Display aspect ratio
|Some common aspect ratios|
for computer displays
The aspect ratio of a display device is the proportional relationship between the width and the height of the display. It is expressed as two numbers separated by a colon (x:y). Common aspect ratios for displays, past and present, include 5:4, 4:3, 16:10 and 16:9.
As of 2016, most computer monitors use widescreen displays with an aspect ratio of 16:9, although some portable PCs use narrower aspect ratios like 3:2 and 16:10 while some high-end desktop monitors have adopted ultrawide displays.
The following table summarises the different aspect ratios that have been used in computer displays:
|Aspect ratio||Example resolutions||Notes|
|4:3||1024x768, 1600x1200||common until 2003, matches the aspect ratio of analogue TV, non-widescreen SDTV and early 35 mm film|
|5:4||1280x1024||common until 2003|
|3:2||2160x1440, 2560x1700†||used in some portable PCs since 2013|
|16:10||1280x800, 1920x1200||common between 2003 and 2010|
|16:9||1366x768†, 1920x1080||common since 2008, matches the aspect ratio of HDTV and widescreen SDTV|
|~17:9||4096×2160||Digital Cinema Initiatives standard for 4K resolution; specification created in 2005 but not widely sold until 2014–15|
|~21:9||2560x1080†, 3440x1440†||used in some professional and gaming displays since 2015, roughly matches various anamorphic formats|
|32:9||3840x1080, 5120x1440||used in some high-end displays since 2017|
|1:1||1920x1920||used in some desktop and professional monitors|
|4:1||17280x4320||Used in some advertisement displays|
† The resolution doesn't match the aspect ratio exactly, but is commonly marketed or described as such.
4:3, 5:4 and 16:10
Until about 2003, most computer monitors used an aspect ratio of 4:3, and in some cases 5:4. For cathode ray tubes (CRT)s 4:3 was most common even in resolutions where this meant the pixels would not be square (e.g. 320x200 or 1280x1024 on a 4:3 display). Between 2003 and 2006, monitors with 16:10 aspect ratio became commonly available, first in laptops and later also in standalone computer monitors. Reasons for this transition was productive uses for such monitors, i.e. besides widescreen movie viewing and computer game play, are the word processor display of two standard A4 or letter pages side by side, as well as CAD displays of large-size drawings and CAD application menus at the same time. 16:10 became the most common sold aspect ratio for widescreen computer monitors until 2008.
In 2008, the computer industry started to move from 4:3 and 16:10 to 16:9 as the standard aspect ratio for monitors and laptops. A 2008 report by DisplaySearch cited a number of reasons for this shift, including the ability for PC and monitor manufacturers to expand their product ranges by offering products with wider screens and higher resolutions, helping consumers to more easily adopt such products and "stimulating the growth of the notebook PC and LCD monitor market".
By 2010, virtually all computer monitor and laptop manufacturers had also moved to the 16:9 aspect ratio, and the availability of 16:10 aspect ratio in mass market had become very limited. In 2011, non-widescreen displays with 4:3 aspect ratios still were being manufactured, but in small quantities. The reasons for this according to Bennie Budler, product manager of IT products at Samsung South Africa was that the "demand for the old 'Square monitors' has decreased rapidly over the last couple of years". He also predicted that "by the end of 2011, production on all 4:3 or similar panels will be halted due to a lack of demand."
3:2 displays first appeared in laptop computers in 2001 with the PowerBook G4 line, but didn't enter the mainstream until the 2010s with the Chromebook Pixel and 2-in-1 PCs like Microsoft's Surface line. As of 2018, a number of manufacturers are either producing or planning to produce portable PCs with 3:2 displays.
Since 2014, a number of high-end desktop monitors have been released that use ultrawide displays with aspect ratios that roughly match the various anamorphic formats used in film, but are commonly marketed as 21:9. Resolutions for such displays include 2560x1080 (64:27), 3440x1440 (43:18) and 3840x1600 (12:5).
Since 2011, several monitors complying with the Digital Cinema Initiatives 4K standard have been produced; this standard specifies a resolution of 4096×2160, giving an aspect ratio of ≈1.896:1.
A 1:1 aspect ratio, results in a square display. One of the available monitors for desktop use of this format is Eizo EV2730Q (27", 1920 x 1920 Pixels, from 2015), however such monitors are also often found in air traffic control displays (connected using standard computer cabling, like DVI or DisplayPort) and on aircraft as part of avionic equipment (often connected directly using LVDS, SPI interfaces or other specialized means). This 1920x1920 display can also be used as the centerpiece of a three-monitor array with one WUXGA set in vertical position on each side, resulting in 4320x1920 (a ratio of 9:4) - and no distortion with the Eizo 27" 1:1 if the side displays are 22".
Suitability for software and content
From 2005 to 2013 most video games were mainly made for the 16:9 aspect ratio and 16:9 computer displays therefore offer the best compatibility. 16:9 video games are letterboxed on a 16:10 or 4:3 display or have reduced field of view.
4:3 monitors have the best compatibility with older games released prior to 2005 when that aspect ratio was the mainstream standard for computer displays.
As of 2017, the most common aspect ratio for TV broadcasts is 16:9, whereas movies are generally made in the wider 21:9 aspect ratio. Most modern TVs are 16:9, which causes letterboxing when viewing 21:9 content, and pillarboxing when viewing 4:3 content such as older films or TV broadcasts, unless the content is cropped or stretched to fill the entire display.
The Napoléon (1927 film) was released in 4:1 aspect ratio.
Microsoft recommends a 16:9 display for Office 2013.
For viewing documents in A4 paper size (which has a 1.41:1 aspect ratio), whether in portrait mode or two side-by-side in landscape mode, 4:3 or 16:10 fits best. For photographs in the standard 135 film and print size (with a 3:2 aspect ratio), 16:10 fits best; for photographs taken with consumer-level digital cameras, 4:3 fits perfectly.
Diagonal and area
The size of a computer monitor is given as the diagonal measurement of its display area, usually in inches. Wider aspect ratios result in smaller overall area, given the same diagonal.
|DAR||Image dimensions||Display area||Image area 4:3 content||Image area 16:9 content||Image area 2.35:1 content|
|4:3||18.4 in × 13.8 in (47 cm × 35 cm)||254.0 sq in (1,639 cm2)||254.0 sq in (1,639 cm2)||189.9 sq in (1,225 cm2)||143.7 sq in (927 cm2)|
|16:10||19.5 in × 12.2 in (50 cm × 31 cm)||237.7 sq in (1,534 cm2)||197.6 sq in (1,275 cm2)||213.7 sq in (1,379 cm2)||161.6 sq in (1,043 cm2)|
|16:9||20.1 in × 11.3 in (51 cm × 29 cm)||226.0 sq in (1,458 cm2)||168.9 sq in (1,090 cm2)||226.0 sq in (1,458 cm2)||171.2 sq in (1,105 cm2)|
Until 2010, smartphones used different aspect ratios, including 3:2 and 5:3. Since then, most smartphone manufacturers have switched to using 16:9 widescreen displays, driven at least partly by the growing popularity of HD video using the same aspect ratio.
Since 2017, a number of smartphones have been released using 18:9 or even wider aspect ratios (such as 18.5:9 or 19.5:9); such displays are expected to appear on increasingly more phones. Reasons for this trend include the ability for manufacturers to use a nominally larger display without increasing the width of the phone, being able to accommodate the on-screen navigation buttons without reducing usable app area, more area available for split-screen apps in portrait orientation, as well as the 18:9 ratio being well-suited for VR applications and the proposed Univisium film format. On the other hand, the disadvantages of taller 18:9 aspect ratio phones with some phones even going up to 20:9 or 21:9 is reduced one-handed reachability, being less convenient to carry around in the pocket as they stick out and reduced overall screen surface area.
Most televisions were built with an aspect ratio of 4:3 until the early 2010s, when widescreen TVs with 16:9 displays became the standard. This aspect ratio was chosen as the geometric mean between 4:3 and 2.35:1, an average of the various aspect ratios used in film. While 16:9 is well-suited for modern HDTV broadcasts, older 4:3 video has to be either padded with bars on the left and right side (pillarboxed), cropped or stretched, while movies shot with wider aspect ratios are usually letterboxed, with black bars at the top and bottom.
Since turn of the 21st century, many music videos began shooting on widescreen aspect ratio.
- Computer monitor
- Display resolution
- Graphics display resolution
- Field of view in video games
- 14:9 aspect ratio
- Ultrawide formats
- Neagu, Codrut (20 May 2016). "Screen resolution? Aspect ratio? What do 720p, 1080p, 1440p, 4K and 8K mean?". Digital Citizen. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Savov, Vlad (19 April 2018). "Widescreen laptops are dumb". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
- Henry, Alan (6 April 2015). "Ultrawide vs Dual Monitors: Which Are Better for Productivity?". Lifehacker. Gizmodo. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- "NEMA Specifications". Miller Technologies. Archived from the original on 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2011-04-29.
- "Monitor Technology Guide". NEC. Archived from the original on 2007-03-15. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
- "Product Planners and Marketers Must Act Before 16:9 Panels Replace Mainstream 16:10 Notebook PC and Monitor LCD Panels, New DisplaySearch Topical Report Advises". DisplaySearch. 1 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
- Vermeulen, Jan (10 January 2011). "Widescreen monitors: Where did 1920×1200 go?". Mybroadband.co.za. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
- Vilches, Jose (26 July 2012). "Steam posts hardware and software survey results for June 2012". TechSpot. Retrieved 2015-05-30.
- "Most popular screen resolution online now 1366x768". Electronista. 11 April 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-04-13. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
- Thornton, Carla (28 March 2001). "Review: Apple's ultrathin PowerBook G4". CNN. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
- Nosowitz, Dan (1 March 2013). "Let's Get Rid Of 16:9 Laptops Forever". Popular Science. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
- Cangeloso, Sal (25 February 2013). "The Chromebook Pixel's squarish 3:2 display is a feature, not a bug". Geek.com. Ziff Davis. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
- Rubino, Daniel (23 March 2018). "Why it's time for PC makers to embrace 3:2 displays". Windows Central. Mobile Nations. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
- Subramaniam, Vaidyanathan (22 April 2018). "Frank Azor: Dell mulling 3:2 and other aspect ratio screens for future XPS notebooks". NotebookCheck. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
- "World's First 21:9 Curved UltraWide Monitor Now Available To U.S. Consumers". PR Newswire. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- Stobing, Chris (23 March 2016). "All About Ultrawide Monitors, the Latest Trend in Gaming and Productivity". How-To Geek. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
- Edmonds, Rich (29 May 2018). "Best Ultrawide Monitors in 2018". Windows Central. Mobile Nations. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- Tanous, Jim (13 March 2018). "3840x1600 Ultrawide Monitors: How 160 Lines Can Make All the Difference". PC Perspective. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- Hardawar, Devindra (5 October 2017). "Samsung's huge 49-inch gaming monitor is an ultrawide dream". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- Gartenberg, Chaim (9 June 2017). "Samsung's 49-inch ultrawide curved display is basically just half a TV at this point". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- "FlexScan EV2730Q EIZO". www.eizoglobal.com. Retrieved 2020-04-29.
- Jube (18 April 2011). "The Witcher 2 Updated FAQ". Voodoo Extreme. IGN. Archived from the original on 2012-04-06. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
- "Master Game List". Widescreen Gaming Forum. Archived from the original on 2011-06-23. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
- "Ultra-Wide Games List". Widescreen Gaming Forum. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
- Prescott, Shaun (13 July 2016). "Overwatch's new 21:9 support actually reduces field of view". PC Gamer. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
- Demers, Cedric; Azzabi, Mehdi (15 June 2017). "What is the Aspect Ratio?". Rtings.com. Retrieved 2018-05-30.
- Nguyen, Chuong (6 February 2011). "Microsoft Details Stringent Specs Required of Windows 8 Tablets". Gotta Be Mobile. SXL Media. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
- Bisson, Simon (16 July 2012). "Office 2013: a pleasant surprise". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "TV Calculator". TV Calculator. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
- Hager, Ryne (28 January 2018). "Weekend poll: What is your ideal smartphone screen aspect ratio?". Android Police. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Nield, David (31 March 2017). "Here's Why the Displays in New Phones Are So Weird and Wide". Field Guide. Gizmodo. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Cross, Jason (19 June 2017). "Here's Why Smartphones Are Getting Taller and Slimmer". Motherboard. Vice Media. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Petrov, Daniel (14 November 2017). "What's your preferred phone screen aspect ratio?". PhoneArena. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Westenberg, Jimmy (13 November 2017). "Which is the better aspect ratio: tall and skinny or short and squat? [Poll of the Week]". Android Authority. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Bhagat, Hitesh Raj; Bajaj, Karan (26 January 2018). "The 18:9 display dilemma: Will the new smartphone screens make our lives easier or do the opposite?". The Economic Times. The Times Group. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- Sims, Gary (10 March 2017). "What is the LG G6's 18:9 aspect ratio all about? – Gary explains". Android Authority. Retrieved 2018-06-20.
- From the Editor's Desk: One-handed usability in the 19:9 world
- Galaxy S11 May Become Samsung's First Flagship With 20:9 Display
- Dear smartphone brands, please stop making a big fuss about 18:9 aspect ratio displays
- Berger, John L. "A Brief History of the Widescreen Format". Widescreen.org. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- Pogue, David (20 February 2018). "A Brief History of Aspect Ratios, aka Screen Proportions". Scientific American. Springer Nature. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- Morrison, Geoffrey (26 March 2016). "Widescreen, letterbox and black bars: How to wrangle TV aspect ratios". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 2018-06-21.