Distinguished Flying Medal
|Distinguished Flying Medal|
Obverse (left) and reverse (right) of the medal
|Awarded by UK and Commonwealth|
|Eligibility||British and (formerly) Commonwealth forces|
|Awarded for||exceptional valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against the enemy|
|Status||Discontinued in 1993|
|Established||3 June 1918|
|Order of Wear|
|Next (higher)||Military Medal|
|Next (lower)||Air Force Medal|
|Related||Distinguished Flying Cross|
Until 1993, the Distinguished Flying Medal was a military decoration awarded to personnel of the Royal Air Force (United Kingdom) and the other services, and formerly also to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against the enemy".
The medal was established on 3 June 1918. It was the other ranks' equivalent to the Distinguished Flying Cross, which was awarded to commissioned officers and Warrant Officers, although the latter could also be awarded the DFM. The decoration ranked below the DFC in order of precedence, between the Military Medal and the Air Force Medal. Recipients of the Distinguished Flying Medal are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "DFM".
In 1993, the DFM was discontinued and, since then, the Distinguished Flying Cross can be awarded to personnel of all ranks.
There were two categories of award, either "Immediate" or "Non-Immediate".
An "Immediate" award was one which was recommended by a senior officer, usually in respect of an act or acts of bravery or devotion to duty deemed to command immediate recognition. In such circumstances, the recommendation for the award was passed as quickly as possible through the laid down channels to obtain approval by the AOC-in-C of the appropriate Command to whom, from 1939, the power to grant immediate awards was designated by King George VI.
An example of an "Immediate" award is that to Leslie Marsh, which was published in the London Gazette on 15 February 1944.
- 1482444 Sergeant Leslie MARSH, Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve, No. 103 Squadron. "This airman was the mid-upper gunner of an aircraft detailed to attack Mannheim one night in September, 1943. When nearing the target area the aircraft was hit by machine gun fire from a fighter. The rear gunner was killed and Sergeant Marsh was wounded in the legs. Although in great pain Sergeant Marsh remained at his post. Coolly withholding his fire until the attacker came into close range he then delivered an accurate burst which caused the enemy aircraft to break away; later it was seen to be on fire. On two occasions, more recently, his cool and determined work has played a good part in the success of the sortie. Sergeant Marsh is a model of efficiency and his example of courage and resolution has earned great praise."
"Non-Immediate" awards were made by the Monarch on the recommendation of the Air Ministry and were to reward devotion to duty sustained over a period of time. This category of award could be made at any time during an operational tour but, in a large number of instances, the award was given to recognise the successful completion of a full tour of operational flying.
Numbers of awards
- F/9689 Acting Air Mechanic W./T. Albert Edward Clark (of Woodford).
- 113763 Serjeant John Charles Hagan (of Ulverston)
The first award of a Bar to the Distinguished Flying Medal was announced in the London Gazette on 3 December 1918. It was awarded to 67162 Sergt.-Observer. Arthur Newland, D.F.M. (of Enfield Wash) who had been awarded a DFM on 21 September 1918.
Honorary awards of the DFM were made in the period 1918–19 to three Belgian airmen and one French airman.
In the period between the World Wars, 41 awards of the DFM were made between 1920 and 1929 and a further 38 between 1930 and 1939.
During the Second World War, 6,637 DFMs were awarded, with 60-second award bars.
At least 170 Honorary DFM's and 2 Honorary Bars (one of them to Josef Frantisek) were awarded to aircrew from other non-Commonwealth countries. 39 were awarded to servicemen of the USA, one Belgian, 14 Czechoslovakian plus one Bar, 33 French, 7 Dutch, 6 Norwegian, 66 Polish plus one Bar, and 4 Russian.
- An oval, silver medal, 35 mm wide and 41 mm long. The obverse shows a bareheaded effigy of the reigning sovereign.
- The reverse shows Athena Nike seated on an aeroplane, a hawk rising from her right arm above the words FOR COURAGE, all within a laurel wreath.
- A bomb is attached to the clasp and ribbon by two wings.
- The ribbon is 32 mm wide, and consists of alternate violet and white stripes (1/16-inch wide) leaning 45 degrees to the left. A violet stripe is to appear in the bottom left and upper right corners when viewed on the wearer's chest. Until 1919, the stripes were horizontal.
- Further awards are signified by a straight slip-on silver bar with an eagle in the centre.
|Distinguished Flying Medal ribbon bars|
|DFM||DFM and Bar|
- Category:Recipients of the Distinguished Flying Medal
- British and Commonwealth orders and decorations
- Tavender, Ian (1990). The Distinguished Flying Medal, a record of courage 1918–82. JB Hayward. ISBN 0903754479.
- Abbott, Peter (1981). British Gallantry Awards. Nimrod Dix & Co. ISBN 0902633740.
- The London Gazette: . 17 March 2003.
- The London Gazette: . 31 May 1918.
- The London Gazette: . 5 December 1919.
- Tavender (1990), p.8
- The London Gazette: . 15 February 1944.
- Tavender (1990), p.9
- The London Gazette: . 31 May 1918.
- Tavender (1990), p.35
- Abbott (1981), DFM chapter
- Abbott (1981),DFM chapter
- Tavender (1990), p.18-19
- The London Gazette: . 7 November 1941.