Discrimination against atheists
|Freedom of religion|
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
Discrimination against atheists (sometimes called atheophobia or atheistophobia, anti-atheism, or anti-atheist sentiment), both at present and historically, includes the persecution of those identifying themselves or labeled by others as atheists, as well as the discrimination against them. Discrimination against atheists may also refer to and comprise the negative attitudes towards, prejudice, hostility, hatred, fear, and/or intolerance towards atheists and/or atheism. As atheism can be defined in various ways, those discriminated against or persecuted on the grounds of being atheists might not have been considered as such in a different time or place. As of 2015, 19 countries punish their citizens for apostasy, and in 13 of those countries it is punishable by death.
- 1 Ancient times
- 2 Early modern period and Reformation
- 3 Modern era
- 4 Contemporary era
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Some historians, such as Lucien Febvre, have postulated that atheism in its modern sense did not exist before the end of the seventeenth century, though the contrary is also argued. However, as governmental authority rested on the notion of divine right, it was threatened by those who denied the existence of the local god. Those labeled as atheist, including early Christians and Muslims, were as a result targeted for legal persecution.
Early modern period and Reformation
During the early modern period, the term "atheist" was used as an insult and applied to a broad range of people, including those who held opposing theological beliefs, as well as suicides, immoral or self-indulgent people, and even opponents of the belief in witchcraft. Atheistic beliefs were seen as threatening to order and society by philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas. Lawyer and scholar Thomas More said that religious tolerance should be extended to all except those who did not believe in a deity or the immortality of the soul. John Locke, a founder of modern notions of religious liberty, argued that atheists (as well as Catholics and Muslims) should not be granted full citizenship rights.
During the Inquisition, several of those accused of atheism or blasphemy, or both, were tortured or executed. These included the priest Giulio Cesare Vanini who was strangled and burned in 1619 and the Polish nobleman Kazimierz Łyszczyński who was executed in Warsaw, as well as Etienne Dolet, a Frenchman executed in 1546. Though heralded as atheist martyrs during the nineteenth century, recent scholars hold that the beliefs espoused by Dolet and Vanini are not atheistic in modern terms.
During the nineteenth century, British atheists, though few in number, were subject to discriminatory practices. The poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was expelled from the University of Oxford and denied custody of his two children after publishing a pamphlet titled The Necessity of Atheism. Those unwilling to swear Christian oaths during judicial proceedings were unable to give evidence in court to obtain justice until this requirement was repealed by Acts passed in 1869 and 1870.
Atheist Charles Bradlaugh was elected as a Member of the British Parliament in 1880. He was denied the right to affirm rather than swear his oath of office, and was then denied the ability to swear the oath as other Members objected that he had himself said it would be meaningless. Bradlaugh was re-elected three times before he was finally able to take his seat in 1886 when the Speaker of the House permitted him to take the oath.
In Germany during the Nazi era, a 1933 decree stated that "No National Socialist may suffer detriment... on the ground that he does not make any religious profession at all". However, the regime strongly opposed "godless communism", and all of Germany's atheist and largely left-wing freethought organizations were banned the same year; some right-wing groups were tolerated by the Nazis until the mid-1930s. During negotiations leading to the Nazi-Vatican Concordat of April 26, 1933 Hitler stated that "Secular schools can never be tolerated" because of their irreligious tendencies. Hitler routinely disregarded this undertaking, and the Reich concordat as a whole and by 1939, all Catholic denominational schools had been disbanded or converted to public facilities.
In a speech made later in 1933, Hitler claimed to have "stamped out" the Gottlosenbewegung atheistic movement. The word Hitler used, "Gottlosenbewegung", means "Godless Movement" in German, and refers to the communist freethought movement, though might not refer to atheism in general. The historian Richard J. Evans wrote that, by 1939, 95% of Germans still called themselves Protestant or Catholic, while 3.5% were so called "gottgläubig" (lit. "believers in god", a non-denominational nazified outlook on god beliefs, often described as predominately based on creationist and deistic views) and 1.5% atheist. According to Evans, those members of the affiliation gottgläubig "were convinced Nazis who had left their Church at the behest of the Party, which had been trying since the mid 1930s to reduce the influence of Christianity in society". Heinrich Himmler, who was fascinated with Germanic paganism, was a strong promoter of the gottgläubig movement and didn't allow atheists into the SS, arguing that their "refusal to acknowledge higher powers" would be a "potential source of indiscipline". The majority of the three million Nazi Party members continued to pay their church taxes and register as either Roman Catholic or Evangelical Protestant Christians.
Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is designed to protect the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion. In 1993, the UN's human rights committee declared that article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights "protects theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief." The committee further stated that "the freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief necessarily entails the freedom to choose a religion or belief, including the right to replace one's current religion or belief with another or to adopt atheistic views." Signatories to the convention are barred from "the use of threat of physical force or penal sanctions to compel believers or non-believers" to recant their beliefs or convert. Despite this, minority religions still are persecuted in many parts of the world.
Modern theories of constitutional democracy assume that citizens are intellectually and spiritually autonomous and that governments should leave matters of religious belief to individuals and not coerce religious beliefs using sanctions or benefits. The constitutions, human rights conventions and the religious liberty jurisprudence of most constitutional democracies provide legal protection of atheists and agnostics. In addition, freedom of expression provisions and legislation separating church from state also serve to protect the rights of atheists. As a result, open legal discrimination against atheists is not common in most Western countries. However, prejudice against atheists does exist in Western countries. A University of British Columbia study conducted in the United States found that believers distrusted atheists as much they did rapists. The study also showed that atheists had lower employment prospects. 
In most of Europe, atheists are elected to office at high levels in many governments without controversy. Some atheist organizations in Europe have expressed concerns regarding issues of separation of church and state, such as administrative fees for leaving the Church charged in Germany, and sermons being organized by the Swedish parliament. Ireland requires religious training from Christian colleges in order to work as a teacher in government-funded schools. In the UK one-third of state-funded schools are faith-based. However, there are no restrictions on atheists holding public office – the former Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Nick Clegg, is an atheist. According to a 2012 poll, 25% of the Turks in Germany believe atheists are inferior human beings. Portugal has elected two presidents, Mário Soares and Jorge Sampaio, who have openly expressed their irreligion. On the contrary, in Greece, the right-wing New Democracy government stated that "the Greek people have a right to know whether Mr. Tsipras is an atheist", citing their political opponent's irreligiosity as a reason he should not be elected, even though they granted that "it is his right". In the Elder Pastitsios case, a 27-year-old was sentenced to imprisonment for satirizing a popular apocalyptically-minded Greek Orthodox monk, while several metropolitans of the Greek Orthodox Church (which is not separated from the state) have also urged their flock "not to vote unbelievers into office", even going so far as to warn Greek Orthodox laymen that they would be "sinning if they voted atheists into public office."
A 2009 survey showed that atheists were the most hated demographic group in Brazil, among several other minorities polled, being almost on par with drug addicts. According to the research, 17% of the interviewees stated they felt either hatred or repulsion for atheists, while 25% felt antipathy and 29% were indifferent.
Canadian secular humanist groups have worked to end the recitation of prayers during government proceedings, viewing them as discriminatory. Scouts Canada states that while a belief in God or affliation with organized religion is not a requirement to join, members must have "a basic spiritual belief" and one of the core values is "Duty to God: Defined as, The responsibility to adhere to spiritual principles, and thus to the religion that expresses them, and to accept the duties therefrom."
Discrimination against atheists in the United States occurs in legal, personal, social, and professional contexts. Many American atheists compare their situation to the discrimination faced by ethnic minorities, LGBT communities, and women. "Americans still feel it's acceptable to discriminate against atheists in ways considered beyond the pale for other groups," asserted Fred Edwords of the American Humanist Association. The degree of discrimination, persecution, and social stigma atheists face in the United States, compared to other persecuted groups in the United States has been the subject of study and a matter of debate.[excessive citations]
In the United States, seven state constitutions include religious tests that would effectively prevent atheists from holding public office, and in some cases being a juror/witness, though these have not generally been enforced since the early twentieth century. The U.S. Constitution permits an affirmation in place of an oath to allow atheists to give testimony in court or to hold public office. However, a United States Supreme Court case reaffirmed that the United States Constitution prohibits States and the Federal Government from requiring any kind of religious test for public office, in the specific case, as a notary public. This decision is generally understood to also apply to witness oaths.
Several American atheists have used court challenges to address discrimination against atheists. Michael Newdow challenged inclusion of the phrase "under God" in the United States Pledge of Allegiance on behalf of his daughter, claiming that the phrase amounted to government endorsement of discrimination against atheists. He won the case at an initial stage, but the Supreme Court dismissed his claim, ruling that Newdow did not have standing to bring his case, thus disposing of the case without ruling on the constitutionality of the pledge. Respondents to a survey were less likely to support a kidney transplant for hypothetical atheists and agnostics needing it, than for Christian patients with similar medical needs. As the Boy Scouts of America does not allow atheists as members, atheist families and the ACLU from the 1990s onwards have launched a series of court cases arguing discrimination against atheists. In response to ACLU lawsuits, the Pentagon in 2004 ended sponsorship of Scouting units, and in 2005 the BSA agreed to transfer all Scouting units out of government entities such as public schools.
Despite polling showing that nonbelievers make up an increasingly large part of the population there is only one public atheist in all of the state legislatures across the nation. Few politicians have been willing to acknowledge their lack of belief in supreme beings, since such revelations have been considered "political suicide". On September 20, 2007, Pete Stark became the first nontheist United States congressman to openly acknowledge a lack of belief, joining the millions of Americans whom have long kept their views secret for fear of discrimination in their communities. Cecil Bothwell, who has publicly stated he doesn't believe in gods and that it's "certainly not relevant to public office", was elected on November 3, 2009, to the Asheville, North Carolina city council after he won the third highest number of votes in the city election. Following the election, political opponents of Bothwell threatened to challenge his election on the grounds that the North Carolina Constitution does not allow for atheists to hold public office in the state. However, that provision, dating back to 1868, is unenforceable and invalid because the United States Constitution prevents religious tests for public office. Several polls have shown that about 50 percent of Americans would not vote for a qualified atheist for president. A 2006 study found that 40% of respondents characterized atheists as a group that did "not at all agree with my vision of American society", and that 48% would not want their child to marry an atheist. In both studies, percentages of disapproval of atheists were above those for Muslims, African-Americans and homosexuals. Many of the respondents associated atheism with immorality, including criminal behaviour, extreme materialism, communism and elitism. The studies also showed that rejection of atheists was related to the respondent's lack of exposure to diversity, education and political orientations. Atheists and atheist organizations have alleged discrimination against atheists in the military, and recently, with the development of the Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, atheists have alleged institutionalized discrimination. In several child custody court rulings, atheist parents have been discriminated against, either directly or indirectly. As child custody laws in the United States are often based on the subjective opinion of family court judges, atheism has frequently been used to deny custody to non-religious parents on the basis that a parent's lack of faith displays a lack of morality require to raise a child.
Prominent atheists and atheist groups have said that discrimination against atheists is illustrated by a statement reportedly made by George H. W. Bush during a public press conference just after announcing his candidacy for the presidency in 1987. When asked by journalist Robert Sherman about the equal citizenship and patriotism of American atheists, Sherman reported that Bush answered, "No, I don't know that atheists should be regarded as citizens, nor should they be regarded as patriotic. This is one nation under God." Sherman did not tape the exchange and no other newspaper ran a story on it at the time.
George H. W. Bush's son, George W. Bush, responded to a question about the role of faith in his presidency during a November 3, 2004 press conference, "I will be your president regardless of your faith. And I don't expect you to agree with me, necessarily, on religion. As a matter of fact, no president should ever try to impose religion on our society. The great - the great tradition of America is one where people can worship the - the way they want to worship. And if they choose not to worship, they're just as patriotic as your neighbor."
On December 16, 2016, President Barack Obama signed H.R. 1150, an amendment to the Frank Wolf International Religious Freedom Act. It includes protections for "non-theistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess or practice any religion at all."
Atheists ineligible to hold office
The constitutions of seven "Bible Belt" U.S. states ban atheists from holding public office. However, these laws are unenforceable due to conflicting with the first amendment and article VI of the constitution:
- Article 19, Section 1
- "No person who denies the being of a God shall hold any office in the civil departments of this State, nor be competent to testify as a witness in any Court."
- Article 37
- "That no religious test ought ever to be required as a qualification for any office of profit or trust in this State, other than a declaration of belief in the existence of God; nor shall the Legislature prescribe any other oath of office than the oath prescribed by this Constitution."
- Article 14, Section 265
- "No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold any office in this state."
- North Carolina:
- Article 6, Section 8
- "The following persons shall be disqualified for office: First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God."
- South Carolina:
- Article 17, Section 4
- "No person who denies the existence of a Supreme Being shall hold any office under this Constitution."
- Article 9, Section 2
- "No person who denies the being of God, or a future state of rewards and punishments, shall hold any office in the civil department of this state."
- Article 1, Section 4
- "No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office, or public trust, in this State; nor shall any one be excluded from holding office on account of his religious sentiments, provided he acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being."
An eighth state constitution affords special protection to theists.
- Article 1, Section 4
- "No person who acknowledges the being of a God and a future state of rewards and punishments shall, on account of his religious sentiments, be disqualified to hold any office or place of trust or profit under this Commonwealth."
Atheists, and those accused of defection from the official religion, may be subject to discrimination and persecution in many Islamic countries. According to the International Humanist and Ethical Union, compared to other nations, "unbelievers... in Islamic countries face the most severe – sometimes brutal – treatment". Atheists and religious skeptics can be executed in at least thirteen nations: Afghanistan, Iran, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
According to popular interpretations of Islam, Muslims are not free to change religion or become an atheist: denying Islam and thus becoming an apostate is traditionally punished by death for men and by life imprisonment for women. The death penalty for apostasy is apparent in a range of Islamic states including: Iran, Egypt, Pakistan, Somalia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Although there have been no recently reported executions in Saudi Arabia, a judge in Saudi Arabia has recently recommended that imprisoned blogger Raif Badawi go before a high court on a charge of apostasy, which would carry the death penalty upon conviction. While a death sentence is rare, it is common for atheists to be charged with blasphemy or inciting hatred. New "Arab Spring" regimes in Tunisia and Egypt have jailed several outspoken atheists.
Since an apostate can be considered a Muslim whose beliefs cast doubt on the Divine, and/or Koran, claims of atheism and apostasy have been made against Muslim scholars and political opponents throughout history. Both fundamentalists and moderates agree that "blasphemers will not be forgiven" although they disagree on the severity of an appropriate punishment. In northwestern Syria in 2013 during the Syrian Civil War, jihadists beheaded and defaced a sculpture of Al-Maʿarri (973–1058 CE), one of several outspoken Arab and Persian atheist intellectuals who lived and taught during the Islamic Golden Age.
Jordan requires atheists to associate themselves with a recognized religion for official identification purposes. In Egypt, intellectuals suspected of holding atheistic beliefs have been prosecuted by judicial and religious authorities. Novelist Alaa Hamad was convicted of publishing a book that contained atheistic ideas and apostasy that were considered to threaten national unity and social peace.
The study of Islam is a requirement in public and private schools for every Algerian child, irrespective of his/her religion.
Atheist or agnostic men are prohibited from marrying Muslim women (Algerian Family Code I.II.31). A marriage is legally nullified by the apostasy of the husband (presumably from Islam, although this is not specified; Family Code I.III.33). Atheists and agnostics cannot inherit (Family Code III.I.138).
Several Bangladeshi atheists have been assassinated, and a "hit list" exists issued by the Bangladeshi Islamic extremist organization, the Ansarullah Bangla Team. Activist atheist bloggers are leaving Bangladesh under threat of assassination.
Atheists in Indonesia experience official discrimination in the context of registration of births and marriages, and the issuance of identity cards. In 2012, Indonesian atheist Alexander Aan was beaten by a mob, lost his job as a civil servant and was sentenced to two and a half years in jail for expressing his views online.
In Iran, atheism is not recognised as a belief in a legal sense. The law specifies that all citizens must declare themselves as Muslim, Christian, Jewish or Zoroastrian, with adherents of the latter three religions counted as religious minorities. The four recognised religions provide rights such as applying for entrance to university, or becoming a lawyer, with the position of judge reserved for Muslims only. The Penal Code is also based upon the religious affiliation of the victim and perpetrator, with the punishment oftentimes more severe on non-Muslims. Numerous writers, thinkers and philanthropists have been accused of apostasy and sentenced to death for questioning the prevailing interpretation of Islam in Iran. The Iranian Atheists Association was established in 2013 to form a platform for Iranian atheists to start debates and to question the current Islamic regime's attitude towards atheists, apostasy, and human rights.
In March 2014, the Saudi interior ministry issued a royal decree branding all atheists as terrorists, which defines terrorism as "calling for atheist thought in any form, or calling into question the fundamentals of the Islamic religion on which this country is based".
Although officially a secular state, the vast majority of Turks are Muslim, and the state grants a number of special privileges to Muslims and to Islam itself. Compulsory religious instruction in Turkish schools is also considered discriminatory towards atheists. Atheists and agnostics are also not counted in the official census of the country.
- American Humanist Association
- Atheist Bus Campaign
- Atheist Centre
- Boy Scouts of America membership controversies
- Center for Inquiry
- Christian privilege
- International Humanist and Ethical Union
- Military Association of Atheists & Freethinkers
- Out Campaign
- Persecution by Christians
- Religious discrimination
- Religious persecution
- Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science
- Secular Coalition for America
- Fenton, Siobhan (30 March 2016). "The 13 countries where being an atheist is punishable by death". The Independent. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Robert Evans (December 9, 2013). "Atheists face death in 13 countries, global discrimination: study". Reuters.
- "International Humanist and Ethical Union - You can be put to death for atheism in 13 countries around the world". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "The Freedom of Thought Report". International Humanist and Ethical Union. 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- "'God Does Not Exist' Comment Ends Badly for Indonesia Man". Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Davidson, Nicholas (1992). "Unbelief and Atheism In Italy". In Michael Hunter; David Wootton. Atheism from the Reformation to the Enlightenment. Oxford University Press. pp. 55–86. ISBN 978-0-19-822736-6.
- Armstrong, Karen (1994). A History of God: The 4000-year Quest of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Random House, Inc. pp. 286–87. ISBN 978-0-345-38456-0.
- Kelley, Donald R. (2006). Frontiers of History: Historical Inquiry in the Twentieth Century. Yale University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-300-12062-2.
- Whitmarsh, Tim (2015). Battling the Gods: Atheism in the Ancient World. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-95833-4.
- Gey, Steven G. (2007). "Atheism and the Freedom of Religion". In Martin, Michael. The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 250–253, 260–2. ISBN 978-0-521-84270-9.
- Armstrong, Karen (1994). A History of God: The 4000-year Quest of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Random House, Inc. pp. 98, 147. ISBN 978-0-345-38456-0.
- Laursen, John Christian; Nederman, Cary J. (1997). Beyond the Persecuting Society: Religious Toleration Before the Enlightenment. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-8122-1567-0.
- Brooke, John Hedley (2005). Heterodoxy in Early Modern Science and Religion. Maclean, Ian. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926897-9.
- Kłoczowski, Jerzy (2000). A History of Polish Christianity. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-521-36429-4.
- Onfray, Michel (2007). Atheist manifesto: the case against Christianity, Judaism, and Islam. Leggatt, Jeremy (translator). Arcade Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-55970-820-3.
- Chadwick, Owen (2003). The Early Reformation on the Continent By. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926578-7.
- Larson, Timothy (2003). "Victorian England". In Cookson, Catharine. Encyclopedia of religious freedom. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-94181-4.
- Gey, Steven G. (2007). "Atheism and the Freedom of Religion". In Martin, Michael. The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 253–255. ISBN 978-0-521-84270-9.
- Baynes, Norman Hepburn (1969). The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922 – August 1939'. H. Fertig. p. 378.
Without pledging ourselves to any particular Confession, we have restored faith to its pre-requisites because we were convinced that the people needs [sic] and requires [sic] this faith. We have therefore undertaken the fight against the atheistic movement, and that not merely with a few theoretical declarations: we have stamped it out.
- Smith, Christian (1996). Disruptive religion: the force of faith in social-movement activism. Routledge. pp. 156–57. ISBN 978-0-415-91405-5.
- Stackelberg, Roderick (2007). The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany. Routledge. pp. 136–8. ISBN 978-0-415-30860-1.
- Bock, Heike (2006). "Secularization of the modern conduct of life? Reflections on the religiousness of early modern Europe". In Hanne May. Religiosität in der säkularisierten Welt. VS Verlag fnr Sozialw. p. 157. ISBN 3-8100-4039-8.
- Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph (2003). Christel Gärtner, ed. Atheismus und religiöse Indifferenz. Organisierter Atheismus. VS Verlag. pp. 122, 124–6. ISBN 978-3-8100-3639-1.
- Ernst Helmreich, The German Churches Under Hitler. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1979, p. 241.
- Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3; pp. 245-246
- Himmler's Auxiliaries. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Richard J. Evans; The Third Reich at War; Penguin Press; New York 2009, p. 546
- The Third Reich. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, 1933-1945 By John S. Conway p. 232; Regent College Publishing
- "CCPR General Comment 22: 30/07/93 on ICCPR Article 18". Minorityrights.org.
- International Federation for Human Rights (1 August 2003). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran" (PDF). fdih.org. Retrieved 3 March 2009.
- Davis, Derek H. "The Evolution of Religious Liberty as a Universal Human Right" (PDF). Retrieved 3 March 2009.
- Gervais, Will M.; Shariff, Azim F.; Norenzayan, Ara (2011). "Do You Believe in Atheists? Distrust Is Central to Anti-Atheist Prejudice" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 101 (6): 1189–1206. doi:10.1037/a0025882. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- "Study: Atheists distrusted as much as rapists". usatoday.com.
- Hartmann, René (March 2008). ""Most American secularists have few expectations..." An Interview with AAI president Stuart Bechman". MIZ Magazine. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "Fee for leaving church is brought before European Court of Human Rights | I". International League of Non-religious and Atheists (IBKA). Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "Anmälan till JO – Riksdagens ombudsmän". jo.se. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "Why must agnostics be obliged to teach faith?". The Irish Times. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- Berkeley, Rob; Savita Vij (December 2008). "Right to Divide? Faith Schools and Community Cohesion" (PDF). London: Runnymede Trust. p. 4. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
- Peev, Gerri (20 December 2007). "Religion: I don't believe in God". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
- Liljeberg Research International: Deutsch-Türkische Lebens und Wertewelten 2012 Archived 11 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine., July/August 2012, p. 68
- Die Welt: Türkische Migranten hoffen auf muslimische Mehrheit, 17 August 2012, retrieved 23 August 2012
- "ΝΔ: Ο ελληνικός λαός πρέπει να γνωρίζει αν ο Τσίπρας είναι άθεος - η απάντηση ΣΥΡΙΖΑ". skai.gr.
- "Μεσογαίας Νικόλαος: "Αμαρτία αν δώσουμε ψήφο σε ανθρώπους χωρίς πίστη, αξίες και σεβασμό στην ιστορία"". Pentapostagma.gr. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "Μητροπολίτης Γόρτυνος: "Το ράσο μου πετάει τριφασικό ρεύμα" (Video)". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "Ateus e drogados são os mais odiados pelos brasileiros". Paulopes.com.br (in Portuguese). May 3, 2009. Retrieved August 4, 2013.
- "No More Prayers in Legislature". humanistcanada.com. Archived from the original on 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- Hurst, Lynda (9 May 2008). "Stirring up yet another religious storm". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "Values". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Dawkins, Richard (2006). The God Delusion. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 43–46. ISBN 978-0-618-68000-9.
- Harris, Sam (24 December 2006). "10 myths – and 10 truths – about atheism". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- Downey, Margaret (June–July 2004). "Discrimination against atheists: the facts". Free Inquiry. 24 (4): 41–43. Archived from the original on 8 February 2008.
- Zellner, William W. (December 1995). "Deep In The Bible Belt – One Atheist Professor's Experience". Freethought Today. Retrieved 2013-05-11.
- "Humanists Praise Pete Stark for "Coming Out" as a Nontheist". American Humanist. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
- Atheism is Indeed A Civil Rights Issue; Free Inquiry magazine, Volume 24, Number 4; Eddie Tabash; May 2004
- Thornton, Paul (18 April 2007). "Disliked, not oppressed I may be a reviled atheist, but that doesn't mean I can claim equal victimhood with truly repressed minorities". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- Grothe, D.J.; Dacey, Austin. "Atheism Is Not a Civil Rights Issue". Free Inquiry. 24 (2). Archived from the original on 29 April 2013.
- "Polarizing" is a dirty word, so atheists should surrender; Pharyngula; PZ Meyers; June 29, 2007
- "Is Atheism a Civil Rights Issue?". EvolutionBlog. June 28, 2007. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- Lee, Adam (July 2, 2007). "Atheism Is a Civil Rights Issue". Patheos. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- Banks, Cameron (2010). "Atheism is a Civil Rights Issue" (PDF). Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- Jenson, Chris (May 6, 2004). "Atheism is a Civil Rights Issue". onegoodmove. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- "Atheism as a Civil Rights Issue". Mississippi Atheists. March 13, 2008. Archived from the original on 17 July 2009.
- Newman, Jim (December 11, 2013). "Atheism as the New Gay, Civil Rights Issue". Skeptic Money. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- Matthew C. Nisbet (June 28, 2007). "ATHEISM IS NOT A CIVIL RIGHTS ISSUE". Framing Science. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
- West, Ellis M. (2006). "Religious Tests of Office-Holding". In Finkelman, Paul. Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties. CRC Press. pp. 1314–5. ISBN 978-0-415-94342-0.
- Giacalone, Robert A; Jurkiewicz, Carole L. (2005). Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-1743-9.
- Urofsky, Melvin I. (2002). Religious Freedom: Rights and Liberties Under the Law. ABC-CLIO. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-1-57607-312-4.
- Lampman, Jane (7 December 2006). "At swearing in, congressman wants to carry Koran. Outrage ensues.". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- Douglas, Davison M. (2006). "Belief-Action Distinction in Free Exercise Clause History". In Finkelman, Paul. Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties. CRC Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-415-94342-0.
- Belknap, Michal R. (2005). The Supreme Court Under Earl Warren, 1953–1969. Univ of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-563-0.
- Friedman, Dan (2005). The Maryland State Constitution: A Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-313-32044-6.
- Bishop, Ronald (2007). Taking on the Pledge of Allegiance: The News Media and Michael Newdow's Constitutional Challenge. SUNY Press. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-7914-7181-4.
- "US to keep 'under God' pledge". BBC News. 14 June 2004. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
- Mintz, Howard (15 June 2004). "U.S. Supreme Court Dismisses Pledge Challenge". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
- Atheism, Secularity, and Well-Being: How the Findings of Social Science Counter Negative Stereotypes and Assumptions, Phil Zuckerman* Archived 14 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Winkler v. Chicago School Reform Board". 2004. Archived from the original on 2012-06-07.
- "Department of Defense settles part of litigation challenging its involvement with the Boy Scouts of America". Usdoj.gov. 16 November 2004. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "National Boy Scout Organization Agrees to End All Local Government Direct Sponsorship of Troops and Packs". American Civil Liberties Union of Illinois. Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2006-03-02.
- "Boy Scouts Jamboree to Stay at Army Base". Washington Times. Archived from the original on 2006-04-19. Retrieved 2006-03-02.
- Marinucci, Carla (2007-03-14). "Stark's atheist views break political taboo". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
- "California Lawmaker Becomes Highest-Ranking Official To Say He's a Nonbeliever". Nysun.com. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Critics Say Atheist N.C. City councilman Unworthy of Seat". Fox News. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Faith in the System". Mother Jones. September–October 2004.
- Page, Susan (2007-03-12). "2008 race has the face of a changing America". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
- Penny Edgell; Joseph Gerteis; Douglas Hartmann (April 2006). "Atheists As "Other": Moral Boundaries and Cultural Membership in American Society" (PDF). American Sociological Review. 71 (2): 218. doi:10.1177/000312240607100203.
- "This Godless Communism, 1961". authentichistory.com.
- "Atheists identified as America's most distrusted minority, according to new U of M study". UMN News. Retrieved 2006-03-22.
- on YouTube. Retrieved on November 28, 2010[dead link]
- "MAAF (2009). Military Association of Atheists & Freethinkers. Retrieved November 28, 2010 from http". militaryatheists.org. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- LaGrone, S. (September 30, 2008). "Soldier alleges religious bias at Lakenheath". Armytimes.com. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "MILITARYRELIGIOUSFREEDOM.COM". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Jones, W. (28 September 2010). Fleet, Josh, ed. "Air Force Academy Cites Progress In Tackling Religious Intolerance". Huffington Post. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Military Association of Atheists and Freethinkers Report on chaplains". militaryatheists.org. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Banks, Adelle (16 January 2011). Fleet, Josh, ed. "Army Faces Questions Over 'Spiritual Fitness' Test". Huffington Post. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program's Unconstitutional Soldier Fitness Tracker and Global Assessment Tool" (PDF). MAAF. December 30, 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Volokh, Eugene (2006). "Parent-child speech and child custody speech restrictions" (PDF). New York University Law Review. 81: 631.
- Zuckerman, Phil (2009). "Atheism, Secularity, and Well-Being: How the Findings of Social Science Counter Negative Stereotypes and Assumptions" (PDF). Sociology Compass. 3 (6): 949–971. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9020.2009.00247.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2014.
- Castle, Marie Alena. "Your money and/or your life: mugged by the mythmakers". Atheists For Human Rights. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- O'Hair, Madalyn. "George H. W. Bush: "Atheists Neither Citizens Nor Patriots". American Atheists. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Burns, Saxon (30 November 2006). "Godless in Tucson; Atheists—the least-trusted group in America—speak out". Tucson Weekly. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Frequently misquoted as "No, I don't know that atheists should be considered as citizens, nor should they be considered patriots.", starting with GALA Interim (Fall 1988). "On the Barricades: Bush on Atheism". Free Inquiry. 8 (4): 16. ISSN 0272-0701..
- "Transcript of President Bush's News Conference". New York Times. 4 November 2004. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
- Emery, David (December 20, 2016), Obama Signs Law Protecting Atheists from Religious Persecution, Snopes.com, retrieved December 23, 2016
- "Article VI". Legal Information Institute.
- "U.S. Constitution – First Amendment". Legal Information Institute.
- Constitution of the State of Arkansas (PDF). Little Rock, AR: Arkansas State Legislature. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Constitution of Maryland". Annapolis, MD: Maryland State Archives. June 10, 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Constitution of the State of Mississippi" (PDF). Jackson, MS: Secretary of State, State of Mississippi. p. 117. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "North Carolina State Constitution Article VI Section 8.". Retrieved 2012-12-28.
- "South Carolina Constitution Article 17 Section 4.". Retrieved 2012-06-18.
- "Article IX, Disqualifications". Tennessee Blue Book 2011-2012 (PDF). Nashville, TN: Secretary of State, State of Tennessee.
- "Texas Constitution, Article 1, Section 4.". Retrieved 2012-06-18.
- "Pennsylvania Constitution, Article 1, Section 4.". Retrieved 2012-10-10.
- Robert Evans (Dec 9, 2012). "Atheists around world suffer persecution, discrimination: report". Reuters.
- "International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU),". 2015.
- "Hanged for being a Christian in Iran". The Daily Telegraph. 11 October 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "Iran hangs man convicted of apostasy". Reuters. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "Supporting Islam's apostates"
- "Somali executed for 'apostasy'". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "Crimes punishable by death in the UAE include…apostasy - Freedom Center Students". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- "/news/archives/article.php". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- CTV news, "'Apostasy' laws widespread in Muslim world", quote: "Islamic Shariah law considers conversion to any religion apostasy and most Muslim scholars agree the punishment is death. Saudi Arabia considers Shariah the law of the land, though there have been no reported cases of executions of converts from Islam in recent memory."
- Abdelaziz, Salma (2013-12-26). "Wife: Saudi blogger recommended for apostasy trial". Cnn.com. Retrieved 2014-01-08.
- "No God, not even Allah: Ex-Muslim atheists are becoming more outspoken, but tolerance is still rare". Economist. Nov 24, 2012.
- Kamrava, Mehran (2006). The new voices of Islam: reforming politics and modernity : a reader. I.B.Tauris. pp. 123–24. ISBN 978-1-84511-275-2.
- Hamad, Ahmad (1999). "Legal plurality and legitimation of human rights abuses". In Al-Zwaini, Laila; Baudouin Dupret; Berger, Maurits. Legal pluralism in the Arab world. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. p. 221. ISBN 90-411-1105-0.
- Zaki Badawi, M.A. (2003). "Islam". In Cookson, Catharine. Encyclopedia of religious freedom. New York: Routledge. pp. 204–8. ISBN 0-415-94181-4.
- Syria Violence Claims Head of Ancient Arab Poet. Reuters, 12 Feb. 2013. Accessed 15 Dec. 2013.
- Jihadists Behead Statue of Syrian Poet Abul Ala Al-Maari. The Observers, France 24. 14 Feb. 2013. Accessed 15 Dec. 2013.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2008-Jordan". US of Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- Boyle, Kevin; Sheen, Juliet (1997). Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-415-15978-4.
- Al-Boray, Nagad (1999). "Egypt". Secrecy and Liberty: National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information (International Studies in Human Rights). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 90-411-1191-3.
- "de beste bron van informatie over Lexalgeria. Deze website is te koop!". lexalgeria.net. 2 January 2011. Archived from the original on 23 June 2004. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Writer, Staff (May 30, 2015). "'You'll be next': Bangladeshi blogger gets death threat on Facebook". Times of India. Kolkata: The times of India.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2007-Indonesia". US of Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "Amnesty Calls for Release of Jailed Indonesian Atheist". Jakarta Globe. 15 June 2012. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013.
- "Indonesia's atheists face battle for religious freedom". The Guardian. 3 May 2012.
- "Discrimination against religious minorities in IRAN" (PDF). Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l`Homme and the Ligue de Défense des Droits de l'Homme en Iran. August 2003. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
- "Iranian Atheists Association: Issues". Iranian Atheists Association.
- "Iran: A legal system that fails to protect freedom of expression and association". Amnesty International. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "Apostasy in the Islamic Republic of Iran". Iranian Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Iranian Writer Sentenced to Death for Apostasy". Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Human Rights Questions: Human Rights Situations and Reports of Special Rapporteurs and Representatives -- Situation of Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran". Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Witness Statement: Mahmoud Roghani". Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Iranian Atheists Association: About Us". Iranian Atheists.org.
- "Why Are Saudis Tearing Up the Quran?". Vocativ. Retrieved 2014-04-18.
- "Atheists Classified As Terrorists Under New Saudi Arabian Laws". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- "Saudi Arabia: A wave of atheism or a misunderstanding". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 2012-11-28.
- Adam Withnall (1 April 2014). "Saudi Arabia declares all atheists are terrorists in new law to crack down on political dissidents - Middle East - World". The Independent. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- "A Quest for Equality: Minorities in Turkey". Minority Rights Group International. 2007. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
|Look up atheophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|