Discus throw

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Athletics
Discus throw
Robert Harting (2008).jpg
German 2012 Olympic champion Robert Harting.
Men's records
World  Jürgen Schult (GDR) 74.08 m (1986)
Olympic  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 69.89 m (2004)
Women's records
World  Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) 76.80 m (1988)
Olympic  Martina Hellmann (GDR) 72.30 m (1988)

The discus throw (About this sound pronunciation) is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as demonstrated by the fifth-century-BC Myron statue, Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated back to at least to 708 BC.[1]

History[edit]

Modern copy of the Diskophoros, attributed to Alkamenes

The sport of throwing the discus traces back to it being an event in the original Olympic Games of Ancient Greece. The discus as a sport was resurrected in Magdeburg, Germany, by Christian Georg Kohlrausch and his students in the 1870s. Organized Men's competition was resumed in the late 19th century, and has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first modern competition, the 1896 Summer Olympics. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games, the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics. Today the sport of discus is a routine part of modern track-and-field meets at all levels, and retains a particularly iconic place in the Olympic Games.

The main poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics

The first modern athlete to throw the discus while rotating the whole body was František Janda-Suk from Bohemia (present Czech Republic).[citation needed] He invented this technique when studying the position of the famous statue of Discobolus. After only one year of developing the technique he earned a silver medal in the 1900 Olympics.

Women's competition began in the first decades of the 20th century. Following competition at national and regional levels it was added to the Olympic program for the 1928 games.

Description[edit]

Discus-thrower, tondo of a kylix by the Kleomelos Painter, Louvre Museum

The men's discus is a heavy lenticular disc with a weight of 2 kilograms (4.4 lb) and diameter of 22 centimetres (8.7 in), the women's discus has a weight of 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) and diameter of 18 centimetres (7.1 in).

Under IAAF (international) rules, Youth boys (16–17 years) throw the 1.6 kilograms (3.5 lb) discus, the Junior men (18–19 years) throw the unique 1.75 kilograms (3.9 lb) discus, and the girls/women of those ages throw the 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) discus.

In international competition, men throw the 2 kg discus through to age 49. The 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb) discus is thrown by ages 50–59, and men age 60 and beyond throw the 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) discus. Women throw the 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) discus through to age 74. Starting with age 75, women throw the 0.75 kilograms (1.7 lb) discus.

The typical discus has sides made of plastic, wood, fiberglass, carbon fiber or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. The rim must be smooth, with no roughness or finger holds. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, and thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. However, a higher rim weight, if thrown correctly, can lead to a farther throw. A solid rubber discus is sometimes used (see in the United States).

To make a throw, the competitor starts in a circle of 2.5 m (8 ft 2​14 in) diameter, which is recessed in a concrete pad by 20 millimetres (0.79 in). The thrower typically takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw. He then spins anticlockwise (for right-handers) around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum, then releases his throw. The discus must land within a 34.92-degree sector. The rules of competition for discus are virtually identical to those of shot put, except that the circle is larger, a stop board is not used and there are no form rules concerning how the discus is to be thrown.


The basic motion is a forehanded sidearm movement. The discus is spun off the index finger or the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins clockwise when viewed from above for a right-handed thrower, and anticlockwise for a left-handed thrower. As well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is also determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Generally, throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. Also, a faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability. The technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs lots of experience to get right, thus most top throwers are 30 years old or more.

Phases[edit]

The discus technique can be broken down into phases. The purpose is to transfer from the back to the front of the throwing circle while turning through one and a half circles. The speed of delivery is high, and speed is built up during the throw (slow to fast). Correct technique involves the buildup of torque so that maximum force can be applied to the discus on delivery.

World and European champion Rutger Smith in phases of the discus throw

During the wind-up, weight is evenly distributed between the feet, which are about shoulder distance and not overly active. The wind-up sets the tone for the entire throw; the rhythm of the throw is very important.

Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance. This is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle.[2]

For a right handed thrower, the next stage is to move the weight over the left foot. From this position the right foot is raised, and the athlete 'runs' across the circle. There are various techniques for this stage where the leg swings out to a small or great extent, some athletes turn on their left heel (e.g. Ilke Wylluda[3]) but turning on the ball of the foot is far more common.

The aim is to land in the 'power position', the right foot should be in the center and the heel should not touch the ground at any point. The left foot should land very quickly after the right. Weight should be mostly over the back foot with as much torque as possible in the body—so the right arm is high and far back. This is very hard to achieve. Power position.

The critical stage is the delivery of the discus, from this 'power position' the hips drive through hard, and will be facing the direction of the throw on delivery. Athletes employ various techniques to control the end-point and recover from the throw, such as fixing feet (to pretty much stop dead[3]), or an active reverse spinning onto the left foot (e.g. Virgilijus Alekna[4]).

Sports scientist Richard Ganslen researched the Aerodynamics of the Discus, reporting the discus will stall at an angle of 29°.[5]

Culture[edit]

The discus throw has been the subject of a number of well-known ancient Greek statues and Roman copies such as the Discobolus and Discophoros. The discus throw also appears repeatedly in ancient Greek mythology, featured as a means of manslaughter in the cases of Hyacinth, Crocus, Phocus, and Acrisius, and as a named event in the funeral games of Patroclus.

Discus throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Discus commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. On the obverse of the coin a modern athlete is seen in the foreground in a half-turned position, while in the background an ancient discus thrower has been captured in a lively bending motion, with the discus high above his head, creating a vivid representation of the sport.

United States[edit]

In U.S. high school track and field, boys typically throw a discus weighing 1.6 kg (3 lb 9 oz) and the girls throw the 1 kg (2.2 lb) women's discus. Under USATF Youth rules, boys throw the 1 kg discus between the ages of 11–14, and transition to the 1.6 kg discus as 15- to 18-year-olds. Girls throw the 1 kg discus as 11- to 18-year-olds.

Under US high school rules, if a discus hits the surrounding safety cage and is deflected into the sector, it is ruled a foul. In contrast, under IAAF, WMA, NCAA and USATF rules, it is ruled a legal throw. Additionally, under US high school rules, distances thrown are rounded down to the nearest whole inch, rather than the nearest centimetre.

US high school rules allow the use of a solid rubber discus; it is cheaper and easier to learn to throw (due to its more equal distribution of weight, as opposed to the heavy rim weight of the metal rim/core discus), but less durable.

Top 25 performers[edit]

  • Correct as of July 2017.[6][7]

Men[edit]

Rank Mark Athlete Venue Date Ref
1 74.08 m (243 ft 0​12 in)  Jürgen Schult (GDR) Neubrandenburg 6 June 1986
2 73.88 m (242 ft 4​12 in)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) Kaunas 3 August 2000
3 73.38 m (240 ft 8​34 in)  Gerd Kanter (EST) Helsingborg 4 September 2006
4 71.86 m (235 ft 9 in)  Yuriy Dumchev (URS) Moscow 29 May 1983
5 71.84 m (235 ft 8​14 in)  Piotr Małachowski (POL) Hengelo 8 June 2013
6 71.70 m (235 ft 2​34 in)  Róbert Fazekas (HUN) Szombathely 14 July 2002
7 71.50 m (234 ft 6​34 in)  Lars Riedel (GER) Wiesbaden 3 May 1997
8 71.32 m (233 ft 11​34 in)  Ben Plucknett (USA) Eugene 4 June 1983
9 71.29 m (233 ft 10​12 in)  Daniel Ståhl (SWE) Sollentuna 29 June 2017 [8]
10 71.26 m (233 ft 9​12 in)  John Powell (USA) San Jose 9 June 1984
71.26 m (233 ft 9​12 in)  Rickard Bruch (SWE) Malmö 15 November 1984
71.26 m (233 ft 9​12 in)  Imrich Bugár (TCH) San Jose, CA 25 May 1985
13 71.18 m (233 ft 6​14 in)  Art Burns (USA) San Jose 19 July 1983
14 71.16 m (233 ft 5​12 in)  Wolfgang Schmidt (GDR) Berlin 9 August 1978
15 71.14 m (233 ft 4​34 in)  Anthony Washington (USA) Salinas 22 May 1996
16 71.06 m (233 ft 1​12 in)  Luis Delís (CUB) Havana 21 May 1983
17 70.98 m (232 ft 10​14 in)  Mac Wilkins (USA) Helsinki 9 July 1980
18 70.82 m (232 ft 4 in)  Aleksander Tammert (EST) Denton 15 April 2006
19 70.66 m (231 ft 9​34 in)  Robert Harting (GER) Turnov 22 May 2012
20 70.54 m (231 ft 5 in)  Dmitriy Shevchenko (RUS) Krasnodar 7 May 2002
21 70.38 m (230 ft 10​34 in)  Jay Silvester (USA) Lancaster 16 May 1971
22 70.32 m (230 ft 8​12 in)  Frantz Kruger (RSA) Salon-de-Provence 26 May 2002
23 70.06 m (229 ft 10​14 in)  Romas Ubartas (LTU) Smalininkai 8 May 1988
24 70.00 m (229 ft 7​34 in)  Juan Martínez (CUB) Havana 21 May 1983
25 69.95 m (229 ft 5​34 in)  Zoltán Kővágó (HUN) Salon-de-Provence 25 May 2006

Non-Legal Marks[edit]

  • Ben Plucknett also threw a world record of 72.34 on 7 July 1981 in Stockholm, but this performance was annulled due to doping offense.
  • Rickard Bruch also threw 72.18 on 23 July 1974 at an exhibition meeting in Piteå.
  • John Powell also threw 72.08 on 11 September 1987 in Klagshamn, but the throw was made onto a sloping/downhill sector.
  • Kamy Keshmiri threw 70.84 on 27 May 1992 in Salinas, but this performance was annulled due to doping offense.

Images[edit]

Women[edit]

Rank Mark Athlete Date Place Ref
1 76.80 m (251 ft 11​12 in)  Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) 9 July 1988 Neubrandenburg
2 74.56 m (244 ft 7​14 in)  Zdeňka Šilhavá (TCH) 26 August 1984 Nitra
74.56 m (244 ft 7​14 in)  Ilke Wyludda (GDR) 23 July 1989 Neubrandenburg
4 74.08 m (243 ft 0​12 in)  Diana Sachse (GDR) 20 June 1987 Karl-Marx-Stadt
5 73.84 m (242 ft 3 in)  Daniela Costian (ROU) 30 April 1988 Bucharest
6 73.36 m (240 ft 8 in)  Irina Meszynski (GDR) 17 August 1984 Prague
7 73.28 m (240 ft 5 in)  Galina Savinkova (URS) 8 September 1984 Donetsk
8 73.22 m (240 ft 2​12 in)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL) 19 April 1987 Kazanlak
9 73.10 m (239 ft 9​34 in)  Gisela Beyer (GDR) 20 July 1984 Berlin
10 72.92 m (239 ft 2​34 in)  Martina Hellmann (GDR) 20 August 1987 Potsdam
11 72.14 m (236 ft 8 in)  Galina Murashova (URS) 17 August 1984 Prague
12 71.80 m (235 ft 6​34 in)  Mariya Vergova (BUL) 13 July 1980 Sofia
13 71.68 m (235 ft 2 in)  Xiao Yanling (CHN) 14 March 1992 Beijing
14 71.58 m (234 ft 10 in)  Ellina Zvereva (URS) 12 June 1988 Leningrad
15 71.50 m (234 ft 6​34 in)  Evelin Jahl (GDR) 10 May 1980 Potsdam
16 71.41 m (234 ft 3​14 in)  Sandra Perković (CRO) 18 July 2017 Bellinzona [9]
17 71.30 m (233 ft 11 in)  Larisa Korotkevich (RUS) 29 May 1992 Sochi
18 71.22 m (233 ft 7​34 in)  Ria Stalman (NED) 15 July 1984 Walnut
19 70.88 m (232 ft 6​12 in)  Hilda Ramos (CUB) 8 May 1992 Havana
20 70.80 m (232 ft 3​14 in)  Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS) 18 June 1988 Kharkov
21 70.68 m (231 ft 10​12 in)  Maritza Martén (CUB) 18 July 1992 Sevilla
22 70.65 m (231 ft 9​14 in)  Denia Caballero (CUB) 20 June 2015 Bilbao [10]
23 70.50 m (231 ft 3​12 in)  Faina Melnik (URS) 24 April 1976 Sochi
24 70.34 m (230 ft 9​14 in)  Silvia Madetzky (GDR) 16 May 1988 Athens
25 70.02 m (229 ft 8​12 in)  Natalya Sadova (RUS) 23 June 1999 Thessaloniki

Notes[edit]

Below is a list of throws equal or superior to 72.94m:

Non-Legal Marks[edit]

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
Robert Garrett
 United States
Panagiotis Paraskevopoulos
 Greece
Sotirios Versis
 Greece
1900 Paris
details
Rudolf Bauer
 Hungary
František Janda-Suk
 Bohemia
Richard Sheldon
 United States
1904 St. Louis
details
Martin Sheridan
 United States
Ralph Rose
 United States
Nikolaos Georgantas
 Greece
1908 London
details
Martin Sheridan
 United States
Merritt Giffin
 United States
Bill Horr
 United States
1912 Stockholm
details
Armas Taipale
 Finland
Richard Byrd
 United States
James Duncan
 United States
1920 Antwerp
details
Elmer Niklander
 Finland
Armas Taipale
 Finland
Gus Pope
 United States
1924 Paris
details
Bud Houser
 United States
Vilho Niittymaa
 Finland
Thomas Lieb
 United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
Bud Houser
 United States
Antero Kivi
 Finland
James Corson
 United States
1932 Los Angeles
details
John Anderson
 United States
Henri LaBorde
 United States
Paul Winter
 France
1936 Berlin
details
Ken Carpenter
 United States
Gordon Dunn
 United States
Giorgio Oberweger
 Italy
1948 London
details
Adolfo Consolini
 Italy
Giuseppe Tosi
 Italy
Fortune Gordien
 United States
1952 Helsinki
details
Sim Iness
 United States
Adolfo Consolini
 Italy
James Dillion
 United States
1956 Melbourne
details
Al Oerter
 United States
Fortune Gordien
 United States
Des Koch
 United States
1960 Rome
details
Al Oerter
 United States
Rink Babka
 United States
Dick Cochran
 United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Al Oerter
 United States
Ludvík Daněk
 Czechoslovakia
Dave Weill
 United States
1968 Mexico City
details
Al Oerter
 United States
Lothar Milde
 East Germany
Ludvík Daněk
 Czechoslovakia
1972 Munich
details
Ludvík Daněk
 Czechoslovakia
Jay Silvester
 United States
Ricky Bruch
 Sweden
1976 Montreal
details
Mac Wilkins
 United States
Wolfgang Schmidt
 East Germany
John Powell
 United States
1980 Moscow
details
Viktor Rashchupkin
 Soviet Union
Imrich Bugár
 Czechoslovakia
Luis Delís
 Cuba
1984 Los Angeles
details
Rolf Danneberg
 West Germany
Mac Wilkins
 United States
John Powell
 United States
1988 Seoul
details
Jürgen Schult
 East Germany
Romas Ubartas
 Soviet Union
Rolf Danneberg
 West Germany
1992 Barcelona
details
Romas Ubartas
 Lithuania
Jürgen Schult
 Germany
Roberto Moya
 Cuba
1996 Atlanta
details
Lars Riedel
 Germany
Vladimir Dubrovshchik
 Belarus
Vasiliy Kaptyukh
 Belarus
2000 Sydney
details
Virgilijus Alekna
 Lithuania
Lars Riedel
 Germany
Frantz Kruger
 South Africa
2004 Athens
details
Virgilijus Alekna
 Lithuania
Zoltán Kővágó
 Hungary
Aleksander Tammert
 Estonia
2008 Beijing
details
Gerd Kanter
 Estonia
Piotr Małachowski
 Poland
Virgilijus Alekna
 Lithuania
2012 London
details
Robert Harting
 Germany
Ehsan Haddadi
 Iran
Gerd Kanter
 Estonia
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Christoph Harting
 Germany
Piotr Małachowski
 Poland
Daniel Jasinski
 Germany

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
Halina Konopacka
 Poland
Lillian Copeland
 United States
Ruth Svedberg
 Sweden
1932 Los Angeles
details
Lillian Copeland
 United States
Ruth Osburn
 United States
Jadwiga Wajs
 Poland
1936 Berlin
details
Gisela Mauermayer
 Germany
Jadwiga Wajs
 Poland
Paula Mollenhauer
 Germany
1948 London
details
Micheline Ostermeyer
 France
Edera Gentile
 Italy
Jacqueline Mazéas
 France
1952 Helsinki
details
Nina Romashkova
 Soviet Union
Yelisaveta Bagriantseva
 Soviet Union
Nina Dumbadze
 Soviet Union
1956 Melbourne
details
Olga Fikotová
 Czechoslovakia
Irina Beglyakova
 Soviet Union
Nina Romashkova
 Soviet Union
1960 Rome
details
Nina Romashkova
 Soviet Union
Tamara Press
 Soviet Union
Lia Manoliu
 Romania
1964 Tokyo
details
Tamara Press
 Soviet Union
Ingrid Lotz
 United Team of Germany
Lia Manoliu
 Romania
1968 Mexico City
details
Lia Manoliu
 Romania
Liesel Westermann
 West Germany
Jolán Kleiber-Kontsek
 Hungary
1972 Munich
details
Faina Melnyk
 Soviet Union
Argentina Menis
 Romania
Vasilka Stoeva
 Bulgaria
1976 Montreal
details
Evelin Schlaak
 East Germany
Mariya Vergova
 Bulgaria
Gabriele Hinzmann
 East Germany
1980 Moscow
details
Evelin Jahl
 East Germany
Mariya Petkova
 Bulgaria
Tatyana Lesovaya
 Soviet Union
1984 Los Angeles
details
Ria Stalman
 Netherlands
Leslie Deniz
 United States
Florența Crăciunescu
 Romania
1988 Seoul
details
Martina Hellmann
 East Germany
Diana Gansky
 East Germany
Tsvetanka Khristova
 Bulgaria
1992 Barcelona
details
Maritza Martén
 Cuba
Tsvetanka Khristova
 Bulgaria
Daniela Costian
 Australia
1996 Atlanta
details
Ilke Wyludda
 Germany
Natalya Sadova
 Russia
Ellina Zvereva
 Belarus
2000 Sydney
details
Ellina Zvereva
 Belarus
Anastasia Kelesidou
 Greece
Iryna Yatchenko
 Belarus
2004 Athens
details
Natalya Sadova
 Russia
Anastasia Kelesidou
 Greece
Věra Pospíšilová-Cechlová
 Czech Republic[11]
2008 Beijing
details
Stephanie Brown Trafton
 United States
Yarelys Barrios
 Cuba
Olena Antonova
 Ukraine
2012 London
details
Sandra Perković
 Croatia
Li Yanfeng
 China
Yarelys Barrios
 Cuba
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Sandra Perković
 Croatia
Mélina Robert-Michon
 France
Denia Caballero
 Cuba

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Imrich Bugár (TCH)  Luis Delís (CUB)  Géjza Valent (TCH)
1987 Rome
details
 Jürgen Schult (GDR)  John Powell (USA)  Luis Delís (CUB)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Erik de Bruin (NED)  Attila Horváth (HUN)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Dmitry Shevchenko (RUS)  Jürgen Schult (GER)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Vladimir Dubrovshchik (BLR)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
1997 Athens
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Jürgen Schult (GER)
1999 Seville
details
 Anthony Washington (USA)  Jürgen Schult (GER)  Lars Riedel (GER)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Michael Möllenbeck (GER)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Róbert Fazekas (HUN)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Gerd Kanter (EST)  Michael Möllenbeck (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
 Gerd Kanter (EST)  Robert Harting (GER)  Rutger Smith (NED)
2009 Berlin
details
 Robert Harting (GER)  Piotr Małachowski (POL)  Gerd Kanter (EST)
2011 Daegu
details
 Robert Harting (GER)  Gerd Kanter (EST)  Ehsan Haddadi (IRI)
2013 Moscow
details
 Robert Harting (GER)  Piotr Małachowski (POL)  Gerd Kanter (EST)
2015 Beijing
details
 Piotr Małachowski (POL)  Philip Milanov (BEL)  Robert Urbanek (POL)
2017 London
details
 Andrius Gudžius (LTU)  Daniel Ståhl (SWE)  Mason Finley (USA)

Women[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Martina Opitz (GDR)  Galina Murašova (URS)  Mariya Petkova (BUL)
1987 Rome
details
 Martina Hellmann (GDR)  Diana Gansky (GDR)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)  Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)  Daniela Costian (AUS)  Min Chunfeng (CHN)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)
1997 Athens
details
 Beatrice Faumuina (NZL)  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)
1999 Seville
details
 Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Iryna Yatchenko (BLR)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Ekaterini Voggoli (GRE)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)  Věra Pospíšilová-Cechlová (CZE)
2007 Osaka
details
 Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2009 Berlin
details
 Dani Samuels (AUS)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2011 Daegu
details
 Li Yanfeng (CHN)  Nadine Müller (GER)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)
2013 Moscow
details
 Sandra Perković (CRO)  Mélina Robert-Michon (FRA)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)
2015 Beijing
details
 Denia Caballero (CUB)  Sandra Perković (CRO)  Nadine Müller (GER)
2017 London
details
 Sandra Perković (CRO)  Dani Stevens (AUS)  Mélina Robert-Michon (FRA)

Season's bests[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Sports - List of Summer and Winter Olympic Sports". olympic.org. 14 January 2018. 
  2. ^ Cappos, Scott. "Shot Put and Discus Technique and Training". Digital Track and Field. 
  3. ^ a b throwhammer (13 September 2010). "wyludda discus throw 1996 olympics" – via YouTube. 
  4. ^ ntujavelin (26 December 2008). "2005 World Championship Men's Discus - 1st Virgilijus Alekna" – via YouTube. 
  5. ^ http://archive.auvac.org/research/publications/files/2003/niewiadomska.pdf
  6. ^ Discus Throw - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-20.
  7. ^ Discus Throw - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-20.
  8. ^ Jon Mulkeen (29 June 2017). "Stahl breaks Swedish discus record with world-leading 71.29m". IAAF. Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  9. ^ Diego Sampaolo (19 July 2017). "Perkovic throws 71.41m in Bellinzona, world's best discus mark since 1992". IAAF. Retrieved 19 July 2017. 
  10. ^ "Denia Caballero sets Discus world lead of 70.65, Pichardo debuts in long jump". watchathletics.com. 21 June 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  11. ^ Day 2 of IOC Executive Board meeting in St. Petersburg . Olympic (2013-05-30). Retrieved on 2014-04-19.

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