Disney's Hollywood Studios
|Location||Walt Disney World Resort, Bay Lake, Florida, United States|
|Theme||Show business, 1930s Hollywood|
|Owner||The Walt Disney Company|
|Operated by||Walt Disney Parks and Resorts|
|Opened||May 1, 1989|
|Previous names||Disney-MGM Studios (1989–2008)|
|Walt Disney World|
Disney's Hollywood Studios is a theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida, near Orlando. It is owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company through its Parks and Resorts division. Based on an idea by Marty Sklar, Randy Bright, and Michael Eisner, the park opened on May 1, 1989, as the Disney-MGM Studios Theme Park, and was the third of four theme parks built at Walt Disney World. Spanning 135 acres (55 ha), the park is dedicated to the facets of show business, including film, television, music, and theatre, drawing inspiration from the heyday of Hollywood in the 1930s and 1940s.
Disney's Hollywood Studios initially opened as both a theme park and an operating production studio, with active film and television production services, an animation facility branch, and a functioning backlot. To increase public interest and the variety of film representation within the park, Disney entered into a licensing agreement with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, wherein the park's original name was derived. The park's current name took effect in 2008, with the removal of the MGM-branding throughout the park. The park's icon was originally the Earffel Tower from the park's opening until 2001 when the Sorcerer's Hat—a stylized version of the magical hat from Fantasia—was erected in the park's central hub. It then served as the park's icon until its removal in January 2015. The tower was subsequently removed in April 2016. Currently, the park remains without an official designated icon, although both The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror and The Chinese Theatre are represented as such in marketing materials.
In 2015, the park hosted approximately 10.8 million guests, ranking it the fifth most-visited theme park in North America and the eighth most-visited theme park in the world.
The World you have entered was created by The Walt Disney Company and is dedicated to Hollywood—not a place on a map, but a state of mind that exists wherever people dream and wonder and imagine, a place where illusion and reality are fused by technological magic. We welcome you to a Hollywood that never was—and always will be.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
A team of Walt Disney Imagineers led by Marty Sklar and Randy Bright had been given an assignment to create two new pavilions for Epcot's Future World section. The brainstorming sessions led to Wonders of Life and Great Movie Ride pavilions. The latter was to look like a soundstage backdrop, with a movie theater-style entrance in the middle and would have sat between the Land and Journey Into Imagination pavilions. When newly appointed CEO Michael Eisner saw the plans for the pavilion, he requested that, instead of placing the ride in an already existing park, it should be the anchor for a new park themed with Hollywood, entertainment, and show business.
In 1985, Disney and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer entered into a licensing contract that gave Disney worldwide rights to use the MGM brand and logo for what would become Disney-MGM Studios, which included working production facilities for movies and television shows and a satellite animation studio, which began operation prior to the park's debut. In 1988, MGM/UA responded by filing a lawsuit that claimed Disney violated the agreement by operating a working movie and television studio at the resort. On May 1, 1989, the theme park opened adjacent to the production facilities, with MGM's only affiliation being the original licensing agreement that allowed Disney to use MGM's name and lion logo in marketing, and separate contracts that allowed specific MGM content to be used in The Great Movie Ride. When the park first opened, the only two attractions were the Studio Backlot Tour and the Great Movie Ride.
Disney later filed a countersuit, claiming that MGM/UA and MGM Grand, Inc. had conspired to violate Disney's worldwide rights to the MGM name in the theme park business and that MGM/UA would harm Disney's reputation by building its own theme park at the MGM Grand hotel and casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. On October 23, 1992, Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Curtis B. Rappe ruled that Disney had the right to continue using the Disney-MGM Studios name on film product produced at the Florida facility, and that MGM Grand had the right to build a Las Vegas theme park using the MGM name and logo as long as it did not share the same studio backlot theme as Disney's property. The 33-acre (130,000 m2) MGM Grand Adventures Theme Park opened in 1993 at the Las Vegas site and closed permanently in 2000. Disney was contractually prohibited from using the Disney-MGM Studios name in certain marketing contexts; in those instances, the park was called The Disney Studios
In 1994, the park saw its first expansion, with the addition of Sunset Boulevard and The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror attraction.
In the 2010s, Disney began phasing out the park's non-immersive, "studio-like" attractions that headlined the park during its early years of operation. This included the closure of the park's Studio Backlot Tour, American Idol Experience, and the Legend of Captain Jack Sparrow attractions in 2014. The following year, the Sorcerer's Hat was removed and the original sightlines from Hollywood Boulevard to the park's Chinese Theatre were restored. In March 2015, during an annual shareholders meeting, CEO Bob Iger hinted at another possible name change for the park coming in the near future. In 2016, the majority of Streets of America—including the backlot street facades, the Lights, Motors, Action! Extreme Stunt Show, the Earffel Tower, and the remaining backstage areas—was closed and demolished in preparation for Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge and Toy Story Land. In 2017, the Great Movie Ride closed as the final remaining opening-day attraction.
Disney's Hollywood Studios is divided into six themed areas. The park's original layout featured a large Hidden Mickey, which was visible in aerial photographs of the park and on the park's early guide maps. Construction and other park changes have eliminated much of this image.
Hollywood Boulevard, inspired by the street in Los Angeles, serves as the park's main entrance and operates in the same vein as Main Street, U.S.A. at Magic Kingdom. It is lined with themed streetscape facades and venues selling Disney merchandise and park services. Guests enter through the main entrance gate, which resembles the Pan-Pacific Auditorium. Near the park's gate is a recreation of the Crossroads of the World tower. Live street entertainment and seasonal parades travel down the main street throughout the day. At the far end of Hollywood Boulevard stands an exact replica of Grauman's Chinese Theatre. Near the entrance of Animation Courtyard—resides The Hollywood Brown Derby restaurant, a themed replica of the original Brown Derby restaurant in Hollywood, California.
Echo Lake, inspired by the real location of the same name, is designed to mimic the "California Crazy" form of architecture from Hollywood's Golden Age.
Echo Lake includes three major attractions based on characters and films created by George Lucas and produced by Lucasfilm. Star Tours–The Adventures Continue is a 3-D motion simulator ride set in the Star Wars universe. The Jedi Training: Trials of the Temple, a live-action stage show, invites children to become "padawan learners" and receive lightsaber training from a Jedi master. The live-action Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular! re-enacts various scenes from Steven Spielberg's Raiders of the Lost Ark, while illustrating how professional film stunts are performed.
The Hyperion Theater houses For the First Time in Forever: A Frozen Sing-Along Celebration, a musical show based on Disney's 2013 animated film Frozen. The adjacent ABC Sound Studio building showcases Star Wars: Path of the Jedi, a short film retelling of the Star Wars series. Behind these buildings lies a subsection named Commissary Lane, that connects Hollywood Boulevard to Muppets Courtyard and bypasses Echo Lake altogether. In this area, resides the ABC Commissary and the Sci-Fi Dine-In Theater Restaurant, a dinner theater with a retro-style theme featuring vintage car themed tables and a large movie screen featuring continuous clips of science-fiction films from the 1950s.
Muppets Courtyard is themed to the Muppets franchise. The area is anchored by Muppet*Vision 3D, a 4-D film starring the Muppets from Jim Henson's The Muppet Show, that features multiple effects to display the characters inside the theater during the presentation. The area is also home to PizzeRizzo, a Brooklyn-style pizza restaurant owned by Rizzo the Rat, and Mama Melrose's Ristorante Italiano.
Muppets Courtyard was originally planned to be an area of the park known as Muppet Studios, following Disney's acquisition of the Jim Henson Company. In addition to Muppet*Vision 3D, this area was to include a themed restaurant and a Muppet dark ride parody of The Great Movie Ride. The deal fell through after Henson's death, leaving only Muppet*Vision 3D to be developed.
Instead, the area became a part of the park's former Streets of America area, which encompassed several attractions, including an urban street amalgamation of New York City and San Francisco. The area's namesake street facades were formerly the park's working backlot set, which was originally a component of the park's inaugural Studio Backlot Tour, and opened to pedestrian park traffic in the mid-1990s; this area closed on April 2, 2016.
Pixar Place is dedicated to films and characters created by Pixar. The area, which resembles the animation studio's Emeryville, California campus, includes many of the former soundstages used by the park when it operated as an active production studio. Its sole attraction is Toy Story Midway Mania!, an interactive 4D attraction inspired by classic carnival midway games, each hosted by characters from the Toy Story film series. Pixar Place was also the home of Luxo Jr., a six-foot-tall audio-animatronic version of Pixar's desk-lamp mascot. The moving character performs periodic shows throughout the day and evening across from Toy Story Midway Mania.
Animation Courtyard is home to attractions based on films and characters created by Walt Disney Animation Studios. Its entrance is marked by a square "studio arch". This section of the park originally was the starting point for the Studio Backlot Tour.
The former Magic of Disney Animation building hosts Star Wars Launch Bay, a Star Wars exhibit featuring behind-the-scenes props and character meet-and-greets with Darth Vader, Chewbacca, and Kylo Ren. Mickey Avenue, a subsection of Animation Courtyard, is home to a walk-through exhibit, Walt Disney Presents, which explores the life and legacy of Walt Disney through photos, models, artifacts, and a short biographical film narrated by Julie Andrews. The Courtyard section also hosts two live shows. Disney Junior Live on Stage! entertains guests with puppet characters from Disney Junior series, including Mickey Mouse Clubhouse, Doc McStuffins, and Sofia the First. Across the plaza, Voyage of the Little Mermaid uses glow-in-the-dark puppets, lasers, music, projectors, human actors and water effects to recreate favorite scenes and songs from the 1989 animated film.
Sunset Boulevard, inspired by the real thoroughfare of the same name, was the first expansion of the park, opening in July 1994. The focal point of Sunset Boulevard is the Twilight Zone Tower of Terror, a thrill ride based on Rod Serling's classic CBS television series. Located nearby is Rock 'n' Roller Coaster Starring Aerosmith, an indoor darkened roller coaster themed to the music of Aerosmith, with three inversions and a high-speed launch. Situated next to Rock n' Roller Coaster is Sunset Showcase, an indoor special events venue.
Sunset Boulevard has two outdoor amphitheaters. The covered Theater of the Stars hosts both Beauty and the Beast Live on Stage, a stage show featuring highlights from the animated film, and The Music of Pixar Live!, a live symphony orchestra presentation of Pixar film music. The open-air Hollywood Hills Amphitheater is the home of Fantasmic!, a nighttime show featuring Mickey Mouse and many other Disney characters in a story with fireworks, lasers and water effects.
Disney CEO Bob Iger announced Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge, a 14-acre (5.7 ha) Star Wars-themed expansion at the D23 Expo in August 2015. The land, which will be duplicated at Disneyland, will include two new attractions. The first will be a Millennium Falcon-inspired attraction that will allow guests in control of a "customized secret mission", and the second attraction will place guests in "a climactic battle between the First Order and the Resistance". Construction began on April 14, 2016, with an expected opening in 2019.
Toy Story Land, inspired by the Toy Story series, will be an 11-acre (4.5 ha) land encompassing two newly designed attractions, as well as an expanded version of the park's current Toy Story Mania! attraction. The land will open in 2018.
Disney's Hollywood Studios has featured numerous forms of in-park entertainment throughout its history. During its early years, the park featured the "Star Today" program, with a daily celebrity guest. The celebrity would often be featured in a motorcade along Hollywood Boulevard or would take part in a handprint ceremony at the Great Movie Ride's entrance, or participate in an interview session.
At other times, Disney has imported characters and intellectual properties that were not part of its own original library of films and television shows. Some of these characters have included the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, Ace Ventura, Pet Detective, and characters from the Goosebumps series by author R. L. Stine. The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers made appearances in the park during the first seasons of the television series but then vanished. Disney had ownership of the Power Rangers franchise through its purchase of Saban Entertainment until May 2010 when Saban purchased the franchise back and were regular members of the park's cast of characters during that time. Live musical acts, such as the cover band Mulch, Sweat and Shears and the a cappella quartet Four For a Dollar, used to perform on the park streets or as pre-show entertainment at the larger shows.
Like Disney's Animal Kingdom, Disney's Hollywood Studios also used to run daily parades down Hollywood Boulevard. The Disney Stars and Motor Cars Parade and the Pixar Block Party Bash featured film characters performing in a street party along Hollywood Boulevard and near Echo Lake. Several times each day, the "High School Musical 3 Senior Year: Right Here Right Now" show used to travel Hollywood Boulevard before performing a live street show in front of the Sorcerer's Hat.
Disney's Hollywood Studios has hosted several events during the years that often draw thousands of fans to the park.
- ESPN The Weekend (late winter) featured commentators from the Disney-owned cable sports channels as well as sports celebrities. The event was permanently cancelled in July 2011.
- Star Wars Weekends (May–June) brought Star Wars fans and celebrities together for special park events. Running Fridays-Sundays throughout June, they featured the 501st Legion (a worldwide Star Wars costuming group) parading through the park in costumes that include Stormtroopers, TIE fighter pilots, biker scouts and rebel soldiers. Several Star Wars actors appear each weekend for photos and autographs, appearing in a variety of shows hosted in the various theatres around the park, larger Jedi Training Academy classes for younger guests, and other activities. Star Wars Weekends ended its run in 2015.
- ABC Super Soap Weekend was scheduled in November, the event paid tribute to the legions of fans of soap operas from ABC. Guests could meet stars from All My Children, One Life to Live, and General Hospital. The event's final presentation was in November 2008, with ABC instead planning to schedule multiple, smaller regional events around the country for its fans.
- The Osborne Family Spectacle of Dancing Lights (November–January) took over the Streets of America during the Christmas season. The display featured over five million Christmas lights on more than 350 miles (560 km) of wire. The event ended its run in 2015.
|This section does not cite any sources. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The Walt Disney Company's original concept of the Disney-MGM Studios was to operate it as a television and motion picture production facility, as well as a theme park. In 1988, among the first feature-length movies filmed at the facility, prior to its completion and opening as a theme park, were Ernest Saves Christmas and Newsies. When the park opened in 1989, the studio/production facilities housed two major components, the first of which was Walt Disney Feature Animation Florida, where Disney produced projects including Mulan, Lilo & Stitch, Brother Bear, and sequences from other 1990s-early 2000s Disney animated features. The second, larger component was Walt Disney Studios Florida, which consisted of three sound stages used for Disney projects including The Disney Channel's Mickey Mouse Club, Teen Win, Lose or Draw and Adventures in Wonderland. Several third party productions also used the Studios, including Superboy (first season only, from 1988–1989), the 1988-89 season of MTV's Remote Control, Thunder in Paradise, a revival of Let's Make a Deal, special broadcasts of Wheel of Fortune, airplane interior sequences for the feature film Passenger 57, and The Dooley and Pals Show. Music videos, several tapings for World Championship Wrestling, and live broadcasts of WCW Monday Nitro were also shot there. The Post Group had a Florida-based post-production facility located on the Studio lot throughout the 1990s. All these production and post-production facilities were constructed to be an integral part of the theme park's Backstage Studio Tour as well. Disney management (including CEO Michael Eisner) downsized Disney's Florida operations by closing the animation studio, laying off personnel and then moving the operations to the main animation studio in Burbank, California. A radio studio is also located on the lot, behind "Sounds Dangerous".
|9,608,000||9,700,000||9,603,000||9,699,000||9,912,000||10,110,000||10,312,000 ||10,828,000 ||10,776,000 ||8|
- Niles, Robert (November 25, 2014). "Turner Classic Movies Steps in to Sponsor Disney World's Great Movie Ride". Theme Park Insider. Archived from the original on January 19, 2016. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
- Sandra Pedicini; Dewayne Bevil (October 25, 2014). "Disney's Hollywood Studios removing sorcerer's hat". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on October 26, 2014. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
- Bevil, Dewayne (January 7, 2015). "Disney visitors say farewell to Hollywood Studios' big hat". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on January 7, 2015. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
- "TEA/AECOM 2015 Global Attractions Attendance Report Report" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 18, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
- Jones, Wesley; Esola, Michael (June 2010). Mousecatraz: The Disney College Program. Lulu.com. p. 49. ISBN 9780578058139. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Kowalczik, C. (March 2008). Simply Disney: Vacation Planning Made Easy 2008. Lulu.com. p. 129. ISBN 9781435710054. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
- Burke, Bill (May 5, 2009). Mousejunkies! Tips, Tales, and Tricks for a DISNEY WORLD Fix: All You Need to Know for a Perfect Vacation. Travelers' Tales. ISBN 9781932361759. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- Moyer, Justin Wm. Bill Cosby statue comes down at Disney park after drug revelations. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 8, 2015. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- Variety.com, Disney, MGM winners at trial's end, October 26, 1992
- On With the (Even Bigger) Show! New Name, More Magic to Transform Disney Theme Park "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 12, 2007. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Disney Announces Name Change For MGM Studios "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- Bevil, Dewayne (March 24, 2016). "Hollywood Studios attractions on their way out at Disney World". orlandosentinel.com. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- Mauney, Matt (February 26, 2015). "Disney Hollywood Studios: The hat is gone". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 26, 2015. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- Graser, Marc (March 12, 2015). "Disney’s Hollywood Studios Theme Park to Get New Name". Variety. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Pedicini, Sandra (August 15, 2015). "Star Wars land coming to Disney's Hollywood Studios - Orlando Sentinel". OrlandoSentinel.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2015.
- Pedicini, Sandra (January 15, 2016). "Earffel Tower coming down, attractions closing at Disney's Hollywood Studios". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
- Bevil, Dewayne. "Hollywood Studios: Magic of Disney Animation closing next month". OrlandoSentinel.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015.
- Stein, Mitchell (August 13, 2017). "Guest Editorial: The closure of The Great Movie Ride is the end of an era in Disney themeing". Attractions Magazine. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
- Shane (March 25, 2014). "Return to Opening Day: Disney MGM Studios 1989 - Parkeology". Parkeology. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016.
- Rasmussen, Nate (June 9, 2011). "Vintage Walt Disney World: Sunset Boulevard Emerges". Disney Parks Blog. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
- Delgado, Lauren (July 15, 2016). "PizzeRizzo opening this fall in Disney's Hollywood Studios". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on July 20, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- Bevil, Dewayne (November 7, 2016). "Latest look: Changes underway at Disney's Hollywood Studios". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on November 18, 2016. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- Korkis, Jim. "Walt Disney World Chronicles: The Muppet Studios". allears.net. Archived from the original on April 16, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
- Hill, Jim. "You will believe that a Pig can fly. (Frogs too!)". jimhillmedia.com. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
- Smith, Thomas. "Experience Lights, Motors, Action! Extreme Stunt Show One More Time at Disney’s Hollywood Studios". Disney Parks Blog. Archived from the original on January 15, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
- "More closures planned, including Earffel Tower, for Disney’s Hollywood Studios due to Star Wars, Toy Story construction". Inside the Magic. Archived from the original on January 17, 2016.
- "Official Toy Story Mania info page". Archived from the original on October 27, 2007.
- Jason Garcia and Sara K. Clarke (June 8, 2009). "Wait may be more fun at Disney's Space Mountain". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on June 10, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
- Bevil, Todd (October 12, 2015). "Club Disney to premiere in new Hollywood Studios venue". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on January 5, 2016. Retrieved January 20, 2016.
- "'Star Wars’ Themed Lands Coming to Disney Parks, Says Bob Iger". Variety. August 15, 2015. Archived from the original on August 16, 2015. Retrieved August 15, 2015.
- "Star Wars-Themed Lands Coming to Walt Disney World and Disneyland Resorts". Disney Parks Blog. 2015. Archived from the original on August 15, 2015. Retrieved August 15, 2015.
- Parker, Ryan (April 14, 2016). "Disney Breaks Ground on 'Star Wars' Land in California and Florida". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- Savvas, George (February 7, 2017). "Star Wars-Themed Lands at Disney Parks Set to Open in 2019". Disney Parks Blog. Archived from the original on February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "Pandora – The World of Avatar to Open May 27, Star Wars Lands Coming in 2019 - The Walt Disney Company". The Walt Disney Company. February 7, 2017. Archived from the original on February 9, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- Martens, Todd (August 15, 2015). "Disney reveals plans for 'Toy Story Land' and 'Avatar' and more 'Star Wars'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 16, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- Brucculieri, Julia (August 16, 2015). "'Toy Story' Land Is Coming To Disney's Hollywood Studios". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on August 17, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- Barnes, Brooks (July 15, 2017). "Disney Vows to Give Epcot a Magical, Long-Overdue Makeover". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved July 16, 2017.
- Peabody, Joan (July 26, 2017). "New BaseLine Tap House Part of New Grand Avenue Area at Disney’s Hollywood Studios". Disney Parks Blog. Archived from the original on July 26, 2017. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
- Bricker, Tom (July 26, 2017). "Grand Ave Coming to Disney's Hollywood Studios - Disney Tourist Blog". Disney Tourist Blog.
- Littleton, Cynthia (May 12, 2010). "Saban re-acquires rights to ‘Rangers’". Variety. Archived from the original on September 16, 2010. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- "Mulch, Sweat and Shears ending at Hollywood Studios". Attractions Magazine. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016.
- "Official ESPN The Weekend Page". Archived from the original on October 16, 2007.
- Weiner, Jeff. "No more ESPN The Weekend at Disney World". articles.orlandosentinel.com. Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
- "Star Wars Weekends Page". Archived from the original on September 7, 2007.
- Smith, Thomas. "Disney’s Hollywood Studios to Debut New Star Wars Experiences in December". disneyparks.disney.go.com. Disney Parks. Archived from the original on November 9, 2015. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Pedicini, Sandra; Santana, Marco. "Star Wars Weekends ending at Disney's Hollywood Studios". orlandosentinel.com. Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on November 9, 2015. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- "Official Super Soap Weekend Page". Archived from the original on October 16, 2007.
- "Event Home Page". Archived from the original on August 30, 2007.
- "Mickey Monitor" Passholder newsletter, October 2007, page 2
- "TEA/AECOM 2008 Global Attractions Report" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 2, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- "TEA/AECOM 2009 Global Attractions Report" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 2, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- "TEA/AECOM 2010 Global Attractions Report" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 19, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- "TEA/AECOM 2011 Global Attractions Report" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 18, 2015. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
- "TEA/AECOM 2012 Global Attractions Report" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- "TEA/AECOM 2013 Global Attractions Report" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2014. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- Rubin, Judith; Au, Tsz Yin (Gigi); Chang, Beth; Cheu, Linda; Elsea, Daniel; LaClair, Kathleen; Lock, Jodie; Linford, Sarah; Miller, Erik; Nevin, Jennie; Papamichael, Margreet; Pincus, Jeff; Robinett, John; Sands, Brian; Selby, Will; Timmins, Matt; Ventura, Feliz; Yoshii, Chris. "TEA/AECOM 2014 Theme Index & Museum Index: The Global Attractions Attendance Report" (PDF). aecom.com. Themed Entertainment Association (TEA). Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "TEA/AECOM 2015 Global Attractions Attendance Report" (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 3, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
- Au, Tsz Yin (Gigi); Chang, Bet; Chen, Bryan; Cheu, Linda; Fischer, Lucia; Hoffman, Marina; Kondaurova, Olga; LaClair, Kathleen; Li, Shaojin; Linford, Sarah; Marling, George; Miller, Erik; Nevin, Jennie; Papamichael, Margreet; Robinett, John; Rubin, Judith; Sands, Brian; Selby, William; Timmins, Matt; Ventura, Feliz; Yoshii, Chris (June 1, 2017). "TEA/AECOM 2016 Theme Index & Museum Index: Global Attractions Attendance Report" (PDF). aecom.com. Themed Entertainment Association. Retrieved July 26, 2017.