Districts of Cartagena, Spain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Districts of Cartagena, Spain

The Spanish municipality of Cartagena has 24 districts named in this municipality diputación (literally translated as council). The 'diputaciones' of Cartagena originated in the 18th century when these districts became established. At the beginning of this century there were 17, which remained through the entirety of the period.[1] The reason for the establishment of this land administration system, and for this unusual name of these districts, is that councils were established there due to the increase of population in that era and because the municipality was becoming less tractable.[2]

Districts of Cartagena[edit]

Cartagena Casco[edit]

It is the capital of the municipality and the most populated area. In the year 2017, it had a population of 57,570 people. Cartagena Casco has historically been the area where the main locality of the municipality has been.[3]

The inhabitants of this territory distribute themselves in these population centres: Cartagena, which is populated by 43,606 people, Ensanche-Almarjal with 6,104 inhabitants, Barriada Virgen de La Caridad with a population of 2,891 and San Ginés inhabited by 4,969 people.[3][4]

Cartagena Casco was occupied by the Iberian people and an Iberian hamlet was settled. However, this area had not been relevant prior to the arrival of Carthaginian people (227 BD).

The Cartaginian people settled in the city Qart-Hadast. The status of capital was also attributed to this locality and with that came typical buildings and frameworks of a city with that status.

There was a war named Second Punic War. In this war, combats and battles took place in Qart-Hadast from the year 211 BD to 209 BD. In 209 BD, Roman armies lead by Scipio Africanus conquered the city.[5]

Scipio caused this city, Cartago-Nova, to be the centre of diplomatic relationships among the Roman authorities and the iber and celtiber people.[6]

Cartago-Nova was awarded with the status of colonia in the I BD century. The city was completely Romanized in this era. It had an importance and an apogee that would not ever reach from this century to II AD.

In the last years of this century the Roman Theatre was built. An amphitheatre was also built in this era.

During the Migration Period in Ancient Roman civilization, Carthago-Nova appealed the vandals. This people were in the city in the year 425, when they were going to Africa. They attacked it, but they did not cause serious ravages there. Shortly after that, the emperor Majorian gathered a large fleet for evicting the Vandals.

Once the Roman empire had disappeared, there was a political uncertainty in Carthago-Nova, in the era when the Visigoths controlled almost all the Iberian Peninsula. This uncertainty did not last long because the Byzantine emperor Justinian sent two armies. One army was sent in the year 552 and the other one was sent the following year to Hispania.

The emperor got a coastal strip whose area is unknown, but the borders could be the Strait of Gibraltar in the West and Cap de la Nau (Valencia) in the East. Balearic Islands were also part of the conquered territory. This area became a province of the Byzantine Empire and Cartagena became its capital due to its strategic emplacement and its port.[7]

In the year 612, the Visigothic king performed a successful offensive against the territories which still belonged to Byzantium, but he did not succeed in conquering Cartago Spartaria. It would be conquered by his successor Suintila in the years 621-624. There were some attempts for recovering the town but they turn out to be unsuccessful.[8]

From the VIII century the Visigothic kingdom was debilitated, impoverish and in a civil war. People from the North of Africa take place. Their political and religious cohesion led them to an advantaged situation in contrast to the uncohesive Visigoths.[9]

The chief of the military forces in Africa sent Musà Ibn Nusayr in the year 711 for helping the Visigothic side of Witiza. Once that they had defeated Roderico, there was not any serious obstacle for the Muslims, and in the year 713 the sovereignty of the caliph on the new province of the Islamic empire was proclaimed.[10]

Cartagena did not put up resistance owing to its lack of relevance in that era.

This locality could not be considered as a town from the 8th century to the XI. When the Islamic invasion took place, just few hundreds of people lived there. They dwelled the ruins close to the port.

In the 12th century the political and economic rise in Murcia and the decline in Almería, led to more relevance in Qartayanna. In the first years of the 13th this town reached its .

In the years 1238-1243 the Muslim kingdom of Murcia was more and more compelled by the powerful kingdoms of Castille, Aragón and Granada. There was also a very unstable inner situation . The king Ibn Hud decided to vassalage Castille.[11]

On April 1243 the Treaty of Alcaraz in which sovereignty of Castille was recognized was signed. As the treaty included all the kingdom, the town that refused to comply with it, such as Qartayanna, were considered as rebel. This led the Castillian prince to be willing to conquer this town, but he had to previously conquer Orihuela and other localities, so he left Qartayanna alone due to the lack of resources and time.[12]

In the year 1245, the Castillian army enclosed Qartayanna with the help of a fleet from the Cantabrian Sea. In that year they got the unconditional surrender. Shortly after, they set a Castillian garrison and expelled the inhabitants of Qartayanna.[12]

Some decades after, the king Alfonso X of Castile decided to use the port of Cartagena as a base to increase the trade relationships of Castile with the West Mediterranean and as a base for his project to expand the kingdom in North Africa.

In the Early modern period there were more and more information about this town.

After a period of decline in the population due to the troubled and uncertain situation in Cartagena, this town was home of a recover of population, but the number of inhabitants were not higher than 1,500 in the XV century. This increase in population was larger in the following century.

The defense system of Cartagena in the 16th century consisted of a wall and a castle. Both had precarious states.

In regards to the military field, the area of the port and of the ancient coastal lagoon Mandarache were boosted. The construction of the arsenal ended in the year 1782. Another construction action was to complete the protection jobs that were in the port. The was carried out in the 1750s decade. Some batteries and forts were added. There is a project for enclosing the town in the year 1765, building castles over the hills was also projected.

Owing to the prosperity of the mining activities in La Unión, the owners of the mines got sumptuous dwellings. This led to the construction of housing in the area considered as the town centre. New artistic movements such as the Art Nouveau were put on in the some buildings.

This high dedication in the architecture was just not applied in private housing, but also in public buildings such as the Palacio consistorial, the Railway station of Cartagena, and the Basilica of La Caridad.

In the last years of the 19th century Casa Pedreño, Casa Aguirre and Casa Cervantes. In the first decade of the following century, Casa Dorda and Casa Zapata were built.

San Antonio Abad[edit]

It is the second most populated area in this municipality with a population of 44,661 inhabitants. It is located in the North and the East of Cartagena Casco and encloses it due to its unusual shape.[3]

In this district there are the following population centres: San Antonio Abad whose population is 24,260, Barrio de Peral inhabited by 15,454 people; Urbanización Mediterráneo populated by 5,699 people; Barrio de la Concepción, where 4,497 people live; Urbanización Nueva Cartagena, where 3,457 people live; Urbanización Media Sala, whose population is 1,612; Barriada de Villalba with 943 inhabitants.[3][4]

The first documentary sources about this district were found in the year 1530.

In the 18th century many jobs related to military such as the building of the arsenal were carried out in Cartagena. This caused an increase in the population of the city and the municipality. This fact led to waves of immigrants to settle to neighbourhoods outside of the walled city of Cartagena such as La Concepción and San Antón (areas of this district).[13]

These neighbourhoods did not appear at the same time and their origins are different, but their development in population was very related to the fact they was not space enough for the inhabitants of Cartagena. San Antón had been already populated from the XVII because of cultivated lands whereas the neighbourhood of La Concepción appeared of this phenomenon and it is related to the activities in the port.[14]

During the Peninsular War (1808-1814) a French army entered from Andalucía in the Region of Murcia. Their goal was to destroy the Spanish army which stayed in this region and conquer Cartagena. The reaction of this by the authorities of Cartagena was to destroy buildings in order to avoid the French army to protect itself in them. The neighbourhood of La Concepción was devastated almost completely – 488 buildings were demolished.[15]

In the last years of the 19th century and in the first years of the XX century, housing was built in order to settled new population. The neighbourhood of La Concepción enlarged, San Antón also did. A new neighbourhood named Los Molinos appeared in that era.[16]

El Plan[edit]

This district has a population of 36,018 inhabitants and it is the third most populated area.[3]

The inhabitants of this district live in the following localities: Los Dolores with 7,672 inhabitants, El Plan, where 7,497 people live; Polígono de Santa Ana, which is populated by 7,162 people; Los Barreros, whose population is 6,927; La Baña, with a population of 5,628; Los Gabatos, where 5,581 people live; Barriada Hispanoamérica, which is inhabited by 3,872 people; Barriada Cuatro Santos, where 2,598 people live; Castillitos with a population of 1,482 and La Guía, which is inhabited by 115 people.[3][4]

The name of this territory comes from the Catalan 'pla' which means 'plain'.[17]

The first documentary source about this district appears in the year 1683.

Rincón de San Ginés[edit]

There are 9891 inhabitants in this districts. This area is located in the southeast of Cartagena and therefore in the southeast end of Región de Murcia and Península Ibérica.

This is a photograph of the Regional Park Calblanque.

The people residing in this territory live in the following localities: Los Belones, with a population of 2,304; La Manga del Mar Menor, where 2,087 people live; Cabo de Palos, with 1051 inhabitants; Los Nietos, whose population is 959; Playa Honda, whose population is 933; Cala Reona, where 701 people live; Cala Flores, inhabited by 689 people; Atamaría, whose population is 360; Los Nietos Viejos, inhabited by 201 people; Barracas, with a population of 176; Islas Menores, with 106 inhabitants; Cobaticas, where 45 people live.[3][4]

Rincón de San Ginés has a border with the Mediterranean sea and with a coastal salty lagoon named Mar Menor. In Rincón de San Ginés is also placed a Regional park whose name is Calblanque Regional Park.

There is paleontological evidence that this district was inhabited during the Lower Paleolithic. Some remains are located in the cave Cueva de los Mejillones.

In the Middle years of the 16th century there was a defensive tower equipped with artillery in Cape Palos.[18]

Cape Palos was uninhabited before the year 1865 when the lighthouse was built. Some fishermen who came from Alicante, Mazarrón, and Almería had begun to stay for long spells in this territory. During the twenty-five last years of the 19th century these fishermen settled and built their lowly housing.[19]

In Los Nietos there was a spa, with rooms, a restaurant, halls with a piano, etc. next to the fishermen housing in the year 1900. The people who went to that spa were families with high purchasing power from Cartagena, La Unión and Murcia. Numerous festive and cultural ceremonies were arranged in that beach in summer.[19]

From the decade of the 1960s the massive tourism took place in the municipality Cartagena and the Estate promoted it. A tourist centre was set in Playa Honda and other one in La Manga from 1966 to 1969.[20]

Canteras[edit]

There are 10,285 inhabitants in this district. It has a border with Cartagena Casco at the southeast. It also adjoins the Mediterranean Sea in its south.

The inhabitants of this district distribute themselves in these localities: Canteras, whose population is 4,530 people; Los Patojos, where 4,092 people live; Tentegorra, with 706 inhabitants; Los Garcías, where 648 people live; Los Díaz, with a population of 245 and Algameca, whose population is 64.[3][4]

Its name is the translation of the word quarry and it has its origin in the presence of sandstone quarry which were exploited during the presence of Rome on Spain and in the XVIII century.

El Algar[edit]

This district has a population of 7,847 inhabitants. It is located in the East of the municipality Cartagena and it has borders with Mar Menor also at the east.

The inhabitants of this territories are distributed in the following population centres: El Algar, with 5,505 inhabitants; Las Lomas, where 1,484 people live Los Urrutias, whose population is 802; Los Ruices, with a population of 13 and Los Rizos, where there are 5 inhabitants.[3][4]

In this area there was the presence of the Iberian people and of people in the Ancient Rome, and there are archaeological remains about that fact. There are also historical researches of the municipality of Cartagena which show that during Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus, 711-1492) there were farmsteads. In fact, the name of El Algar comes from the Arab and means 'hollow' or 'cave'.

Santa Lucía[edit]

Cala Cortina: A beach located in the district Santa Lucía.[21]

This district has a population of 6,874 inhabitants. This area has a border with Cartagena Casco at the southeast of the capital district. Santa Lucía also adjoins the Mediterranean Sea at its South.

The inhabitants of this territory live in the following localities: Santa Lucía, where 3,335 people live; Los Mateos, whose population is 2,097 and Lo Campano, with a population of 1,448.[3][4]

The main population of this area, also named Santa Lucía, was set during the era of Roman Hispania. There was also a cemetery and a sanctuary which was consecrated to Jupyter.

Nevertheless, it became a deserted town after the destruction and the desolation committed by the Vandals.

In the 17th century the battery of Trincabotijas was built.[22]

During the 18th century military jobs such as the building of the arsenal were carried out. That caused an increase in the population of Cartagena due to the immigration. Waves of immigrants had to settle in neighbourhoods outside the walled town of Cartagena because of the lack of space. One area in which these immigrants settled was Santa Lucía. The new population of this area was quite related with the building of the arsenal.[13][14]

Statue of apostle James the Greater, patron of Spain, in the Santa Lucía dock.

There were music and dance shows in the charge of Spanish and foreign companies in the 18th century. There were also theatre performances by professional people and amateurs.[23]

The Valarino family built a glass factory in the year 1834 in this district.[24]

During the second twenty-five years of the 19th century lead deposits were found in Sierra Almagrera (a mountain system in Almeria). As exporting raw minerals was forbidden, factories related to the lead were built. The municipality of Cartagena benefited with that fact and the Franco-Española foundry was built in Santa Lucía in the year 1842.[25]

During the first years of the 1970s the population centre Lo Campano appeared.[26]

La Palma[edit]

In this district inhabit 5,697 people. It is located in the north of the municipality.[3]

The inhabitants of this area are distributed in the following population centres: La Palma, where 3,655 people live; La Aparecida with 1,122 inhabitants; Fuente Amarga, with a population of 246; Los Balanzas, where 191 people live; Los Salazares, whose population is 142; Los Carriones, inhabited by 118 people; Los Conesas, where 103 people live; Los Palma de Arriba, whose population is 69 and Lo Campero, where 51 people live.[3][4]

The first documentary sources about this area have their origin is a result of the arrival of ranchers to a well that was surrounded by palms trees. There are also documentary sources about the presence of thirteen houses in the year 1561 and 19 years later there was also existence of a small sanctuary in the year 1580.

In the last years of the 17th century the parish of La Palma was established.[27]

Pozo Estrecho[edit]

In this district inhabit 5,042 people. It is located in the north of the municipality and has borders with La Aljorra in the east and with La Palma in the west.

The people of this area distribute themselves in the following localities: Pozo Estrecho, where 4,527 people live; La Rambla, whose population is 152; Las Lomas, where 150 people; live; Los Sánchez, whose population is 141 and Los Roses, with a population of 72.[3][4]

The first documentary source about this area has it origins in the year 1515. The document was related to a distribution of public lands.

The Spanish economical crisis in the 17th century led to decline in urban economic activities. This decline led people of the city of Cartagena to an exodus to the country areas. That phenomenon is the cause of the appearance of standing out villages among the dispersed urban nucleus. Specific manifestations this fact were the appearance of villages such as Pozo Estrecho and La Palma.[28]

In the last years of the 17th century the parish of Pozo Estrecho was established.

There was a theatre avoidable for Pozo Estrecho from the year 1857.[29]

La Aljorra[edit]

There are 4,970 inhabitants in this district. It is located in the northwest end of the municipality.

The inhabitants of this area live in the following localities: La Aljorra, with 4,434 inhabitants; Los Navarro, where 98 people live; Los Nicolases, with 89 inhabitants; Los Carrascosas, inhabited by 72 people; Los Nietos, whose population is 61; Río Seco, where 50 people live; Torre Calín, whose population is 38 and Los Nietos, with a population of 23.[3][4]

The name of this area comes from the Arabic al-Hurra, which means 'the free woman', 'born in a good social condition', 'not slave'. It was probably a given name of a farmstead owner.[30]

Archaeological remains of the Argaric culture were found in this territory.[30]

There were little presence of the Romans in this territory during the Ancient Roman era. There are some archaeological remains such as ancient roman pottery lamps, ceramic remains, coins, etc. neighbouring a ravine named Rambla del Saudillo.[31]

La Magdalena[edit]

Its population is 3,877 people.

The inhabitants of this district live in the following population centres: Molinos Marfagones, with 2,702 inhabitants; Los Segados, populated by 308 people; Pozo Los Palos, with a population of 200 inhabitants; Cuesta Blanca de Abajo, whose population is 140; La Magdalena, where 130 people live; El Palmero, with a population of 125; Los Carriones, populated by 118 people; San Isidro, whose population is 116; Los Castillejos, where 94 people live and Los Simonetes, inhabited by 26 people.[3][4]

There are few historical references about this district and about its hamlets and villages. The first documented references have their date in the year 1683.

Alumbres[edit]

The population of this district is 3,403 inhabitants.

The inhabitants of this territory are distributed in the following localities: Alumbres, where 1,955 people live; Vista Alegre, populated by 1,136 people; Barranco, with a population of 84 inhabitants; El Porche, where 63 people live; El Ferriol, inhabited by 9 people and El Gorguel, whose population is 2.[3][4]

In this region there was presence of iberian, they established there for taking advantage for resources as esparto glass. In this district there are also archaeological remains of the Ancient Roman people during the Roman Hispania (207 BD- 476 AD)

This village rose up in the first years of the 16th century and developed in the XVII century.

On June 1558 eighteen Turkish people who arrived in eight galiots disembarked in Cape Palos and arrived to Alumbres. They plundered the hamlet and took all the inhabitants.[32]

This hamlet and its development were very related to the mining activities of the alum (whose word in Spanish 'alumbre' is the reason for its name). En 1560 there were 250 people living, but when the alum mining declined, this locality lost population rapidly because it was in a risky place related to plunder attacks. In 1587 Alumbres had 150 inhabitants.[33]

In the last years of the 17th the parish of Los Alumbres was established.

Albujón[edit]

The population of this district is 2,918 inhabitants. This area is located in the northeast of Cartagena and has a border with La Aljorra in the east.

The inhabitants of this territory live in the following localities: Albujón, whose population is 1991; Las Lomas, with 508 inhabitants; La Mina, where 164 people live; Esparragueral, populated with 154 people and Las casas, with a population of 95.[3][4]

The most accepted theory about the name of this district is that it comes from the Arab al-borx, which means 'small tower' or 'small fort'. There are documentary sources about the use of the water of the rambla of Albujón and in the ear 1509 it was used by some farmers.

During the War of Spanish Succession, there was a combat in which took part the bourbonic soldiery and the soldiers of the archduke Charles IV. This combat took place the 8th of September 1706.

San Félix[edit]

In this district inhabit 2,698 people.

The people living in this territory are distributed in the following population centres: La Vereda, whose population is 2,307; Los Camachos, with a population of 173; Lo Baturno, where 117 people live; La Asomada, populated by 68 people; La Piqueta, whose population is 33; Molinos Gallegos, inhabited by 26 people.[3][4]

Santa Ana[edit]

There are 2,505 inhabitants in this district.

In this territory the people distribute themselves in the following localities: Santa Ana, with 1053 inhabitants; Los Piñuelas, populated by 727 people; Los Ventorrillos, whose population is 572 and Molino Derribado, where 131 people live.[3][4]

El Beal[edit]

The population of this district is 2,280 inhabitants. It is located in the east of the municipality and has borders with Mar Menor at the northeast and with El Algar at the northwest.

The people of this territory are distributed in the following localities: Llano de Beal, where 1288 people live; Estrecho de San Ginés, populated by 662 people; Beal, whose population is 328 and San Ginés, de la Jara, where 2 people live.[3][4]

In the 19th century villages such as El Estrecho and El Llano appeared because of the success and the prosperity of the mining activities in Sierra Minera.[34]

The economy of Cartagena was in a crisis from 1910. The World War I caused that crisis to be more serious. The end of the war did not led to Cartagena to end the crisis. In that era, mining products such as the lead, the zinc and the iron were devalued.[35]

That led the district El Beal to a decline in population. There were 6,140 people residing in this district in the year 1920. In the year 1930 the population of El Beal was 4.417.[36]

Lentiscar[edit]

This district has a population of 1,966 inhabitants. This area is located in the northeast end of the municipality and has a border with Mar Menor at its east.

The people of this territory live in the following population centres: La Puebla, with 1,122 inhabitants; Lo Tacón, whose population is 219; Carmolí, where 196 people live; Punta Brava, where 138 people live; Los Beatos, populated by 116 people; Los Roses, where 114 people live; Los Rosiques, whose population is 53; Los Castillejos, inhabited by 18 people.[3][4]

The name of this area comes from the plant Pistacia lentiscus ('lentisk' or 'mastic' and 'lentisco' in Spanish). It is due of the large presence of this plant in this district, but nowadays there are not many of them in this area.

Perín[edit]

Perín is located in the south of the municipality. It has a border with the Mediterranean Sea at the South, with Canteras at its east and with Los Puertos de Santa Bárbara at its west. Its population is 1523 inhabitants

The people living in this district are distributed in the following population centres: La Azohía with 444 inhabitants; Galifa, with a population of 282;La Corona, inhabited with 216 people; Perín, where 200 people live; Los Flores, whose population is 97; El Portús, populated with 76 people and Campillo de Adentro, where 40 people live.[3][4]

This territory was inhabited during the Paleolithic by individuals of the Homo neanderthalensis species. Some paleontological remains were founded in Cueva Bermeja (a cave).[37]

Los Puertos de Santa Bárbara[edit]

This territory is located in the southwest of Cartagena. It has borders with Perín at its east and with Campo Nubla at its north. This area is also adjoining with the Mediterranean Sea at its south. There are 1,297 inhabitants in this district.

The inhabitants of this district distribute themselves in the following population centres: Isla Plana, where 857 people live; Los Puertos de Santa Bárbara, with 110 inhabitants; Los Cañavates, inhabited by 42 people; Los Álamos, with 28 inhabitants; Los Puches, where 26 people live; Los Pérez de Arriba, whose population is 22; Valdelentisco, with a population of 22; Los Fuentes, populated by 13 people.[3][4]

There are paleonthological remains which show that this territory was inhabited during the Paleolithic. There remains are placed in a cave named Cueva del Caballo, neighbouring Isla Plana.[38]

Miranda[edit]

It has a population of 1,365 inhabitants.

The inhabitants of this district are distributed in the following localities: Miranda, where 1,090 people live; Las Casicas, whose population is 129; Los Vidales, populated by 91 inhabitants and Los Gallos, with 55 inhabitants.[3][4]

The first documented references of this district have date in the last years of the 16th century.[39]

El Hondón[edit]

The population of this district is 1,080 inhabitants

In this territory, the inhabitants live in the following population centres: Torreciega, whose population is 606; Media Legua, populated with 238 people and Los Jorqueras, where 236 people live.[3][4]

The name of 'Hondón' comes from the Arab and its origin is related to the Muslim government in the Iberian peninsula (Al-Andalus) in the Middle Ages. The Arab word is 'al-fundun'. Its origin may be a phonetic change of the Latin word 'fundum' which means 'dip' or 'hollow'. Another hypothesis of this toponym is related with texts of the XI century in which the word 'al-fundun' appears to talk about the fertility of the ground of Lorca.[40]

Campo Nubla[edit]

There are 273 inhabitants in this district.

In this territory, the inhabitants live in the following localities: Los Navarros Bajos, populated by 42 people; La Manchica; Rincón de Tallante; Casas de Tallante; Escabeas; Los Arroyos; Casas del Molino.[3][4]

There are archaeological remains of the Argaric culture neighbouring the hamlet Tallante.[41]

Cartagena was in a lawsuit with Murcia and with Lorca for the possession of this current district in the 16th century. In that era it was a desert territory where pastures were located. There were also many cochineals in that territory. They are parasitic animals that produce a dye which was very relevant in the textile industry in the XVI century.[42]

Los Médicos[edit]

This district has a population of 126 inhabitants. In this territory there several hamlets with very few population.

The inhabitants of this territory distribute themselves in the following localities: Los Médicos, with 70 inhabitants; La Vereda, populated by 49 people and Los Vidales, where 7 people live.[3][4]

The first documented references of this territory nave their date in the year 1703.[43]

Escombreras[edit]

This district has a population of just 8 inhabitants because it became an industrial area.

There are few historical documentary sources about this area.

The name of this district comes from the Latin word 'Scomber', the name in this language for the fish Atlantic mackerel and it was used for the ancient roman sauce garum. In the era of Roman Hispania, there were some salty factories.[44]

During the Islamic Hispania (al-Andalus 711-1492) some sluices, irrigation canals and ponds were built. There was probably a pirate base in this district from the last years of the IX century.[45]

There are historical documentary sources which show that Berbers took refuge in the 16th century (when the Iberian Peninsula had already been reconquered).[46]

There are evidence of the existence of simplified almadrabas (labyrinthine structures for fishing tunas, etc.) named tunairas in the 15th century. In the following century these structures were completely developed.[47]

In the year 1942 there was a project for settling the first oil refinery of Spain in valley of Escombreras due to strategic and security reasons.[48]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ "Archivo Municipal de Cartagena". archivo.cartagena.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  2. ^ Grandal López, Alfonso (2005). Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 284. ISBN 849566956-0.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Barrios y Diputaciones | Historia | Tu Ciudad | Ayuntamiento de Cartagena". Ayuntamiento de Cartagena (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "INEbase / Demography and population /Municipal Register. Population by municipalities /Nomenclature: Continuous Register Population by Population Unit / Results". www.ine.es. Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  5. ^ Grandal López, Alfonso. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. pp. 65–66.
  6. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 69.
  7. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 97.
  8. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. pp. 102–103.
  9. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 108.
  10. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. pp. 108–109.
  11. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. pp. 129–130.
  12. ^ a b Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 130.
  13. ^ a b Grandal López, Alfonso (2005). Historia de Cartagena para principiantes (in Spanish). p. 244. ISBN 849566956-0.
  14. ^ a b Grandal López, Alfonso. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 262.
  15. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. 291-292.
  16. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 332.
  17. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes.
  18. ^ Grandal López, Alfonso. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 171.
  19. ^ a b Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 338.
  20. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 364.
  21. ^ Cartagena, Ayuntamiento de. "Detalle | Playas | Qué hacer | Concejalía de Turismo - Ayuntamiento de Cartagena". Detalle | Playas | Qué hacer | Concejalía de Turismo - Ayuntamiento de Cartagena (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  22. ^ Grandal López, Alfonso. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 172.
  23. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 282.
  24. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 294.
  25. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. pp. 306–307.
  26. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 373.
  27. ^ Grandal López, Alfonso. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 241.
  28. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 219.
  29. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 339.
  30. ^ a b "La Aljorra - Región de Murcia Digital". www.regmurcia.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  31. ^ "La Aljorra- Antigüedad - Región de Murcia Digital". www.regmurcia.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  32. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 168.
  33. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 178.
  34. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 311.
  35. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 340.
  36. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 342.
  37. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 35.
  38. ^ Grandal López, Alfonso. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 38.
  39. ^ "Historia de Miranda - Región de Murcia Digital". www.regmurcia.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  40. ^ "Historia de Hondón - Antigua y Medieval - Región de Murcia Digital". www.regmurcia.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  41. ^ Grandal López, Alfonso. Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 46.
  42. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 143.
  43. ^ "Historia de Los Médicos - Región de Murcia Digital". www.regmurcia.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  44. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 93.
  45. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 120.
  46. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 123.
  47. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 144.
  48. ^ Historia de Cartagena para principiantes. p. 360.