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DisplayPort Connector
Type Digital audio/video connector
Designer VESA
Designed May 2006
Manufacturer Various
Produced Since 2008
Superseded DVI, VGA
Superseded by None
Length Various
Hot pluggable Yes
External Yes
Audio signal Optional; 1–8 channels, 16 or 24-bit linear PCM; 32–192 kHz sampling rate; maximum bitrate 36,864 kbit/s (4,608 kB/s)
Video signal Optional, maximum resolution limited by available bandwidth
Cable 3 meters for full bandwidth transmission over passive cable.
33 meters over active cable.[1]
Pins 20 pins for external connectors on desktops, notebooks, graphics cards, monitors, etc. and 30/20 pins for internal connections between graphics engines and built-in flat panels.
Signal +3.3 V
Max. voltage 16.0 V
Max. current 0.5 A
Data signal Yes
Bitrate 1.62, 2.7, 5.4, or 8.1 Gbit/s data rate per lane; 1, 2, or 4 lanes; (effective total 5.184, 8.64, 17.28, or 25.92  Gbit/s for 4-lane link); 1 Mbit/s or 720 Mbit/s for the auxiliary channel.
Protocol Mini-packet
DisplayPort Connector.svg
External connector (source-side) on PCB
Pin 1 ML_Lane 0 (p)[a] Lane 0 (positive)
Pin 2 GND Ground
Pin 3 ML_Lane 0 (n)[a] Lane 0 (negative)
Pin 4 ML_Lane 1 (p)[a] Lane 1 (positive)
Pin 5 GND Ground
Pin 6 ML_Lane 1 (n)[a] Lane 1 (negative)
Pin 7 ML_Lane 2 (p)[a] Lane 2 (positive)
Pin 8 GND Ground
Pin 9 ML_Lane 2 (n)[a] Lane 2 (negative)
Pin 10 ML_Lane 3 (p)[a] Lane 3 (positive)
Pin 11 GND Ground
Pin 12 ML_Lane 3 (n)[a] Lane 3 (negative)
Pin 13 CONFIG1 Connected to ground[b]
Pin 14 CONFIG2 Connected to ground[b]
Pin 15 AUX CH (p) Auxiliary channel (positive)
Pin 16 GND Ground
Pin 17 AUX CH (n) Auxiliary channel (negative)
Pin 18 Hot plug Hot plug detect
Pin 19 Return Return for power
Pin 20 DP_PWR Power for connector (3.3 V 500 mA)
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h This is the pinout for source-side connector, the sink-side connector pinout will have lanes 0–3 reversed in order; i.e., lane 3 will be on pin 1(n) and 3(p) while lane 0 will be on pin 10(n) and 12(p).
  2. ^ a b Pins 13 and 14 may either be directly connected to ground or connected to ground through a pulldown device.
DisplayPort connector

DisplayPort is a digital display interface developed by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, though it can also be used to carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.[2]

VESA designed it to replace VGA, DVI, and FPD-Link. DisplayPort is backwards compatible with VGA, DVI and HDMI through the use of passive and active adapters.


DisplayPort is the first display interface to rely on packetized data transmission, a form of digital communication found in technologies including Ethernet, USB, and PCI Express. It allows both internal and external display connections and, unlike legacy standards where differential pairs are fixed to transmitting a clock signal with each output, the DisplayPort protocol is based on small data packets known as micro packets, which can embed the clock signal within the data stream, allowing higher resolutions with fewer pins.[3] The use of data packets also allows DisplayPort to be extensible, meaning additional features can be added over time without significant changes to the physical interface itself.[4]

DisplayPort can be used to transmit audio and video simultaneously, but each one is optional and can be transmitted without the other. The video signal path can have six to sixteen bits per color channel, and the audio path can have up to eight channels of 24-bit 192 kHz uncompressed PCM audio or can encapsulate compressed audio formats in the audio stream.[2] A bi-directional, half-duplex auxiliary channel carries device management and device control data for the Main Link, such as VESA EDID, MCCS, and DPMS standards. In addition, the interface is capable of carrying bi-directional USB signals.[5]

The DisplayPort LVDS signal protocol is not compatible with DVI or HDMI. However, dual-mode DisplayPorts are designed to transmit a single-link DVI or HDMI 1.2/1.4 TMDS protocol across the interface through the use of an external passive adapter that selects the desired signal and converts it from 3.3 volts to 5 volts. Analog VGA and dual-link DVI require powered active adapters to convert the protocol and signal levels and do not rely on dual mode. VGA adapters are powered by the DisplayPort connector, while dual-link DVI adapters may rely on an external power source (see Dual-mode).[6]

The DisplayPort connector can have one, two, or four differential data pairs (lanes) in a Main Link, each with a raw bit rate of 1.62 (reduced bit rate), 2.7 (high bit rate), 5.4 (HBR2), or 8.1 Gbit/s (HBR3) per lane (6.48, 10.8, 21.6, or 32.4 Gbit/s for a full 4-lane link) with self-clock running at 162, 270, 540, or 810 MHz. The effective data rates after decoding are 1.296, 2.16, 4.32, or 6.486 Gbit/s per lane (5.184, 8.64, 17.28, or 25.92 Gbit/s for a full 4-lane link), or 80% of the total, since data is 8b/10b encoded so each eight bits of information are encoded with a ten-bit symbol.


1.0 to 1.1[edit]

The first version, 1.0, was approved by VESA on 3 May 2006.[7] Version 1.1a was ratified on 2 April 2007.[8]

DisplayPort 1.1a allows a maximum of 8.64 Gbit/s data rate over a 2-meter cable.[9] DisplayPort 1.1 allows devices to implement alternative link layers such as fiber optic, allowing a much longer reach between source and display without signal degradation,[10] although alternative implementations are not standardized. It also includes HDCP in addition to DisplayPort Content Protection (DPCP). The DisplayPort 1.1a specification can be downloaded for free from the VESA website.[9]


DisplayPort version 1.2 was approved on 22 December 2009. The most significant improvement of the new version is the doubling of the effective bandwidth to 17.28 Gbit/s in High Bit Rate 2 (HBR2) mode, which allows increased resolutions, higher refresh rates, and greater color depth. Other improvements include multiple independent video streams (daisy-chain connection with multiple monitors) called Multi-Stream Transport, facilities for stereoscopic 3D, increased AUX channel bandwidth (from 1 Mbit/s to 720 Mbit/s), more color spaces including xvYCC, scRGB and Adobe RGB 1998, and Global Time Code (GTC) for sub 1 µs audio/video synchronisation. Also Apple Inc.'s Mini DisplayPort connector, which is much smaller and designed for laptop computers and other small devices, is compatible with the new standard.[2][11][12][13]


DisplayPort version 1.2a may optionally include VESA's Adaptive Sync.[14] AMD's FreeSync utilizes the DisplayPort Adaptive-Sync feature for operation. FreeSync was first demonstrated at CES 2014 on a Toshiba Satellite laptop by making use of the Panel-Self-Refresh (PSR) feature from the Embedded DisplayPort standard,[15] and after a proposal from AMD, VESA later adapted the Panel-Self-Refresh feature for use in standalone displays and added it as an optional feature of the main DisplayPort standard under the name "Adaptive-Sync" in version 1.2a.[16] As it is an optional feature, support for Adaptive-Sync is not required for a display to be DisplayPort 1.2a-compliant.


DisplayPort version 1.3 was approved on 15 September 2014.[17] This standard increases overall transmission bandwidth to 32.4 Gbit/s with the new HBR3 mode featuring 8.1 Gbit/s per lane (up from 5.4 Gbit/s with HBR2 in version 1.2), for a total data throughput of 25.92 Gbit/s after factoring in 8b/10b encoding overhead. This bandwidth is enough for a 4K UHD display (3840×2160) at 120 Hz, a 5K display (5120×2880) at 60 Hz, or an 8K UHD display (7680×4320) at 30 Hz, with 8-bit color. Using Multi-Stream Transport (MST), it can support two 4K UHD (3840×2160) displays at 60 Hz, or up to four WQXGA (2560×1600) displays at 60 Hz in 24-bit RGB mode. The new standard includes mandatory Dual-mode support for DVI and HDMI adapters, with support for the HDMI 2.0 standard and HDCP 2.2 content protection.[18] The Thunderbolt 3 connection standard was originally to include support for DisplayPort 1.3, but the final release ended up only including support for version 1.2. The VESA's Adaptive Sync feature in DisplayPort version 1.3 remains an optional part of the specification.[19]


DisplayPort version 1.4 was published March 1, 2016.[20] No new transmission modes are defined, so HBR3 (32.4 Gbit/s) as introduced in version 1.3 still remains as the highest available mode. DisplayPort 1.4 adds support for Display Stream Compression 1.2 (DSC), Forward Error Correction, HDR10 extension defined in CTA-861.3, the Rec. 2020 color space, and extends the maximum number of inline audio channels to 32.[21]

DSC is a "visually lossless" encoding technique with up to 3:1 compression ratio.[20] Using DSC with HBR3 transmission rates, DisplayPort 1.4 can support 8K UHD (7680×4320) at 60 Hz with 10-bit color and HDR, or 4K UHD (3840×2160) at 120 Hz with 10-bit color and HDR. 4K at 60 Hz with 10-bit color and HDR can be achieved without the need for DSC. On displays which do not support DSC, the maximum limits are unchanged from DisplayPort 1.3 (4K 120 Hz, 5K 60 Hz, 8K 30 Hz).[22]

Next version[edit]

According to a roadmap published by VESA in September 2016, a new version of DisplayPort should be launched in 2017. It improves the link rate from 8.1 to 10 Gbit/s, a 24% increase.[23][24] This will increase the total bandwidth from 32.4 Gbit/s to 40.0 Gbit/s. It is not clear whether the new version will continue using the 8b/10b for transport encoding, so the usable data rate is unknown.

The added bandwidth makes more uncompressed resolutions possible, such as:

  • 5K (5120 × 2880) 60 Hz 30 bit/px
  • 4K (3840 × 2160) 120 Hz 30 bit/px
  • 4K (3840 × 2160) 144 Hz 24 bit/px

The roadmap also states it will make 8K at 120 Hz possible, likely using Display Stream Compression and/or YCBCR with chroma subsampling.


Technical specifications[edit]

  • Forward link channel with 1 to 4 lanes; effective data rate 1.296 (reduced bit rate), 2.16 (high bit rate), 4.32 (HBR2), or 6.48 Gbit/s (HBR3) per lane (total 5.184, 8.64, 17.28, or 25.92 Gbit/s for a 4-lane link).
  • 8b/10b encoding provides DC-balancing and Embedded Clock within serial channel (10 bit symbols, 20% coding overhead)
  • RGB (unspecified) and YCbCr (ITU-R BT.601-5 and BT.709-4) color spaces, 4:4:4, 4:2:2, or 4:2:0 chroma subsampling
    • sRGB, Adobe RGB 1998, DCI-P3, RGB XR, scRGB, xvYCC, Y-only, Simple Color Profile (version 1.2)[11]
  • Color depth of 6, 8, 10, 12 and 16 bits per color component
  • Optional 8-channel audio with sampling rates up to 24 bit 192 kHz, encapsulation of audio compression formats
  • Bidirectional half-duplex AUX channel, 1 Mbit/s (v1.0) or optional 720 Mbit/s (v1.2)
  • Stereoscopic 3D formats: frame sequential (v1.1a), field sequential, side-by-side, top-bottom, line interleaved, pixel interleaved and dual interface (v1.2)[11]
  • Optional dual-mode facility generates TMDS and clock for single-link DVI/HDMI signaling using a simple passive dongle for signal level conversion.
  • Up to 63 video and audio streams with time-division transport multiplexing and hot-plug bandwidth allocation (from version 1.2)
  • 128-bit AES DisplayPort Content Protection (DPCP), 56-bit High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) 1.3 from version 1.1 onwards, HDCP 2.2 (128-bit AES) from version 1.3.
  • Internal and external connections so that one standard can be used by computer makers reducing costs.[25]
Sample data rates (Gbit/s) required for various display resolutions and timings
Resolution Color
1280 × 720 24 bpp 60 Hz 01.79 01.54 01.45 01.78
1920 × 1080 24 bpp 60 Hz 04.15 03.33 03.20 03.56
1920 × 1200 30 bpp 60 Hz 05.81 04.62 04.45
2560 × 1440 24 bpp 60 Hz 05.80 05.63
2560 × 1600 30 bpp 60 Hz 08.06 07.82
3840 × 2160 24 bpp 30 Hz 06.18 07.13
3840 × 2160 24 bpp 60 Hz 12.54 14.26
4096 × 2304 30 bpp 60 Hz 17.81
5120 × 2880 24 bpp 60 Hz 22.18
7680 × 4320 24 bpp 30 Hz 24.82 28.51
7680 × 4320 24 bpp 60 Hz 49.65 57.02
  • RGB and YCbCr 4:4:4 encodings: bits per pixel (bpp) = 3 × bits per channel (bpc).
  • YCbCr 4:2:2 chroma subsampling: bpp = 2 × bpc.
  • YCbCr 4:2:0: bpp = 1.5 × bpc.

For 30, 36, 48 bpp (10, 12, 16 bpc), multiply 24 bit data rate by 1.25, 1.5, 2; divide by 1.5 or 2 for YCbCr 4:2:2 or YCbCr 4:2:0 encodings.

See also: Comparison of display connectors

Resolution and refresh frequency limits for DisplayPort[edit]

Shorthand Resolution Frame
Data Rate


DisplayPort Version / Maximum Data Rate
1.0–1.1a 1.2–1.2a 1.3 1.4
8.64 Gbit/s[b] 17.28 Gbit/s[b] 25.92 Gbit/s[b] 25.92 Gbit/s[b]
1080p 1920 × 1080 30 Hz 1.58 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 Hz 3.20 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 Hz 6.59 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes
144 Hz 8.00 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes
240 Hz 14.00 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes
1440p 2560 × 1440 30 Hz 2.78 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 Hz 5.63 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes
75 Hz 7.09 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes
120 Hz 11.59 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes
144 Hz 14.08 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes
165 Hz 16.30 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes
240 Hz 24.62 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes
4K 3840 × 2160 30 Hz 6.18 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes
60 Hz 12.54 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes
75 Hz 15.79 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes
120 Hz 25.82 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes
144 Hz 31.35 Gbit/s No No No Yes[c]
240 Hz 54.84 Gbit/s No No No Yes[c]
5K 5120 × 2880 30 Hz 10.94 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes
60 Hz 22.18 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes
120 Hz 45.66 Gbit/s No No No Yes[c]
8K 7680 × 4320 30 Hz 24.48 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes
60 Hz 49.65 Gbit/s No No No Yes[c]
  1. ^ 24 bit/px RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4 color and CVT-R2 timing are assumed for all formats listed
  2. ^ a b c d Transmission bandwidths of 10.8, 21.6, 32.4 Gbit/s using 8b/10b gives maximum data rates of 8.64, 17.28, and 25.92 Gbit/s
  3. ^ a b c d Requires the use of Display Stream Compression (DSC)

See also: Comparison of display connectors

Digital Rights Management (DRM)[edit]

DisplayPort 1.0 includes optional DPCP (DisplayPort Content Protection) from Philips, which uses 128-bit AES encryption. It also features full authentication and session key establishment (each encryption session is independent). There is an independent revocation system. This portion of the standard is licensed separately. It also adds the ability to verify the proximity of the receiver and transmitter, a technique intended to ensure users are not bypassing the content protection system to send data out to distant, unauthorized users.

DisplayPort 1.1 added optional implementation of industry-standard 56-bit HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) revision 1.3, which requires separate licensing from the Digital Content Protection LLC.

DisplayPort 1.3 supports HDCP 2.2, which is also employed by HDMI 2.0.


Dual-mode DisplayPort logo
Dual-mode pin mapping
DisplayPort pins DVI 1.0/HDMI mode
Main Link Lane 0 TMDS Channel 2
Main Link Lane 1 TMDS Channel 1
Main Link Lane 2 TMDS Channel 0
Main Link Lane 3 TMDS Clock
Hot Plug Detect Hot Plug Detect
Config 1 Cable Adaptor Detect
Config 2 CEC (HDMI only)

Dual-mode DisplayPort (also known as DisplayPort++[26]) can directly output single-link HDMI and DVI signals using a simple passive adapter that adjusts from the different connector and the lower voltages used by DisplayPort.[27][28] When a dual-mode chipset detects that a DVI or HDMI passive adapter is attached, it switches to DVI/HDMI mode which uses the 4-lane main DisplayPort link and the AUX channel link to transmit three TMDS signals, a clock signal and Display Data Channel data/clock. Dual-mode ports are marked with the DP++ logo; most DisplayPort graphics cards, as well as all Thunderbolt ports with mDP connector, support this mode.

In January 2013, a new VESA specification was released called DisplayPort Dual-Mode Standard version 1.1, which brings dual-mode capabilities on par with HDMI 1.4, allowing a TMDS clock rate of up to 300 MHz, 1080p deep color, 4K resolution, and stereoscopic 3D formats. Passive adapters and ports which support the new data rate will be marked "Type 2" and will be backwards compatible with existing "Type 1" ports.[29]

In September 2014, DisplayPort 1.3 specification was released, which includes mandatory Dual-mode support for HDMI 2.0 protocol, allowing 14.4 Gbit/s of bandwidth and 600 MHz pixel clock.

A notable limitation of dual-mode is that it can only transmit single-link DVI (and HDMI), as the number of pins in the DisplayPort connector is insufficient for dual-link connections. As a result, an active converter is needed for Dual-Link DVI and analog component video such as VGA. Some of these active adapters can rely on the +3.3 V wire in the DisplayPort connector for the conversion, but other types of active conversion, such as Dual-Link DVI, require external power that is often pulled from an available USB port.[30]

VESA anticipates that HDMI and DVI conversion will eventually be handled by active adapters which act as DisplayPort Sink devices, in order to facilitate easier updates to latest HDMI and DisplayPort specs, and work with dual-link HDMI, DisplayPort connections with either fewer than 4 lanes or different data rates, and multiple DisplayPort streams. It should be noted that DVI 1.0 spec was finalized in 1999 and the DVI industry consortium has since disbanded, so future updates to DVI specification are unlikely; also, although dual-link HDMI Type B connector is defined in the HDMI specification, it has not seen any practical use as of 2012.[citation needed]

Picture of a DisplayPort to DVI adapter after removing its enclosure. The chip on the board converts the voltage levels generated by the dual-mode DisplayPort device to be compatible with a DVI monitor.

Multiple displays on single DisplayPort connector[edit]

DisplayPort 1.2 added support for Multi-Stream Transport (MST), enabling multiple monitors to be used via a single DisplayPort connector. This function requires either monitors that are capable of DisplayPort 1.2 daisy-chaining, or use of a DisplayPort MST Hub. The first MST hub became available in September 2013, enabling up to 3 displays to be connected to a single DisplayPort connector.[31]

Single Stream Transport (SST) was specified in DisplayPort 1.1a for use between a single Source and Sink Device.


VESA, which created the DisplayPort standard, states the standard is royalty free to implement. However, VESA also acknowledges that "MPEG LA is making claims that DisplayPort implementation requires a license and a royalty payment. It is important to note that these are only claims. Whether these claims are relevant will likely be decided in a US court." [32] A press release by MPEG LA states that a royalty rate of $0.20 per unit should apply to DisplayPort products manufactured or sold in countries that are covered by one or more of the patents in the MPEG LA license pool.[33] As of 1 September 2015, the MPEG LA license includes patents from Hitachi Maxell, Philips, Lattice Semiconductor, Rambus, and Sony.[34]

Advantages over DVI, VGA and FPD-Link[edit]

In December 2010, several computer vendors and display makers including Intel, AMD, Dell, Lenovo, Samsung and LG announced they would begin phasing out FPD-Link, VGA, and DVI-I over the next few years, replacing them with DisplayPort and HDMI.[35][36] One notable exception to the list of manufacturers is Nvidia, who has yet to announce any plans regarding future implementation of legacy interfaces.

DisplayPort has several advantages over VGA, DVI, and FPD-Link.[37]

  • Open standard available to all VESA members[dubious ] with an extensible standard to help broad adoption[38]
  • Fewer lanes with embedded self-clock, reduced EMI with data scrambling and spread spectrum mode
  • Based on a micro-packet protocol
    • Allows easy expansion of the standard with multiple data types
    • Flexible allocation of available bandwidth between audio and video
    • Multiple video streams over single physical connection (version 1.2)
    • Long-distance transmission over alternative physical media such as optical fiber (version 1.1a)
  • High-resolution displays and multiple displays with a single connection, via a hub or daisy-chaining[39]
    • HBR2 mode with 17.28 Gbit/s of effective video bandwidth allows four simultaneous 1080p60 displays (CEA-861 timings), stereoscopic 2560 × 1600 × 30 bit @ 120 Hz (CVT-R timings), or 4K UHD @ 60 Hz[note 1]
    • HBR3 mode with 25.92 Gbit/s of effective video bandwidth, using CVT-R2 timings, allows eight simultaneous 1080p displays (1920 × 1080) @ 60 Hz, stereoscopic 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) @ 120 Hz, or 5120 × 2880 @ 60 Hz each using 24 bit RGB, and up to 8K UHD (7680 × 4320) @ 60 Hz using 4:2:0 subsampling[40]
  • Designed to work for internal chip-to-chip communication
    • Aimed at replacing internal FPD-Link links to display panels with a unified link interface
    • Compatible with low-voltage signaling used with sub-micron CMOS fabrication
    • Can drive display panels directly, eliminating scaling and control circuits and allowing for cheaper and slimmer displays
  • Link training with adjustable amplitude and preemphasis adapts to differing cable lengths and signal quality
    • Reduced bandwidth transmission for 15-metre (49 ft) cable, at least 1920 × 1080p @ 60 Hz at 24 bits per pixel
    • Full bandwidth transmission for 3 metres (9.8 ft)
  • High-speed auxiliary channel for DDC, EDID, MCCS, DPMS, HDCP, adapter identification etc. traffic
    • Can be used for transmitting bi-directional USB, touch-panel data, CEC, etc.
  • Self-latching connector

Comparison with HDMI[edit]

Although DisplayPort has much of the same functionality as HDMI, it is a complementary connection used in different scenarios.[27][41] DisplayPort can emit an HDMI signal through the use of a passive adapter connected to a port that is designed for dual-mode.

HDMI charges an annual fee of US$10,000 to each high-volume manufacturer and a per unit royalty rate of US$0.04 to US$0.15.[42] HDMI Licensing countered the "royalty-free" claim by pointing out that the DisplayPort specification states that companies can charge a royalty rate for DisplayPort implementation.[43] DisplayPort 1.2 has more bandwidth at 21.6 Gbit/s[44] (17.28 Gbit/s with overhead removed) as opposed to HDMI 2.0's 18 Gbit/s[45] (14.4 Gbit/s with overhead removed). DisplayPort 1.3 raises that to 32.4 Gbit/s (25.92 Gbit/s with overhead removed), and HDMI 2.1 raises that up to 48 Gbit/s (42.67 Gbit/s with overhead removed) [1]. It also has the ability to share this bandwidth with multiple streams of audio and video to separate devices.[46]

DisplayPort in native mode lacks some HDMI features such as Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) commands, which allow the control of multiple devices through a single remote;[47][48] VESA asserts that CEC commands can be transmitted over the AUX channel if needed.[46] HDMI uses unique Vendor-Specific Block structure, which allows for features such as additional color spaces. However, these features can be defined by CEA EDID extensions.[citation needed]

Market share[edit]

Figures from IDC show that 5.1% of commercial desktops and 2.1% of commercial notebooks released in 2009 featured DisplayPort. However, they predicted that the figure for commercial desktops would grow to 89.5%, and for commercial notebooks to 95% by 2014.[35][needs update] The main factor behind this is the phase-out of VGA, and that both Intel and AMD will also stop building products with FPD-Link by 2013. Nearly 70% of LCD monitors sold in August 2014 in the US, UK, Germany, Japan, and China were equipped with HDMI/DisplayPort technology, up 7.5% on the year, according to Digitimes Research.[49]

Companion standards[edit]

Mini DisplayPort[edit]

Main article: Mini DisplayPort

Mini DisplayPort (mDP) is a standard announced by Apple in the fourth quarter of 2008. Shortly after announcing Mini DisplayPort, Apple announced that it would license the connector technology with no fee. The following year, in early 2009, VESA announced that Mini DisplayPort would be included in the upcoming DisplayPort 1.2 specification. On 24 February 2011, Apple and Intel announced Thunderbolt, a successor to Mini DisplayPort which adds support for PCI Express data connections while maintaining backwards compatibility with Mini DisplayPort based peripherals.[50]

Micro DisplayPort[edit]

Micro DisplayPort will target systems that need ultra-compact connectors, such as phones, tablets and ultra-portable notebook computers. This new standard will be physically smaller than the currently available mini DisplayPort connectors. The standard was expected to be released by Q2 2014.[51]


Direct Drive Monitor (DDM) 1.0 standard was approved in December 2008. It allows for controller-less monitors where the display panel is directly driven by the DisplayPort signal, although the available resolutions and color depth are limited to two-lane operation.

Display Stream Compression[edit]

Display Stream Compression (DSC) uses a visually lossless low-latency algorithm based on predictive DPCM and YCoCg-R color space; it allows increased resolutions and color depths and reduced power consumption.[52][53] Visually lossless compression is tested against ISO/IEC 29170-2 standard.

DSC 1.1 was released with eDP 1.4a.

DSC 1.2 was released on January 27, 2016 and is included with DisplayPort 1.4. The updated standard includes up to 3:1 compression ratio, native encoding of 4:2:2 and 4:2:0 formats and 10/12/14/16 bits per color in addition to 8-bit 4:4:4 format.

On January 4, 2017, HDMI 2.1 was officially announced which supports up to 10K resolution and uses DSC 1.2 for video that is higher than 8K resolution with 4:2:0 chroma subsampling.[54][55][56]


Embedded DisplayPort (eDP) 1.0 standard was adopted in December 2008. It aims to define a standardized display panel interface for internal connections; e.g., graphics cards to notebook display panels.[57] It has advanced power-saving features including seamless refresh rate switching. Version 1.1 was approved in October 2009 followed by version 1.1a in November 2009. Version 1.2 was approved in May 2010 and includes DisplayPort 1.2 data rates, 120 Hz sequential color monitors, and a new display panel control protocol that works through the AUX channel.[11] Version 1.3 was published in February 2011; it includes a new Panel Self-Refresh (PSR) feature developed to save system power and further extend battery life in portable PC systems.[58] PSR mode allows GPU to enter power saving state in between frame updates by including framebuffer memory in the display panel controller.[11] Version 1.4 was released in February 2013; it reduces power consumption with partial-frame updates in PSR mode, regional backlight control, lower interface voltage, and additional link rates; the auxiliary channel supports multi-touch panel data to accommodate different form factors.[59] Version 1.4a was published in February 2015; it is based on DisplayPort 1.3 and supports HBR3 data rate, Display Stream Compression 1.1, Segmented Panel Displays, and partial updates for Panel Self-Refresh.[60] Version 1.4b was published in October 2015; its protocol refinements and clarifications are intended to enable adoption of eDP 1.4 in production by mid-2016.[61]


Internal DisplayPort (iDP) 1.0 was approved in April 2010. The iDP standard defines an internal link between a digital TV system on a chip controller and the display panel's timing controller. It aims to replace currently used internal FPD-Link lanes with DisplayPort connection.[62] iDP features unique physical interface and protocols, which are not directly compatible with DisplayPort and are not applicable to external connection, however they enable very high resolution and refresh rates while providing simplicity and extensibility.[11] iDP features non-variable 2.7 GHz clock and is nominally rated at 3.24 Gbit/s data rate per lane, with up to sixteen lanes in a bank, resulting in six-fold decrease in wiring requirements over FPD-Link for a 1080p24 signal; other data rates are also possible. iDP was built with simplicity in mind and it doesn't have AUX channel, content protection, or multiple streams; however it does have frame sequential and line interleaved stereo 3D.[11]


Portable Digital Media Interface (PDMI) is an interconnection between docking stations/display devices and portable media players, which includes 2-lane DisplayPort v1.1a connection. It has been ratified in February 2010 as ANSI/CEA-2017-A.


Wireless DisplayPort (wDP) enables DisplayPort 1.2 bandwidth and feature set for cable-free applications operating in 60 GHz radio band; it was announced on November 2010 by WiGig Alliance and VESA as a cooperative effort.[63]


A SlimPort-to-HDMI adapter, made by Analogix

SlimPort, a brand of Analogix products,[64] complies with Mobility DisplayPort, also known as MyDP, which is an industry standard for a mobile audio/video Interface, providing connectivity from mobile devices to external displays and HDTVs. SlimPort implements the transmission of video up to 4K-UltraHD and up to eight channels of audio over the micro-USB connector to an external converter accessory or display device. SlimPort products support seamless connectivity to DisplayPort, HDMI and VGA displays.[65] The MyDP standard was released in June 2012,[66] and the first product to use SlimPort was Google's Nexus 4 smartphone.[67]

SlimPort is an alternative to Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL).[68][69]


Main article: DisplayID

DisplayID is designed to replace the E-EDID standard. DisplayID features variable-length structures which encompass all existing EDID extensions as well as new extensions for 3D displays and embedded displays.

The latest version 1.3 (announced on 23 September 2013) adds enhanced support for tiled display topologies; it allows better identification of multiple video streams, and reports bezel size and locations.[70] As of December 2013, many current 4K displays use a tiled topology, but lack a standard way to report to the video source which tile is left and which is right. These early 4K displays, for manufacturing reasons, typically use two 1920×2160 panels laminated together and are currently generally treated as multiple-monitor setups.[71] DisplayID 1.3 also allows 8K display discovery, and has applications in stereo 3D, where multiple video streams are used.


Main article: DockPort

DockPort, formerly known as Lightning Bolt, is an extension to DisplayPort to include USB 3.0 data as well as power for charging portable devices from attached external displays. Originally developed by AMD and Texas Instruments, it has been announced as a VESA specification in 2014.[72]

USB Type-C[edit]

Main article: USB Type-C

On 22 September 2014, VESA published the DisplayPort Alternate Mode on USB Type-C Connector Standard, a specification on how to send DisplayPort signals over the newly released USB Type-C connector. One, two or all four of the differential pairs that USB uses for the SuperSpeed bus can be configured dynamically to be used for DisplayPort lanes. In the first two cases, the connector still can carry a full SuperSpeed signal; in the latter case, at least a non-SuperSpeed signal is available. The DisplayPort AUX channel is also supported over the two sideband signals over the same connection; furthermore, USB Power Delivery according to the newly expanded USB-PD 2.0 specification is possible at the same time. This makes the Type-C connector a strict superset of the use-cases envisioned for DockPort, SlimPort, Mini and Micro DisplayPort.[73]


A Dual-mode DisplayPort connector

Since its introduction in 2006, DisplayPort has gained popularity within the computer industry and is featured on many graphic cards, displays, and notebook computers. Dell was the first company to introduce a consumer product with a DisplayPort connector, the Dell UltraSharp 3008WFP, which was released in January 2008.[74] Soon after, AMD and Nvidia released products to support the technology. AMD included support in the Radeon HD 3000 series of graphics cards, while Nvidia first introduced support in the GeForce 9 series starting with the GeForce 9600 GT.[75][76]

A Mini DisplayPort connector

Later the same year, Apple introduced several products featuring a Mini DisplayPort.[77] The new connector – proprietary at the time – eventually became part of the DisplayPort standard, however Apple reserves the right to void the license should the licensee "commence an action for patent infringement against Apple".[78] In 2009, AMD followed suit with their Radeon HD 5000 Series of graphics cards, which featured the Mini DisplayPort on the Eyefinity versions in the series.[79]

Nvidia launched NVS 810 with 8 Mini DisplayPort outputs on a single card on 4 November 2015.[80]

Nvidia revealed the GeForce GTX 1080, the world's first graphics card with DisplayPort 1.4 support on May 6, 2016.[81] AMD followed with the Radeon RX 480 to support Displayport 1.3/1.4 on June 29, 2016.[82] The Radeon RX 400 Series will support DisplayPort 1.3 HBR and HDR10, dropping the DVI connector(s) in the reference board design.

Support for DisplayPort Alternate Mode[edit]

The following devices have USB Type-C ports that implement the DisplayPort Alternate Mode on USB Type-C Connector Standard specification, and are capable of providing a video output to DisplayPort, HDMI and VGA.[83][84] SlimPort products are also compatible with DisplayPort Alternate Mode over USB Type-C.[85]

Device name Device type
MacBook (Early 2015) and newer
MacBook Pro (Late 2016) and newer
macOS laptop
Chromebook Pixel 2015 Chrome OS laptop
Acer Chromebook R13 Chrome OS laptop
Dell XPS 12 (9250)
Dell XPS 13 (9350)
Dell XPS 15 (9550)
Windows 10 laptop
HP EliteBook Folio G1 Windows 10 laptop
HP Spectre 13 Windows 10 laptop
Asus Zenbook 3 Windows 10 laptop
Lenovo Thinkpad T440p Windows 10 laptop
Lenovo Yoga 900 Windows 10 Convertible laptop
Lenovo X1 Carbon Windows 10 laptop
Samsung Galaxy TabPro S Windows 10 Convertible laptop
Huawei MateBook (vendor lock-in to matedock) Windows 10 Convertible laptop
Fujitsu U745 Windows 10 laptop
Cube i7 Book Windows 10 Convertible laptop
HP Spectre x360 Windows 10 Convertible laptop
Asus Zen AiO Windows 10 All-in-One PC
Asus ZenFone 3 Ultra Android phablet
HTC 10 Android smartphone
HTC U Ultra Android smartphone
LG G5 Android smartphone
LG V20 Android phablet
LG V34 Android smartphone
Samsung Galaxy S8 (also works with Samsung DeX) Android smartphone
Microsoft Lumia 950 (also works with Microsoft Display Dock) Windows 10 Mobile smartphone
HP Elite X3 Windows 10 Mobile smartphone
Acer Liquid Jade Primo Windows 10 Mobile smartphone

Participating companies[edit]

The following companies have participated in preparing the drafts of DisplayPort, eDP, iDP, DDM or DSC standards:

The following companies have additionally announced their intention to implement DisplayPort, eDP or iDP:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dual-link DVI is limited in resolution and speed by the quality and therefore the bandwidth of the DVI cable, the quality of the transmitter, and the quality of the receiver; can only drive one monitor at a time; and cannot send audio data. HDMI 1.3 and 1.4 are limited to effectively 8.16 Gbit/s or 340 MHz (though actual devices are limited to 225–300?MHz), and can only drive one monitor at a time. VGA connectors have no defined maximum resolution or speed, but their analog nature limits their bandwidth, though can provide long cabling only limited by appropriate shielding.


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External links[edit]