Distortion (music)

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"Fuzzbox" redirects here. For other uses, see Fuzzbox (disambiguation).
This article is about distortion in music. For distortion in general, see Distortion.
Distortion (music)
Boss turbopedal used.jpg
A well-used "Turbo Distortion" guitar effect pedal made by Boss

Distortion and overdrive are "gain" effects used in amplified music, originially derived from the sound of a saturated vacuum-tube amplifier, though now produced in a variety of ways. The effects add harmonic and inharmonic overtones to a signal leading to a compressed sound that is often described as "warm" and "dirty" depending on the type and intensity of distortion used. The effects are notably popular with guitar players in blues, rock and heavy metal genres. The terms distortion and overdrive are often used interchangeably: where a distinction is made, "distortion" is used to denote a more extreme version of the effect than "overdrive".

Fuzz is a term used to describe a particular form of distortion, originally created by guitarists using faulty equipment (such as a misaligned valve tube - see below) which has since been emulated by a number of 'Fuzzbox' effects pedals.

Distortion, overdrive, and fuzz, can be produced by effects pedals, rackmounts, pre-amplifiers, power amplifiers, speakers and more recently, digital amplifier modeling devices.[1][2] These effects are used with electric guitars, electric basses (fuzz bass), electronic keyboards, and in some cases with vocals.[citation needed]

History[edit]

The guitar solo on Chuck Berry's 1955 single "Maybellene" features "warm" overtone distortion produced by an inexpensive valve amplifier.

The first amplifiers built for electric guitar were relatively low-fidelity, and would often produce distortion when their volume (gain) was increased beyond their design limit or if they sustained minor damage.[3] Around 1945 Western-swing guitarist Junior Barnard began experimenting with a rudimentary humbucker pick-up and a small amplifier to obtain his signature "low-down and dirty" bluesy sound. Many electric blues guitarists, including Chicago bluesmen such as Elmore James and Buddy Guy, experimented in order to get a guitar sound that paralleled the rawness of blues singers such as Muddy Waters and Howlin' Wolf,[4] replacing often their originals with the powerful Valco "Chicagoan" pick-ups, originally created for lap-steel, to obtain a louder and fatter tone. In early rock music, Goree Carter's "Rock Awhile" (1949) featured an over-driven electric guitar style similar to that of Chuck Berry several years later,[5] as well as Joe Hill Louis' "Boogie in the Park" (1950).[6][7]

In the early 1950s, pioneering rock guitarist Willie Johnson of Howlin' Wolf′s band began deliberately increasing gain beyond its intended levels to produce "warm" distorted sounds.[3] Guitar Slim also experimented with distorted overtones, which can be heard in his hit electric blues song "The Things That I Used to Do" (1953).[8] Chuck Berry's 1955 classic "Maybellene" features a guitar solo with warm overtones created by his small valve amplifier.[9] Pat Hare produced heavily distorted power chords on his electric guitar for records such as James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues" (1954) as well as his own "I'm Gonna Murder My Baby" (1954), creating "a grittier, nastier, more ferocious electric guitar sound,"[10] accomplished by turning the volume knob on his amplifier "all the way to the right until the speaker was screaming."[11]

In the mid-1950s, the 'Fuzz' sound started to evolve. It was based on sounds created earlier in the decade by accidental damage to amps, such as in the popular early recording of the 1951 Ike Turner and the Kings of Rhythm song "Rocket 88", where guitarist Willie Kizart used an amplifier that had been slightly damaged in transport.[12] Rock guitarists began intentionally "doctoring" amplifiers and speakers in order to emulate this form of distortion.[13] In 1956, guitarist Paul Burlison of the Johnny Burnette Trio deliberately dislodged a vacuum tube in his amplifier to record "The Train Kept A-Rollin” after a reviewer raved about the sound Burlison's damaged amplifier produced during a live performance. According to other sources Burlison's amp had a partially broken loudspeaker cone. Pop-oriented producers were horrified by that eerie "two-tone" sound, quite clean on trebles but strongly distorted on basses, but Burnette insisted to publish the sessions, arguing that "that guitar sounds leke a nice horn section". Many listeners were intrigued by [14] Guitarist Link Wray began intentionally manipulating his amplifiers' vacuum tubes to create a "noisy" and "dirty” sound for his solos after a similarly accidental discovery. Wray also poked holes in his speaker cones with pencils to further distort his tone, used electronic echo chambers (then usually employed by singers), the recent powerful and "fat" Gibson humbucker pickups, and controlled "feedback" (Larsen effect) The resultant sound can be heard on his highly influential 1958 instrumental, "Rumble" and Rawhide.[15]

In the early 1960s, surf rock guitarist Dick Dale, who produced hits such as "Let's Go Trippin'" (1961) and "Misirlou" (1962), worked closely with Fender to push the limits of electric amplification technology,[16] producing the first 100-watt guitar amplifier.[17] In 1961, the American instrumental rock band The Ventures asked their friend session musician and electronics enthusiast Orville "Red" Rhodes for help recreating the "fuzz” sound caused by a faulty preamplifier on Grady Martin's guitar track for the Marty Robbins song "Don't Worry".[18] Rhodes offered The Ventures a fuzzbox he had made, which they used to record "2000 Pound Bee" in 1962.[19] The best-known early commercial distortion circuit was the Maestro Fuzztone FZ-1, manufactured by Gibson, released in 1962.[20]

Fuzz distortion gained widespread popularity after guitarist Dave Davies of The Kinks used a razor blade to slash his speaker cones for their 1964 single "You Really Got Me".[21] In 1966, Jim Marshall of the British company Marshall Amplification began modifying the electronic circuitry of his amplifiers so as to achieve a "brighter, louder" sound and fuller distortion capabilities.[22][23]

In May 1965 Keith Richards used a Gibson Maestro FZ-1 Fuzztone to record "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction".[24] The song's success greatly boosted sales of the device, and all available stock sold out by the end of 1965.[25] Other early fuzzboxes include the Mosrite FuzzRITE and Arbiter Group Fuzz Face used by Jimi Hendrix,[26] the Electro-Harmonix Big Muff Pi used by Hendrix and Carlos Santana,[27] and the Vox Tone Bender used by Paul McCartney on to play fuzz bass on "Think for Yourself" and other Beatles recordings.[28]

In the late 1960s and early 1970s hard rock bands such as Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath forged what would eventually become the heavy metal sound through a combined use of high volumes and heavy distortion.[29]

Theory and circuits[edit]

Waveform plot showing the different types of clipping. Valve overdrive is a form of soft limiting, while transistor clipping or extremely overdriven valves resemble hard clipping.

The word distortion refers to any modification of wave form of a signal, but in music it is used to refer to nonlinear distortion (excluding filters) and particularly to the introduction of new frequencies by memoryless nonlinearities.[30] In music the different forms of liner distortion have specific names describing them. The simplest of these is a distortion process known as "volume adjustment", which involves distorting the amplitude of a sound wave in a proportional (or ‘linear’) way in order to increase or decrease the volume of the sound without affecting the tone quality. In the context of music, the most common source of (nonlinear) distortion is clipping in amplifier circuits and is most commonly known as overdrive.[31]

Clipping is a non-linear process that produces frequencies not originally present in the audio signal. These frequencies can be harmonic overtones, meaning they are whole number multiples of one of the signal's original frequencies, or "inharmonic", resulting from general intermodulation distortion.[32][33][34]

"Soft clipping" gradually flattens the peaks of a signal and de-emphasizes higher odd harmonics. "Hard clipping" flattens peaks abruptly, resulting in higher power in the higher odd harmonics.[35] This is generally described as sounding "harsh".

Distortion and Overdrive circuits each 'clip' the signal before it reaches the main amplifier (a Clean Boost circuits do not create 'clipping') as well as boost signals to levels that cause distortion to occur at the main amplifier's front end stage (by exceeding the ordinary input signal amplitude, thus overdriving the amplifier) [Note : product names may not accurately reflect type of circuit involved - see above.[36]

A fuzz box alters an audio signal until it is nearly a square wave and adds complex overtones by way of a frequency multiplier.[37]

Valve overdrive[edit]

Triode valve

Vacuum tube or "valve” distortion is achieved by "overdriving” the valves in an amplifier.[38] Valve amplifiers—particularly those using class-A triodes—tend to produce asymmetric soft clipping that creates "warm"-sounding even-order harmonics.[35][39]

A basic triode valve contains a cathode, a plate and a grid. When a positive voltage is applied to the plate, a current of negatively charged electrons flows to it from the heated cathode through the grid. This increases the voltage of the audio signal, amplifying its volume. The grid regulates the extent to which plate voltage is increased. A small negative voltage applied to the grid causes a large decrease in plate voltage.[40]

Valve amplification is more or less linear—meaning the parameters (amplitude, frequency, phase) of the amplified signal are proportional to the input signal—so long as the voltage of the input signal does not exceed the valve's "linear region of operation". The linear region falls between 1. the saturation region: the voltages at which plate current stops responding to positive increases in grid voltage and 2. the cutoff region: the voltages at which the charge of the grid is too negative for electrons to flow to the plate. If a valve is biased within the linear region and the input signal's voltage exceeds this region, overdrive and non-linear clipping will occur.[38][41]

Multiple stages of valve gain/clipping can be "cascaded" to produce a thicker and more complex distortion sound. In some modern valve effects, the "dirty" or "gritty" tone is actually achieved not by high voltage, but by running the circuit at voltages that are too low for the circuit components, resulting in greater non-linearity and distortion. These designs are referred to as "starved plate" configurations, and result in an "amp death" sound.[citation needed]

Solid-state distortion[edit]

Solid-state amplifiers incorporate transistors and/or op amps and are prone to produce hard clipping. This adds additional high-amplitude odd harmonics, creating a "dirty" or "gritty" tone.[35] Electronically, this is usually achieved by either amplifying the signal to a point where it must be clipped to the supply rails, or by clipping the signal across diodes.[citation needed] Many solid-state distortion devices attempt to emulate the sound of overdriven vacuum valves using additional solid-state circuitry. Some amplifiers (notably the Marshall JCM 900) utilize hybrid designs that employ both valve and solid-state components.[citation needed]

Guitar distortion approaches[edit]

Guitar distortion can be produced by many components of the guitar's signal path, including effects pedals, the pre-amplifier, power amplifier, and speakers. Many players use a combination of these to obtain their "signature" tone.

Pre-amplifier distortion[edit]

The pre-amplifier section of a guitar amplifier serves to amplify a weak instrument signal to a level that can drive the power amplifier. It often also contains circuitry to shape the tone of the instrument, including equalization and gain controls. Often multiple cascading gain/clipping stages are employed to generate distortion. Because the first component in a valve amplifier is a valve gain stage, the output level of the preceding elements of the signal chain has a strong influence on the distortion created by that stage. The output level of the guitar's pickups, the setting of the guitar's volume knob, how hard the strings are plucked, and the use of volume-boosting effects pedals can drive this stage harder and create more distortion.

During the 1980s and 1990s, many most valve amps featured a "master volume" control, an adjustable attenuator between the preamp section and the power amp. When the preamp volume is set high to generate high distortion levels, the master volume lowered, keeping the output volume at manageable levels.

Overdrive/distortion pedals[edit]

The Ibanez TS9 Tube Screamer is a popular overdrive pedal

About this sound Demo of a Big Muff 

Analog overdrive/distortion pedals work on similar principles to preamplifier distortion. Because most effects pedals are designed to operate from battery voltages, using vaccum tubes to generate distortion and overdrive is impractical; instead, most pedals use solid-state transistors, op-amps and diodes. Classic examples of overdrive/distortion pedals include the Boss OD series (overdrives), the Ibanez Tube Screamer (an overdrive), the Electro-Harmonix Big Muff Pi (a fuzz box) and the Pro Co RAT (a distortion). Typically, "overdrive" pedals are designed to produce sounds associated with classic rock or blues, with "distortion" pedals producing the "high gain, scooped mids" sounds associated with heavy metal; fuzz boxes are designed to emulate the distinctive sound of the earliest overdrive pedals such as the Big Muff and the Fuzz Face.[citation needed]

Most overdrive/distortion pedals can be used in two ways: a pedal can be used as a "boost" with an already overdriven amplifier to drive it further into saturation and "color" the tone, or it can be used with a completely clean amplifier to generate the whole overdrive/distortion effect. With care - and with appropriately chosen pedals - it is possible to "stack" overdrive/distortion pedals together, allowing one pedal to act as a 'boost' for another.[citation needed]

Fuzz boxes and other heavy distortions can produce unwanted dissonances when playing chords. To get round this, guitar players using these effects may restrict their playing to single notes and simple "power chords" (root, fifth, and octave). Heavy distortions also tend to limit the player's control of dynamics - similar to the limitations imposed on an organ player. Heavy metal music has evolved around these restrictions, using complex rhythms and timing for expression and excitement. Lighter distortions and overdrives do not suffer from dissonances and allow more control of dynamics.[citation needed]

Power amplifier distortion[edit]

A pair of 6L6GC power valves, often used in American-made amplifiers

Power valves can be overdriven in the same way that pre-amplifier valves can, but because these valves are designed to output more power, the distortion and character they add to the guitar's tone is unique. During the 1960s to early 1970s, distortion was primarily created by overdriving the power valves. Because they have become accustomed to this sound, many guitar players favour this type of distortion, and thus set their amps to maximum levels in order to drive the power section hard. Many valve-based amplifiers in common use have a push-pull output configuration in their power section, with matched pairs of tubes driving the output transformer. Power amplifier distortion is normally entirely symmetric, generating predominantly odd-order harmonics.

Because driving the power valves this hard also means maximum volume, which can be difficult to manage in a small recording or rehearsal space, many solutions have emerged that in some way divert some of this power valve output from the speakers, allow the player to generate power valve distortion without excessive volume. These include built-in or separate power attenuators and power-supply-based power attenuation, such as a VVR, or Variable Voltage Regulator to drop the voltage on the valves' plates, to increase distortion whilst lowering volume. Guitarists have been known to use variacs before VVR technology was invented.[specify] Lower-power valve amps (such as a quarter-watt or less), speaker isolation cabinets, and low-efficiency guitar speakers are also used to tame the volume.

Power-valve distortion can also be produced in a dedicated rackmount valve power amp. A modular rackmount setup often involves a rackmount preamp, a rackmount valve power amp, and a rackmount dummy load to attenuate the output to desired volume levels. Some effects pedals internally produce power-valve distortion, including an optional dummy load for use as a power-valve distortion pedal. Such effects units can use a preamp valve such as the 12AX7 in a power-valve circuit configuration (as in the Stephenson's Stage Hog), or use a conventional power valve, such as the EL84 (as in the H&K Crunch Master compact tabletop unit). However, because these are usually placed before the pre-amplifier in the signal chain, they contribute to the overall tone in a different way. Power amplifier distortion may damage speakers.

A Direct Inject signal can capture the power-tube distortion sound without the direct coloration of a guitar speaker and microphone. This DI signal can be blended with a miked guitar speaker, with the DI providing a more present, immediate, bright sound, and the miked guitar speaker providing a colored, remote, darker sound. The DI signal can be obtained from a DI jack on the guitar amp, or from the Line Out jack of a power attenuator.

Output transformer distortion[edit]

The output transformer sits between the power valves and the speaker, serving to match impedance. When a transformer's ferromagnetic core becomes electromagnetically saturated, There will be a loss of inductance since the back E.M.F. is reliant on a change in flux in the core. As the core reaches saturation,the flux levels off and cannot increase any further. With no change in flux there is no back E.M.F. and hence no reflected impedance.The transformer and valve combination then generate large 3rd order harmonics.So long as the core does not go into saturation, the valves will clip naturally as they drop the available voltage across them.In single ended systems the output harmonics will be largely even ordered due to the valves relatively non linear characteristics at large signal swings. This is only true however if the magnetic core does NOT saturate.[42]

Power supply "sag"[edit]

Early valve amplifiers used unregulated power supplies. This was due to the high cost associated with high-quality high-voltage power supplies. The typical anode supply was simply a rectifier, an inductor and a capacitor. When the valve amplifier was operated at high volume, the power supply voltage would dip, reducing power output and causing signal attenuation and compression. This dipping effect is known as "sag", and is sought-after by some electric guitarists.[43] Sag only occurs in class-AB amplifiers. This is because, technically, sag results from more current being drawn from the power supply, causing a greater voltage drop over the rectifier valve. In a class-A amplifier, current draw is constant, so sag does not occur.

As this effect is more pronounced with higher input signals, the harder "attack" of a note will be compressed more heavily than the lower-voltage "decay", making the latter seem louder and thereby improving sustain. Additionally, because the level of compression is affected by input volume, the player can control it via their playing intensity: playing harder results in more compression or "sag". In contrast, modern amplifiers often use high-quality, well-regulated power supplies.

Speaker distortion[edit]

Guitar loudspeakers are designed differently from high fidelity stereo speakers or public address system speakers. While hi-fi and public address speakers are designed to reproduce the sound with as little distortion as possible, guitar speakers are usually designed so that they will shape or colour the tone of the guitar, either by enhancing some frequencies or attenuating unwanted frequencies.[citation needed]

When the power delivered to a guitar speaker approaches its maximum rated power, the speaker's performance degrades, causing the speaker to "break up", adding further distortion and colouration to the signal. Some speakers are designed to have lots of clean headroom, while others are designed to break up early to deliver grit and growl.

Amp modeling for distortion emulation[edit]

Guitar amp modeling devices and software can reproduce various guitar-specific distortion qualities that are associated with a range of popular "stomp box" pedals and amplifiers. Amp modeling devices typically use digital signal processing to recreate the sound of plugging into analogue pedals and overdriven valve amplifiers. The most sophisticated devices allow the user to customize the simulated results of using different preamp, power-tube, speaker distortion, speaker cabinet, and microphone placement combinations. For example, a guitarist using a small amp modeling pedal could simulate the sound of plugging their electric guitar into a heavy vintage valve amplifier and a stack of 8 X 10" speaker cabinets.

Voicing with equalization[edit]

Guitar distortion is obtained and shaped at various points in the signal processing chain, including multiple stages of preamp distortion, power valve distortion, output and power transformer distortion, and guitar speaker distortion. Much of the distortion character or voicing is controlled by the frequency response before and after each distortion stage. This dependency of distortion voicing on frequency response can be heard in the effect that a wah pedal has on the subsequent distortion stage, or by using tone controls built into the guitar, the preamp or an EQ pedal to favor the bass or treble components of the guitar pickup signal prior to the first distortion stage. Some guitarists place an equalizer pedal after the distortion effect, to emphasize or de-emphasize different frequencies in the distorted signal.

Increasing the bass and treble while reducing or eliminating the centre midrange (750 Hz) results in what is popularly known as a "scooped" sound (since the midrange frequencies are "scooped" out). Conversely, decreasing the bass while increasing the midrange and treble creates a punchy, harsher sound.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ross, Michael (1998). Getting Great Guitar Sounds. Hal Leonard. p. 39. 
  2. ^ Aikin, Jim (2004). Power Tools for Synthesizer Programming, Hal Leonard. p. 171.
  3. ^ a b Dave, Rubin (2007). Inside the Blues, 1942 to 1982. Hal Leonard. p. 61. 
  4. ^ Michael Campbell & James Brody, Rock and Roll: An Introduction, pages 80-81
  5. ^ Robert Palmer, "Church of the Sonic Guitar", pp. 13-38 in Anthony DeCurtis, Present Tense, Duke University Press, 1992, p. 19. ISBN 0-8223-1265-4.
  6. ^ DeCurtis, Anthony (1992). Present Tense: Rock & Roll and Culture (4. print. ed.). Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. ISBN 0822312654. His first venture, the Phillips label, issued only one known release, and it was one of the loudest, most overdriven, and distorted guitar stomps ever recorded, "Boogie in the Park" by Memphis one-man-band Joe Hill Louis, who cranked his guitar while sitting and banging at a rudimentary drum kit. 
  7. ^ Miller, Jim (1980). The Rolling Stone illustrated history of rock & roll. New York: Rolling Stone. ISBN 0394513223. Retrieved 5 July 2012. Black country bluesmen made raw, heavily amplified boogie records of their own, especially in Memphis, where guitarists like Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson (with the early Howlin' Wolf band) and Pat Hare (with Little Junior Parker) played driving rhythms and scorching, distorted solos that might be counted the distant ancestors of heavy metal. 
  8. ^ Aswell, Tom (2010). Louisiana Rocks! The True Genesis of Rock & Roll. Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Company. pp. 61–5. ISBN 1589806778. 
  9. ^ Collis, John (2002). Chuck Berry: The Biography. Aurum. p. 38. 
  10. ^ Robert Palmer, "Church of the Sonic Guitar", pp. 13-38 in Anthony DeCurtis, Present Tense, Duke University Press, 1992, pp. 24-27. ISBN 0-8223-1265-4.
  11. ^ Koda, Cub. "Pat Hare". Allmusic. Retrieved January 25, 2010. 
  12. ^ Shepard, John (2003). Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. Performance and Production. Vol. II. Continuum International. p. 286. 
  13. ^ Denise, Sullivan. "You Really Got Me". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  14. ^ Dahl, Bill. "The Train Kept A-Rollin'". Allmusic. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  15. ^ Hicks, Michael (2000). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-252-06915-3. 
  16. ^ Huey, Steve. "Dick Dale". Allmusic. Retrieved 25 July 2012. 
  17. ^ History, Dick Dale official website
  18. ^ "Grady Martin and the Fuzz Effect". Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  19. ^ Halterman, Del (2009). Walk-Don't Run: The Story of the Ventures. Lulu. p. 81. ISBN 0-557-04051-5. 
  20. ^ Hicks, Michael (2000). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-252-06915-3. While most of the documentation on early fuzz boxes has been discarded or lost, the earliest such devices appear to have been introduced in 1962. The best known from that year was the Maestro Fuzztone FZ-1... 
  21. ^ Walser 1993, p. 9
  22. ^ A. J., Millard (2004). The Electric Guitar: A History of an American Icon. JHU Press. p. 136. 
  23. ^ Doyle, Michael (1993). The History of Marshall: The Illustrated Story of "The Sound of Rock". Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 28–33. ISBN 0-7935-2509-8. 
  24. ^ Bosso, Joe (2006). "No Stone Unturned". Guitar Legends: The Rolling Stones (Future plc). p. 12. 
  25. ^ "Sold on Song: (I Can't Get No) Satisfaction". BBC. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 
  26. ^ Shapiro, Harry; Glebbeek, Caesar (1995). Jimi Hendrix, Electric Gypsy. Macmillan. p. 686. 
  27. ^ Hunter, Dave (2004). Guitar Effects Pedals: The Practical Handbook. Hal Leonard. p. 150. 
  28. ^ Babiuk, Andy (2002). Beatles Gear. Hal Leonard. p. 173. ISBN 0-87930-731-5. 
  29. ^ Walser, Robert (1993). Running with the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Wesleyan University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-8195-6260-2. 
  30. ^ White, Glenn D.; Louie, Gary J. (2005). The Audio Dictionary (Third Edition ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 114. 
  31. ^ Davis, Gary; Davis, Gary D.; Jones, Ralph (1989). The Sound Reinforcement Handbook. Hal Leonard. pp. 201–102. ISBN 0-88188-900-8. 
  32. ^ Case, Alexander U. (2007). Sound FX: Unlocking the Creative Potential of Recording Studio Effects. Elsevier. p. 96. 
  33. ^ Davis, Gary; Davis, Gary D.; Jones, Ralph (1989). The Sound Reinforcement Handbook. Hal Leonard. p. 112. ISBN 0-88188-900-8. 
  34. ^ Newell, Philip (2007). Recording Studio Design. Focal Press. p. 464. 
  35. ^ a b c Dailey, Denton J. (2011). Electronics for Guitarists. Springer. p. 141. 
  36. ^ Dailey, Denton J. (2011). Electronics for Guitarists. Springer. pp. 141–144. 
  37. ^ Holmes, Thom (2006). The Routledge Guide to Music Technology. CRC Press. p. 177. ISBN 0-415-97324-4. 
  38. ^ a b Boehnlein, John (1998). The High Performance Marshall Handbook: A Guide to Great Marshall Amplifier Sounds. Guitar History Series 6. Bold Strummer Ltd. p. 37. ISBN 0-933224-80-X. 
  39. ^ Blencowe, Merlin. "Understanding the Common-Cathode, Triode Gain Stage" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  40. ^ Zottola, Tino (1996). Vacuum Tube Guitar and Bass Amplifier Theory. Bold Strummer. pp. 5–7. ISBN 0-933224-96-6. 
  41. ^ Zottola, Tino (1996). Vacuum Tube Guitar and Bass Amplifier Theory. Bold Strummer. pp. 9–11. ISBN 0-933224-96-6. 
  42. ^ transformer design
  43. ^ Aiken, Randall. "What is "sag"?". Retrieved 2008-06-25. 

External links[edit]

  • History and Photos of Vintage Fuzz Pedals.
  • A Musical Distortion Primer (R.G. Keen) Article on the physics of distortion and a round-up of electronic techniques
  • Guitar Distortion 101 Article on the physics of distortion, relationship of waveforms and harmonics
  • Amptone.com Website on overdriven guitar amplifier and effects, covering: tone settings, distortion voicing, simulation and modeling, processors, speakers, power-supply modifications, switching and signal routing gear, software and recording, and DIY projects.
  • AX84 Cooperative, non-profit website offering free schematics and plans to help readers learn to build their own guitar amps.
  • Fuzz Central Lots of Schematics and Fuzz Pedals
  • Tons of Tones Technical site with information on distortion stages in Guitar Amplifier Models and Effect boxes
  • Gibson Maestro Fuzz-Tone FZ-1 patent