style of playing eventually led to the thrash genre [6]. "Discharge's influence on heavy metal is incalculable and metal superstars such as Metallica, Anthrax and Sepultura have covered Discharge's songs in tribute." [7] Discharge was a major influence on at least two generations of metal.[8] Along with Napalm Death and Extreme Noise Terror, Discharge have been credited for laying the groundwork for grindcore. [9] The musical genre of d-beat is named after Discharge and the band's distinctive drumbeat.

Career[edit]

Formation; classic line-up (1977–1979)[edit]

Discharge was formed in 1977 in Stoke-on-Trent by Terence "Tez" Roberts (vocals) and Royston "Rainy" Wainwright (guitar). [2] They soon recruited Roberts's younger brother Anthony "Bones" Roberts on lead guitar, Nigel Bamford on bass and Anthony "Akko" Axon (Allmusic gives the alternate nickname "Hacko" [10] ) on drums.[2] The musical style of the band was initially influenced by 1977-era punk bands such as the Sex Pistols, The Damned and The Clash. Engaging Tanya Rich as their manager, the band recorded their first demo, supported bands such as The Ruts, The Clash and The Damned at The Victoria Hall, Hanley, and began touring.

Atkinson left later that year, followed by Bamford, and the band recruited their roadie Kelvin "Cal" Morris as vocalist, moving Terry Roberts to drums and Wainwright to bass.[2] With Morris's addition, the group abandoned their previous Sex Pistols-influenced material and developed a new set of songs with a retooled sound. Anthony Roberts played guitar with a heavy, distorted, and grinding style and Morris shouted or screamed vocals without melody. The bassist played with a "immense gurgling over-driven" bass tone.[11] The tempo of the band's songs also steadily increased over the next year or so.[2] The stylistic transition made by the band was part of a broader trend in the early 1980s in the UK, which is known as "UK 82" or Second Generation UK Hardcore. Discharge and bands such as Chaos UK, Amebix, and Charged GBH took the existing 1977-era punk sound and melded it with the incessant, heavy drumbeats and "wall of sound" distortion guitar pioneered in the Overkill album by Motörhead.

The new, harder-edged style also tended to use much darker, more nihilistic and violent lyrics, focusing on anarchist and pacifist themes while emphasizing the grisly effects of nuclear warfare and the social ills caused by capitalism. Like Crass, Discharge supported anarchism and displayed the anarchist symbol. [12]The band also expressed its political and social themes in its albums' artwork, which depicted the horrors of war using an iconic black-and-white photography style. One of the notable images is the "Impaled Dove" artwork from a Second World War anti-war poster, which depicts a dove impaled on a bayonet.[13] The first gig with this new line-up and new sound was at Northwood Parish Hall. Among the audience was local record shop owner Mike Stone, who ran the Clay Records punk record label.[2]

Early EPs; Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing (1980–1982)[edit]

In 1980, Discharge signed with Clay Records, and recorded their first single Realities of War in February 1980, which made the UK Indie Chart when it was released in April, after being played on BBC1 DJ John Peel's show, peaking at number 5 and spending 44 weeks in the chart.[2] The band also performed their first shows outside of Stoke-on-Trent in 1980, playing in Leicester, Preston and Glasgow. After two further EP releases in that same year, founding member Terry Roberts departed, later joining UK Subs, to be replaced initially by Keith Haynes of Picture Frame Seduction and soon thereafter by Dave "Bambi" Ellesmere (formerly of The Insane) before the Why? EP was recorded.[2] Ellesmere did not stay long, and the band replaced him with Garry Maloney of The Varukers on drums. Why? gave the band their first UK indie number one.[2] Why? had cover photos showing the corpses of dead civilians. The song "Visions of War" had an "unrepentantly angry and punishing attack" and it became a signature song for the group. The songs "Maimed and Slaughtered," "Does This System Work?" and "Mania for Conquest" set out the song and sound template for crust bands. At the same time, the record showed that it was possible for a hardcore band to incorporate the sonic power of "heavy metal without sacrificing ideology or anger". [14]

Discharge "...developed a brutal, extremist approach to punk that would give rise to thrash." [7] A reviewer from Punknews.org calls the music from this period "ugly and jagged without the artistic convolution of their no-wave contemporaries overseas", composed of "catchy, repetitive, stomping chords[,]...drumming that seems to emphasize creating a hellacious racket rather than keep a steady beat" and "very serious and socially conscious" song lyrics. The reviewer notes that "instead of creating a melody, vocalist Cal’s grunting shout...blends in with the rhythm", in effect becoming "a fourth [rhythm] instrument". Cal's lyrics and singing were "...short bursts of brutal sloganeering that made no concessions to melody or meter."[15] Cal's deep "growl anticipated...[the] vocals that death metal and grindcore later" used.[15] "Cal’s hoarse barking" sounded angry, and his anarchist lyrics "against government oppression and nuclear war, were like nihilist haikus, delivered without metaphor, nuance, or humour."[16] The band's songs were "played at warp speed, accompanied by a rumbling bass and a merciless, galloping drumbeat", with songs usually under two minutes and done at a fast tempo.[17]

The Punknews.org reviewer argues that the early 1981 EP Why? "...revolutionized everything...[paving the] way for the atonal shredding of hardcore punk, thrash, death metal, and grind, but also the dead-serious political ideals and brutal backing of crust hardcore". Ian Glasper described the EP as "one of the most potent anti-war records ever made".[18] Tom G. Warrior of Celtic Frost credited Discharge as "a revolution, much like Venom", saying, "When I heard the first two Discharge records, I was blown away. I was just starting to play an instrument and I had no idea you could go so far. And to me, they were unlike other punk bands--they sounded more like metal."[19]

Discharge recorded their first album, 1982's Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing, which was the number one punk album of all time in a poll by Terrorizer magazine.[20] In David Konow's history of heavy metal, he calls the album the band's "...crowning achievement, a mercilessly brutal masterpiece." [21] The album reached number two on the indie album chart and number 40 in the UK Album Chart.[2] In the early 1980s, "[i]conic punk fanzines like Flipside, which could make or break [band] reputations, pronounced them [Discharge] “fucking great.” [22] Treble zine called it one of the top ten essential hardcore albums, along with Black Flag's Damaged and the Dead Kennedys Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables. Treble zine states that the music on HNSNSN was "much, much heavier" than previous punk and states that it influenced "punk rock, [and]... metal circles" with its "raw and intense" sound.[23] Anthrax guitarist Scott Ian stated in 2015 that “You put on... Hear Nothing, See Nothing, Say Nothing album now, and it’s still as heavy and brutal as anything out there."[24]

The group played regularly throughout the UK, often appearing with bands such as GBH and The Exploited, and the success of the debut album also saw them touring Canada, the United States, Italy, Yugoslavia, Holland, Finland, and Sweden.[2] The band had trouble getting into Canada at the border crossing at Buffalo, New York, as border guards thought the band looked like "animals". The lyrics on the album tended to be short political statements that were repeated. The album's title track, for example, consists of only three lines:"Lied to, threatened, cheated and deceived/ Hear nothing, see nothing, say nothing/ Led up garden paths and into blind alleys." The song "Free Speech for the Dumb" is even more lyrically stripped down; it consists solely of the words from the title repeated emphatically.

1982's "State Violence State Control"/"Dooms'day" single garnered further critical praise, described in the fanzine Love and Molotov Cocktails as "...just about the most perfect realisation of a combination of the musical power of Motörhead and the lyrical mastery of Dead Kennedys at their best. Discharge are out there on their own, at the top of their game and it's hard to see how they can improve on this."[citation needed]

Heavy metal crossover period; first breakup (1982–1987)[edit]

In 1982, Anthony Roberts left the group, later to form Broken Bones with his brother Tezz joining him. He was replaced by Peter "Pooch" Purtill (Allmusic and Glasper give the alternate spelling "Pyrtle" for his last name)[10] who brought significant heavy metal influences. Purtill used a rock and metal style of guitar playing, including rock-oriented guitar solos.[25] The Warning... EP shows drastic stylistic differences, with Morris changing his angry shouts to a mix of regular singing and football chants. Morris began to use a heavy metal, Ozzy Osbourne-influenced vocal style.[26] As well, the band used significantly slower tempos and their D-beat punk style was replaced with metal-oriented beats.

With the release of Ignorance, Purtill and Maloney left the band to form the punk/metal crossover band HellsBelles, to be replaced by guitarists Les "The Mole" Hunt and drummer Michael "Micky" Gibson. Following the later addition of second guitarist Stephen "Fish" Brooks, they released 1986's Grave New World, a mainstream metal album with a glam sound from Morris's high-pitched singing style. The album reached the indie top 10, but the band struggled with personnel problems as Morris departed and was briefly replaced by ex-Wrathchild frontman Rob "Rocky Shades" Berkeley the following year. The group disbanded shortly thereafter.

Reformation with new line-up (1990–1999)[edit]

Morris formed a new version of the band in 1990 with Andrew "Andy" Green on guitar, Anthony Morgan on bass, and Mika Karppinen initially playing drums, only to be replaced by the returning Maloney. The Live At The City Garden, New Jersey album on Clay Records followed.[2] In 1991 they released Massacre Divine, which retained the metal sound, though with a noticeably harder edge than on Grave New World. Morris again changed his vocal style, this time to rougher growling, similar to Brian Johnson of AC/DC. They toured widely in support of the record, including their only visit to Japan, but the tour was negatively received.[citation needed] In 1993 they released Shootin' Up the World, which continued Cal's new vocal style, but the songs were significantly heavier than on Massacre Divine. The album retains the metal direction, although experiments with strange lyrics and song structures, coming close to thrash metal at times. Morris assembled further versions of the group, but they again disbanded in 1999.

Reunion of classic line-up and End of Days (2001–present)[edit]

Discharge performing in Rome in 2006. The distinctive lettering of the band's name can be seen in the banner at the back of the stage.

In 2001, the classic line-up of Morris, Roberts, Roberts, and Wainright reunited after meeting at a party held by original bassist Bamford, and in 2002 they released their self-titled album Discharge, a return to their early 1980s style featuring political commentary and aggressive playing.[2] As well, they brought back their intense D-beat drumming style, although combined with the remaining metal influence, it gave the album a speed metal influence with its thrashy riffs.

Morris would not commit to touring to promote the album and left the band, to be replaced by Anthony "Rat" Martin of The Varukers. The single "The Beginning of the End" was released in 2006, which marked a further step towards a return to the punk sound. Dave "Proper" Caution replaced Terence Roberts after his second departure this same year, and the group released the Disensitise album in 2008. In 2011 the band released an EP titled "Propaganda Feeds". In 2012 they released a split single with American band Off with Their Heads, released on Drunken Sailor Records.[27] In 2014, they played the Black and Blue Bowl in Brooklyn, New York. Rat was replaced by Jeff "JJ" Janiak, while Tezz Roberts returned to the band, except this time on rhythm guitar rather than drums making Discharge a five-piece.

On June 3, 2015, the group premiered a new song called "New World Order". An EP containing the song and a live recording of "Ain't No Feeble Bastard" was released on January 16, 2016, entitled New World Order. On February 10, 2016, the band announced their 7th studio album, entitled End of Days, was to be released sometime in April. It will be Discharge's first album with singer JJ and the first album as a five-piece band. On March 3, 2016, the Nuclear Blast YouTube channel uploaded a new song on and later on through streaming services, entitled "Hatebomb." The same day, they released the track listing for End Of Days.

Discharge's seventh studio album, End of Days, was released on April 29 through Nuclear Blast Records and entered the Official UK rock charts at #10 and #23 on the indie charts. The success of the album saw the band touring Europe and the USA. MetalBlast gave the album a positive review, stating that it "...showcases everything about the band that has earned them their legendary status. The guitar work is fast and brutal, that famous d-beat drumming pattern is in full effect, and the vocals are a gruff, angry bark." The review states that the "songs are short, violent bursts of punk rock fury, brimming with an energy" with "a real sense of menace and sincerity in the tone" and it is "[r]elentless from start to finish".[28] The production was praised as clear and "live"-sounding; the only negative comment was the lack of melody on the record.[29]

Influence[edit]

D-beat

The intense Motörhead- and Buzzcocks-influenced drum beat used by Discharge early in their career is referred to as D-beat (sometimes referred to as "discrust").[30] It became a subgenre of hardcore punk, especially in Japanese, Brazilian and Scandinavian hardcore punk scenes. D-beat music is known for its "grinding, distorted, [and] brutally political" style. Many bands that followed Discharge's stylistic approach, primarily in Sweden, began using the "Dis-" prefix and "-charge" suffix in their names, and even began using "Des-" words with "Dis-" in its place as a parody. Examples include Disaccord, Disfear, Disclose, Discard, Dischug, Recharge, Kegcharge, Disarm and Distraught.

The bands who followed this naming trend also imitated Discharge's logo. This resulted in UK anarchist punk band Active Minds issuing an EP in 1995 entitled Dis Is Getting Pathetic, which parodied the cover of Fight Back.[31]

Influence on other genres

As well as bringing the d-beat subgenre into existence, Discharge influenced bands operating within other types of extreme music.Decibel magazine states that there are "...few bands who have had more influence over so many different scenes than Discharge", including the first generation of thrash bands, grind and hardcore groups.[32]

"Discharge's influence on heavy metal is incalculable and metal superstars such as Metallica, Anthrax and Sepultura have covered Discharge's songs in tribute."[7] Some photos of Metallica, Anthrax and Exodus band members from the early 1980s show them wearing Discharge, Broken Bones and GBH shirts.[33] Thrash metal groups like Metallica and Slayer were inspired by their speed and brutality. Anthrax was already playing Discharge cover songs by 1983.[34]

Oakland metal band Neurosis named Discharge's "Hear Nothing, See Nothing, Say Nothing" (the title track of the album of the same name) as one of the top five UK anarcho-punk tracks. The band's singer/guitarist Steve Von Till stated that Discharge "...bridged the gap between Motörhead, Venom and punk rock" with their "huge fucking wall-of-sound guitar that was just ridiculously punishing, taking on heavy metal’s gain and volume but creating something totally unique and new."[35]

They were one of the few British hardcore bands to be respected by the American hardcore scene; D-beats feature in the music of Siege, an American hardcore band who would influence powerviolence and grindcore. Along with Napalm Death and Extreme Noise Terror, Discharge have been credited for laying the groundwork for grindcore. [36] Early grindcore acts such as Napalm Death and Repulsion were influenced by Discharge, as were early death metal acts such as Celtic Frost and Nihilist.[37] Discharge were also crucial to the development of crust punk, influencing many of the first crust bands, such as Doom, Hellbastard, and Antisect.

Vocals

James Hetfield of Metallica nominated Cal Morris for Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Singers poll. Cal was No. 17 on a list of 20 singers that James nominated.[38]

Cover songs

Discharge's wide influence can also be seen in the range of cover versions recorded by hardcore punk and metal groups. The Scottish anarcho-punk band Oi Polloi covered the song "State Violence, State Control". During the same period, the Swedish hardcore punk band Mob 47 covered "Never Again" on their Ultimate Attack recording. New York City anarchist crust band Nausea, active from 1985–1992, recorded "Ain't No Feeble Bastard" along with "Hear Nothing, See Nothing, Say Nothing", on The Punk Terrorist Anthology, Vol. 1. Swedish grindcore band Nasum covered "Visions of War" for a tribute compilation. The Southern band the Cooters covered "A Hell on Earth/Cries of Help" on their 2005 album Chaos or Bust. D-beat/hardcore punk band From Ashes Rise recorded the nuclear war-themed "Hell on Earth". In 2003, US hardcore band Ensign covered "Protest and Survive" on their album of covers Love the Music, Hate the Kids. In 2009 Peruvian crust punk band Reciklaje covered "The Nightmare Continues" for their album El Declive de las Estructuras.[39]

Metal groups from several metal subgenres have recorded Discharge songs. Thrash metal bands covering Discharge material include Metallica ("Free Speech For The Dumb" and "The More I See", on their studio covers album Garage Inc.); Anthrax ("Protest and Survive" on their studio album Attack of the Killer B's); and Brazilian Sepultura ("A Look At Tomorrow", "Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing" and "Protest and Survive"). The groove metal band Machine Head covered "The Possibility of Life's Destruction" as a bonus track to their album The More Things Change....

Discharge songs also attracted interest from other metal subgenres, such as doom metal and grindcore. UK doom metal band Solstice covered "Protest & Survive", and Norwegian black metal band Carpathian Forest covered "The Possibilities of Life's Destruction" on their compilation album We're Going to Hell for This - Over a Decade of Perversions, while the grindcore/death metal band Napalm Death covered "War's No Fairytale" on their Leaders Not Followers: Part 2 album. As well, the Swedish melodic death metal pioneers At the Gates covered "The Nightmare Continues" as a hidden track on their With Fear I Kiss the Burning Darkness album. French doom/sludge band Monarch! also covered "A Look at Tomorrow" on their A Look At Tomorrow/Mass Destruction EP. UK drone / sludge monsters Moss covered 'Maimed And Slaughtered' on their 'Tombs Of The Blind Drugged' EP. The UK black metal band The Meads of Asphodel adopted a medley style cover of "Hell on Earth" and "Blood Runs Red" on their 2006 EP In the Name of God, Welcome to Planet Genocide.

The Canadian industrial metal band Monster Voodoo Machine named their second album release State Voodoo/State Control after Discharge's "State Violence/State Control", and they included a cover version of "Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing", on their "Bastard Is As Bastard Does" single. Other metal bands covering Discharge songs include Soulfly ("Ain't No Feeble Bastard" and "The Possibility of Life's Destruction") and Machine Head ("The Possibility of Life's Destruction" on The More Things Change... digipack).

Band members[edit]

Timeline

Discography[edit]

Albums
Singles
  • "State Violence State Control" (1982)
  • "The Price of Silence" (1983)
  • "The More I See" (1984)
  • "Ignorance" (1985)
EPs
Compilations
  • Never Again (1984)
  • 1980–1986 (1986)
  • Protest and Survive (1992)
  • The Clay Punk Singles Collection (1995)
  • Vision of War (1997)
  • Hardcore Hits (1999)
  • Society's Victims (2004)
  • War Is Hell (2008)
Other
  • Demo recording from 1977
  • Limited edition live cassette: Live at the Lyceum (1981) - CHAOS Cassettes LIVE 001, recorded 24 May 1981
  • Live album: Live at the City Gardens, New Jersey (1989)
  • Live album: Live: The Nightmare Continues... (1990) recorded at Tunstall Town Hall, Stoke-on-Trent in 1983
  • Tribute album: Discharged (1992)
  • Tribute album: In Defence Of Our Future: A Tribute To Discharge (1999)
  • Split EP with MG15 (2006)
  • Tribute album: Discharge Tributo (2011) Brazilian bands tribute album.
  • Split EP with Off with Their Heads (2012)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Von Havoc, Felix (1984-01-01). "Rise of Crust". Profane Existence. Archived from the original on 2008-06-15. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Glasper, Ian (2004). Burning Britain: The History of Punk 1980–1984. Cherry Red Books. ISBN 1-901447-24-3. 
  3. ^ McPadden, Mike. If You Like Metallica...: Here Are Over 200 Bands, CDs, Movies, and Other Oddities That You Will Love. Backbeat Books, 2012. Section on "Discharge".
  4. ^ Ferguson, Jason (28 March 2016). "35 Years Later: Discharge - 'Why' EP". www.orlandoweekly.com. Orlando Weekly. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  5. ^ Dean McFarlane (2002-07-09). "Discharge - Discharge | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  6. ^ Knowles, Christopher. The Secret History of Rock 'n' Roll. Cleis Press, 2010. p. 240.
  7. ^ a b c Knowles,Christopher.The Secret History of Rock 'n' Roll. Cleis Press, 2010
  8. ^ McPadden, Mike. If You Like Metallica...: Here Are Over 200 Bands, CDs, Movies, and Other Oddities That You Will Love. Backbeat Books, 2012. Section on "Discharge".
  9. ^ Brown, Andy R.; Spracklen, Karl; Kahn-Harris, Keith; and Scott, Niall. Global Metal Music and Culture: Current Directions in Metal Studies. Routledge, 2016
  10. ^ a b "Discharge - Biography & History - AllMusic". 
  11. ^ Glasper, Ian. Burning Britain: The History of UK Punk 1980–1984. PM Press, 2014. p. 189
  12. ^ Pellegrino, Anthony Michael and Lee, Cristopher Dean. Let the Music Play!: Harnessing the Power of Music for History and Social Studies Classrooms. IAP, 2012. p. 103
  13. ^ "Discharge Biography". Sing365.com. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  14. ^ Ferguson, Jason (28 March 2016). "35 Years Later: Discharge - 'Why' EP". www.orlandoweekly.com. Orlando Weekly. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  15. ^ a b Knowles, Christopher. The Secret History of Rock 'n' Roll. Cleis Press, 2010
  16. ^ Smith, Chris A. (5 September 2013). "Rules of the Tribe: Hardcore Punks and Hair Metal in the 1980s". theappendix.net. The Appendix. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  17. ^ Smith, Chris A. (5 September 2013). "Rules of the Tribe: Hardcore Punks and Hair Metal in the 1980s". theappendix.net. The Appendix. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  18. ^ Glasper 2004, p. 171.
  19. ^ J. Bennett, "Procreation of the Wicked", Precious Metal: Decibel Presents the Stories Behind 25 Extreme Metal Masterpieces, Albert Mudrian, ed., Da Capo Press, p. 34-35.
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ Konow, David. Bang Your Head: The Rise and Fall of Heavy Metal. Three Rivers Press, 2002. p. 239
  22. ^ Smith, Chris A. (5 September 2013). "Rules of the Tribe: Hardcore Punks and Hair Metal in the 1980s". theappendix.net. The Appendix. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  23. ^ Terich, Jeff. "10 Essential Hardcore Punk Albums". www.treblezine.com. Treblezine. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  24. ^ Konow, David (9 October 2015). "Exploring the Roots of the Mid-80s Metal/Punk Crossover With Kerry King, Scott Ian, and Gary Holt". noisey.vice.com. Noisey. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  25. ^ https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2086/12037/From%20Crass%20to%20Thrash.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  26. ^ https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2086/12037/From%20Crass%20to%20Thrash.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  27. ^ "Discharge / Off With Their Heads — Split [7-inch]". Punknews.org. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  28. ^ www.metalblast.net. MetalBlast. 6 May 2016 http://www.metalblast.net/music-review/discharge-end-of-days/. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  29. ^ www.metalblast.net. MetalBlast. 6 May 2016 http://www.metalblast.net/music-review/discharge-end-of-days/. Retrieved 18 June 2017.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  30. ^ McPadden, Mike. If You Like Metallica...: Here Are Over 200 Bands, CDs, Movies, and Other Oddities That You Will Love. Backbeat Books, 2012. Section on "Discharge".
  31. ^ "Active Minds (2) - Dis Is Getting Pathetic... (Vinyl) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  32. ^ "Growing old dis-gracefully: Discharge frontman Rat on why punk's most explosive survivors can never die". decibelmagazine.com. Decibel Magazine. 5 September 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  33. ^ https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2086/12037/From%20Crass%20to%20Thrash.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  34. ^ Konow, David (9 October 2015). "Exploring the Roots of the Mid-80s Metal/Punk Crossover With Kerry King, Scott Ian, and Gary Holt". noisey.vice.com. Noisey. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  35. ^ Deller, Alex (3 November 2016). "Neurosis: 'Crass were the mother of all bands':nThe Oakland metal band know their British anarcho punk – so singer/guitarist Steve Von Till picked five crucial tracks". www.theguardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  36. ^ Brown, Andy R.; Spracklen, Karl; Kahn-Harris, Keith; and Scott, Niall. Global Metal Music and Culture: Current Directions in Metal Studies. Routledge, 2016
  37. ^ Mundrian, Albert. Choosing Death: The Improbably History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Decibel Books. 
  38. ^ "The 100 Greatest Singers: Inside the Ballots Pictures - 100 Singers Ballots: James Hetfield". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  39. ^ "Reciklaje - El declive de las estructuras (CD) Official Reciklaje Bandcamp". facebook.com/reciklajehc. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 

External links[edit]