Discordianism

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Eris, the Greek goddess of discord

Discordianism is a religion and subsequent philosophy based on the veneration or worship of Eris, a.k.a. Discordia, the Goddess of chaos, or archetypes or ideals associated with her. It was founded after the 1963 publication of its holy book, the Principia Discordia,[1] written by Greg Hill with Kerry Wendell Thornley, the two working under the pseudonyms Malaclypse the Younger and Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst.

There is some division as to whether it should be regarded as a parody religion, and if so, to what degree.[2] It is difficult to estimate the number of Discordians because they are not required to hold Discordianism as their only belief system,[3] and because there is an encouragement to form schisms and cabals.[4][5]

Founding and structure[edit]

The foundational document of Discordianism is the Principia Discordia, fourth edition, written by Malaclypse the Younger, an alias of Greg Hill. The Principia Discordia often hints that Discordianism was founded as a dialectic antithesis to more popular religions based on order, although the rhetoric throughout the book describes chaos as a much more underlying impulse of the universe. This may have been done with the intention of merely "balancing out" the creative forces of order and disorder, but the focus is on the more disorderly aspects of the world – at times the forces of order are even vilified.[6][7]

Mythology[edit]

Eris and Aneris[edit]

In discordian mythology, Aneris is described as the sister of Eris aka Discordia. Whereas Eris/Discordia is the Goddess of Disorder and Being, Aneris/Harmonia is the Goddess of Order and Non-Being.

"DOGMA III – HISTORY 32, 'COSMOGONY' " in Principia Discordia, states:

In the beginning there was VOID, who had two daughters; one (the smaller) was that of BEING, named ERIS, and one (the larger) was of NON-BEING, named ANERIS.[8]

The sterile Aneris becomes jealous of Eris (who was born pregnant), and starts making existent things non-existent. This explains why life begins, and later ends in death.

And to this day, things appear and disappear in this very manner.[8]

The names of Eris and Aneris (who are later given a brother, Spirituality), are used to show some fundamental Discordian principles in "Psycho-Metaphysics":

The Aneristic Principle is that of APPARENT ORDER; the Eristic Principle is that of APPARENT DISORDER. Both order and disorder are man made concepts and are artificial divisions of PURE CHAOS, which is a level deeper than is the level of distinction making.[9]

Hand of Eris[edit]

The Hand of Eris

The concepts represented by The Hand of Eris are of considerable importance to Discordians. However, due to the simplicity of the symbol and the widespread applications of its meaning, The Hand appears in many other contexts as well, often without awareness or implication of Discordian connections.[10][irrelevant citation]

Proposed symbol for Eris.

A particular form of The Hand (shown at right) has been proposed for use as the astronomical and astrological symbol for the dwarf planet Eris.[11][unreliable source?] This form of The Hand and other proposed symbols are used informally in certain circles; however, it is unlikely that Eris will be assigned an official symbol by the IAU, since graphical symbols are rarely assigned to minor objects in modern times.[12][page needed]

The Original Snub[edit]

The Original Snub is the Discordian name for the events preceding the Judgement of Paris, although more focus is put on the actions of Eris. Zeus believes that Eris is a troublemaker, so he does not invite her to Peleus and Thetis's wedding. Having been snubbed, Eris creates a golden apple with the word kallisti (Ancient Greek: καλλίστι, to the prettiest one) inscribed in it. This, the Apple of Discord, is a notable symbol in Discordianism for its inclusion in the Holy Chao. The apple is traditionally described as being made of gold,[13] but the Principia Discordia notes a debate over whether the "gold" described was "metallic gold or Acapulco."[citation needed]

Some recent interpretations of the Original Snub place Eris as being not at all mischievous with her delivery of the apple, but instead suggest that Eris was simply bringing the apple as a wedding present for Thetis. This interpretation would see Eris as innocent and her causing of chaos as a by-product of the other wedding guests' reaction upon seeing her at the wedding.[14][15]

Philosophy[edit]

Three core principles[edit]

The Principia Discordia holds three core principles: the Aneristic Principle (order), the Eristic Principle (disorder) and the notion that both are mere illusions. The following excerpt summarizes these principles:

The Aneristic Principle is that of apparent order; the Eristic Principle is that of apparent disorder. Both order and disorder are man made concepts and are artificial divisions of pure chaos, which is a level deeper than is the level of distinction making.

With our concept-making apparatus called "the brain" we look at reality through the ideas-about-reality which our cultures give us. The ideas-about-reality are mistakenly labeled "reality" and unenlightened people are forever perplexed by the fact that other people, especially other cultures, see "reality" differently.

It is only the ideas-about-reality which differ. Real (capital-T) True reality is a level deeper than is the level of concept. We look at the world through windows on which have been drawn grids (concepts). Different philosophies use different grids. A culture is a group of people with rather similar grids. Through a window we view chaos, and relate it to the points on our grid, and thereby understand it. The order is in the grid. That is the Aneristic Principle.

Western philosophy is traditionally concerned with contrasting one grid with another grid, and amending grids in hopes of finding a perfect one that will account for all reality and will, hence, (say unenlightened westerners) be true. This is illusory; it is what we Erisians call the Aneristic Illusion. Some grids can be more useful than others, some more beautiful than others, some more pleasant than others, etc., but none can be more True than any other.

Disorder is simply unrelated information viewed through some particular grid. But, like "relation", no-relation is a concept. Male, like female, is an idea about sex. To say that male-ness is "absence of female-ness", or vice versa, is a matter of definition and metaphysically arbitrary. The artificial concept of no-relation is the Eristic Principle.

The belief that "order is true" and disorder is false or somehow wrong, is the Aneristic Illusion. To say the same of disorder, is the Eristic Illusion.

The point is that (little-t) truth is a matter of definition relative to the grid one is using at the moment, and that (capital-T) Truth, metaphysical reality, is irrelevant to grids entirely. Pick a grid, and through it some chaos appears ordered and some appears disordered. Pick another grid, and the same chaos will appear differently ordered and disordered.
— Malaclypse the Younger, Principia Discordia, pages 00049–00050

Order and Disorder[edit]

Discordians hold three core principles. The Aneristic Principle is that of apparent order, the Eristic Principle is that of apparent disorder, and the notion that both are mere illusions. Order and disorder are man-made concepts and are artificial divisions of "pure chaos" may be compared to the noumenon described by Plato and Kant[citation needed].

Operation Mindfuck[edit]

Operation Mindfuck or OM is an important practice in the Discordian religion. The concept was developed by Kerry Thornley and Robert Anton Wilson in 1968[16] and given its name by Wilson and Robert Shea in The Illuminatus! Trilogy.[17] It is most often manifested as a decentralized campaign of civil disobedience, activism, art movements, especially performance art and guerrilla art, culture jamming, graffiti and other vandalism, practical jokes, hoaxes, reality hacking, chaos magic, words of power, and anything else that is believed to bring about social change through disrupting paradigms and thus forcing the victim to question the parameters of his or her reality tunnel.[citation needed]

Writings[edit]

Discordian works include a number of books, not all of which actually exist. Among those that have been published are Principia Discordia, first published in 1965 (which includes portions of The Honest Book of Truth); and The Illuminatus! Trilogy, which had its first volume published in 1975.[18]

Principia Discordia[edit]

The Principia Discordia is a Discordian religious text written by Greg Hill (Malaclypse the Younger) with Kerry Wendell Thornley (Lord Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst). The first edition was printed using Jim Garrison's Xerox printer in 1963.[19] The second edition was published under the title Principia Discordia or How The West Was Lost in a limited edition of five copies in 1965. The phrase Principia Discordia, reminiscent of Newton's Principia Mathematica, is presumably intended to mean Discordant Principles, or Principles of Discordance.[20]

POEE stands for Paratheo-metamystikhood of Eris Esoteric
POEE Symbol
showing the Hodge and Podge in dynamic tension
The Sacred Chao

The Principia Discordia or How The West Was Lost was first published in a limited edition of five copies and released into the public domain in 1965.[21]

Reprints of the Fourth and Fifth Editions include:

  • Revisionist Press published a red hardcover of the Fourth Edition in 1976, adding a stamp reading "THIS WORK IS A BRIDGE SO MOVE ON THRU" to the right of the golden apple on page 00075. (ISBN 0-685-75085-X)
  • Loompanics Unlimited published a version (the "yellow cover version") in 1979, adding an introduction by Robert Anton Wilson, an afterword by Malaclypse the Younger, and the aforementioned "Fifth Edition". (ISBN 1-55950-040-9) This version is reprinted by Paladin Press under ISBN 1-58160-547-1.
  • Steve Jackson Games published a version (the "black cover version") in 1994, adding an introduction by Steve Jackson and 20 pages of new Discordian text, mostly collected from online Discordians. (ISBN 1-55634-320-5) Steve Jackson Games also publishes Discordian and Illuminati-inspired games, such as GURPS Illuminati and the Illuminati card game.
  • Ronin Publishing released a completely re-edited version in 2006 (ISBN 1-57951-029-9), under the title Discordia - Hail the Goddess of Chaos and Confusion. This edition features a co-credit on the cover for both Malaclypse and Ravenhurst, a colour cover, numerous typographical errors, and is 192 pages in length. Most of the original artwork was replaced with low-quality clip-art.

In 1978, a copy of a work from Kerry Thornley titled "THE PRINCIPIA Discordia or HOW THE WEST WAS LOST" was placed in the HSCA JFK collections as document 010857.[22] Adam Gorightly, author of The Prankster and the Conspiracy about Kerry Thornley and the early Discordians, said the copy in the JFK collection was not a copy of the first edition but a later and altered version containing some of the original material. In an interview with researcher Brenton Clutterbuck,[23] Gorightly said he had been given Greg Hill's copy of the first edition. This appeared in its entirety in Historia Discordia, a book on Discordian history released in spring of 2014.[24][25]

The Illuminatus! Trilogy[edit]

One of the most influential of all Discordian works, The Illuminatus! Trilogy is a series of three novels written by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson purportedly between 1969 and 1971.[26]

In a 1980 interview given to the science fiction magazine Starship, Wilson suggested the novel was an attempt to build a myth around Discordianism:

We felt the Discordian Society needed some opposition, because the whole idea of it is based on conflict and dialectics. So, we created an opposition within the Discordian Society, which we called the Bavarian Illuminati [...] So, we built up this myth about the warfare between the Discordian Society and the Illuminati for quite a while, until one day Bob Shea said to me, "You know, we could write a novel about this!"[27]

Zen Without Zen Masters[edit]

Zen Without Zen Masters is a book by Camden Benares (The Count of Five), published in 1977, of koans, stories and exercises of a Discordian nature. It includes tales of several early Discordians including Hill (as Mal) and Thornley (as Omar and Ho Chi Zen). "Enlightenment of a Seeker" from this book is also present in Principia Discordia as "A Zen Story".[28]

Zenarchy[edit]

Zenarchy was first self-published by Thornley, under the pen name Ho Chi Zen, as a series of one-page (or broadsheet) newsletters in the 1960s.[29] A selection of the material was later reedited and expanded by Thornley and republished in paperback by IllumiNet Press in 1991. The book describes Thornley's concept of Zenarchy "a way of Zen applied to social life. A non-combative, non-participatory, no-politics approach to anarchy intended to get the serious student thinking." [30]

Summa Universalia[edit]

Summa Universalia was another work by Malaclypse the Younger, purported to be a summary of the Universe. It was excerpted in the first edition of Principia but never published. It was mentioned in an introduction to one of the Principia editions, and the work was quoted from in the first edition.[31][32]

The Honest Book of Truth[edit]

In addition to Summa Universalia, Principia Discordia also included selections from Kerry Wendell Thornley's writings, which he named The Honest Book of Truth. These sections are clearly marked, and are subtitled in parody of the bible's books.[citation needed]

The Honest Book of Truth was for a long time not available to the general public, but a copy of it was published in Historia Discordia.[citation needed]

Selections from this work can also be found within The Illuminatus! Trilogy.[33]

The Black Iron Prison[edit]

The Black Iron Prison was an effort to create an updated, modern book that would function as Principia Discordia did when released. The collaborators stated that "while the original Principia Discordia holds important messages and philosophies, we wondered if some of the humor and language might be dated and lost on a younger generation of Discordians. We wanted to crystalize some of our favorite themes from the Principia, those of radical free will and self-emancipation." The goal was to encourage "critical thinking and self awareness" in the reader.[34]

Ek-sen-trik-kuh Discordia: The Tales of Shamlicht[edit]

Ek-sen-trik-kuh Discordia: The Tales of Shamlicht by Reverend Loveshade with "foreplay" or foreword by S. John Ross was published in 2012 by Anaphora Literary Press.[35] The controversial book reportedly was inspired by an investigation by the FBI with portions of the book having been previously seized. Ek-sen-trik-kuh Discordia includes blurbs (short reviews of the book) by R. Crumb, Sondra London, Alan Moore, Rev. Ivan Stang, Robert Anton Wilson (who saw an early draft), and others.[36][37] It was listed in January 2013 in both the print and online version of the New York Review of Books.[37] The book was soon pulled from publication after allegations of plagiarism were made on amazon.com and sent to the publisher. An editor denied the claims which did not specify what material was allegedly plagiarized.[35][38]

Historia Discordia[edit]

Historia Discordia was compiled by Adam Gorightly with foreword by Robert Anton Wilson.[39] It is a compilation of early Discordian photos, tracts, art collages, and more including works by Discordianism founders Greg Hill (Malaclypse the Younger) and Kerry Thornley (Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst).[40] Among other things, it contains the long-missing The Honest Book of Truth and the first edition of Principia Discordia.[41] It was reviewed on goodreads.com, and features a blurb by famed comic book writer Alan Moore.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wilson, Robert Anton (1992). Cosmic Trigger I: Final Secret of the Illuminati. Scottsdale, AZ: New Falcon Publications. p. 65. ISBN 978-1561840038. 
  2. ^ "...It should on no account be taken seriously but is far more serious than most jokes" and "See ... [also] ha ha only serious" The Jargon File v4.4.7 but present at least as far back as v4.0.0, (1996, July 24); The entry for discordianism begins, "Somewhere between parody, social commentary, and religion..." Rabinovitch, Shelly & Lewis, James R. The Encyclopedia of Modern Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism, pp 75–76. Citadel Press. 2002. ISBN 0-8065-2406-5; "These organisations [Discordianism & The Church of the Subgenius] are just two of a whole raft of mock religions..." Phillips, M. (2004, Sept. 14). Wizards of ID cook up divine pile of spaghetti bolognese. The West Australian, p. Metro 18; "The explosion of the American counter-culture and the revival of surrealism met Discordianism (1960s and 1970s) and the result was a Neo-Pagan parody religion of mirth and laughter." (p. 3) E. K. Discorida. (2005). The Book of Eris. Synaptyclypse Generator
  3. ^ Rabinovitch, Shelly & Lewis, James. The Encyclopedia of Modern Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism". Pp 75–76. Citadel Press. 2002. ISBN 0-8065-2406-5.
  4. ^ "WitchVox Traditions Discordianism Article". Witchvox.com. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  5. ^ "Discordian Cabals – S23Wiki". S23.org. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  6. ^ "World Religions". Worldreligions.psu.edu. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  7. ^ "Design Arguments for the Existence of God [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]". Iep.utm.edu. 2009-04-12. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  8. ^ a b "Page 56". Principia Discordia. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  9. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2009-10-27. Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  10. ^ "The Hand of Eris". Symbol Dictionary. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  11. ^ "ERIS NEEDS A (Planetary) SYMBOL". Discord-society.livejournal.com. Retrieved 17 September 2016. 
  12. ^ Keiron Le Grice: Discovering Eris: The Symbolism and Significance of a New Planetary Archetype. Edinburgh 2012, ISBN 978-0863158674
  13. ^ The Judgement of Paris
  14. ^ Scullion, Sean (Nov 26, 2007). Liber Malorum - Children of the Apple. PagAnarchy Press. p. 375. ISBN 978-0955798405. 
  15. ^ Swiss, Tom (2009). Tom Swiss: Eris and the so-called "Apple of Discord". 
  16. ^ Gorightly, Adam (2005). "The Prankster or The Manchurian Candidate?". The Beast of Adam Gorightly: Collected Rantings (1992-2004). Virtualbookworm Publishing. p. 163. ISBN 978-1-58939-781-1. Retrieved 2008-12-02. 
  17. ^ Shea, Robert; Robert Anton Wilson (1976). Illuminatus!. Sphere Books. ISBN 978-0-7221-9208-5. Retrieved 2008-12-02. 
  18. ^ Cosmic Trigger I: The Final Secret of the Illuminati (1977), page 167. ISBN 1-56184-003-3
  19. ^ Wilson, Robert Anton (1992). Cosmic Trigger I: Final Secret of the Illuminati. Scottsdale, AZ: New Falcon Publications. p. 65. ISBN 978-1561840038. 
  20. ^ In Latin, discordia is not an adjective. It can be a singular noun by itself, meaning "discord", or, like principia, be the plural of a noun – discordium, also meaning "discord". In either case, the phrase consists of two juxtaposed nouns without a grammatical relationship.
  21. ^ Frauenfelder, Mark (November 1, 2006). "Publisher alters, then copyrights Principia Discordia". Boing Boing. 
  22. ^ The record identifier can be found by searching for Thornley and Discordian on nara.gov. "Kennedy Assassination Collection: Discordian Socity [sic]". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  23. ^ "Wikinews interviews Brenton Clutterbuck". Wikinews. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  24. ^ "Adam Gorightly presents the COMPLETE first edition Principia Discordia". Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  25. ^ Adam Gorightly: "Historia Discordia" (2014). ISBN 1618613219
  26. ^ Illuminatus! was written between 1969 and 1971, but not published until 1975 according to Robert Anton Wilson, Cosmic Trigger I: The Final Secret of the Illuminati (1977), page 145. ISBN 1-56184-003-3
  27. ^ "Robert Anton Wilson: Searching For Cosmic Intelligence" by Jeffrey Elliot Interview discussing novel . Retrieved 21 February 2006.
  28. ^ Camden Benares: Zen Without Zen Masters (1977), pages 40-41. ISBN 978-1-56184-073-1
  29. ^ Groover, Joel (1998-12-03). "Kerry Thornley, philosopher, writer, friend of Oswald" (fee required). Atlanta Journal-Constitution. p. F8. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  30. ^ Kerry Thornley, "Zenarchy" (1991), ISBN 0962653411
  31. ^ "By no means is the Principia our only scripture. All along Greg has been writing what he says is a summary of the Universe, but evidently it will be quite some time before he completes it." Thornley, Kerry: "Principia Discordia", page ix. Illuminet Press, 1991. As quoted at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~tilt/principia/intro5.html.
  32. ^ Malaclypse and Ravenhurst: Principia Discordia, pages 2, 10, A14."Excerpted from a treatise concerning The Nature of Gods and The Eristesque Movement, to be found in the SUMMA UNIVERSALIA, the Holy Work of MALACLYPSE (THE YOUNGER), K.C., Omniscient Polyfather of Virginity-in-gold, and High Priest of The Heretic Fringe and Protestant Persuasion of the ERISIAN MOVEMENT of the DISCORDIAN SOCIETY " As found at http://appendix.23ae.com/pd1/17.html, http://appendix.23ae.com/pd1/25.html , http://appendix.23ae.com/pd1/14.html .
  33. ^ Shea, Robert and Wilson, Robert Anton: The Illuminatus! Trilogy, pages 7, 141, 217, 657. Dell Publishing, 1988
  34. ^ http://www.blackironprison.com/index.php?title=Main_Page
  35. ^ a b "Anaphora Literary Press: Reverend Loveshade". Anaphora Literary Press. 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-24. 
  36. ^ Loveshade, Reverend (2012). Ek-sen-trik-kuh Discordia: The Tales of Shamlicht. Anaphora Literary Press. ISBN 978-1937536183. 
  37. ^ a b "Independent Press Listing" (PDF). New York Review of Books. 2013-01-10. Retrieved 2013-01-24. 
  38. ^ "Ek-sen-trik-kuh Discordia". amazon.com. Retrieved 2013-10-26. 
  39. ^ "Historia Discordia". RVP Press. 2014. Retrieved 2016-07-26. 
  40. ^ a b "Historia Discordia". RVP Press. 2014. Retrieved 2016-07-26. 
  41. ^ Griffin, Andrew W. (August 6, 2014). "BOOK REVIEW: "Historia Discordia" by Adam Gorightly". Red Dirt Report. Retrieved 2016-07-26. 

External links[edit]