Diverticulum

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Diverticulum
Other namesDiverticula
Schematic picture of the diverticulum.jpg
Schematic drawing of a false diverticulum. A - mucosa; B - submucosa; C - muscularis; D - serosa and subserosa
SpecialtyGastroenterology

In medicine or biology, a diverticulum is an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body.[1] Depending upon which layers of the structure are involved, diverticula are described as being either true or false.[2]

In medicine, the term usually implies the structure is not normally present. However, in embryology the term is used for some normal structures arising from others, as for instance the thyroid diverticulum, which arises from the tongue.[3]

The word comes from Latin dīverticulum, "bypath" or "byway."

Classification[edit]

Diverticula are described as being true or false depending upon the layers involved:

Embryological[edit]

The 3 classifications of esophageal diverticula. 1-Pharyngeal (Zenker's) 2-Midesophageal 3-Epiphrenic

Human pathology[edit]

Gastrointestinal tract diverticula[edit]

Most of these pathological types of diverticulum are capable of harboring an enterolith. If the enterolith stays in place, it may cause no problems, but a large enterolith expelled from a diverticulum into the lumen can cause obstruction.[citation needed]

Genito-urinary tract diverticula[edit]

  • Calyceal diverticulum: usually asymptomatic, but if a stone becomes lodged in the outpouching they may present with pain.[12]
  • Bladder diverticulum: Balloon-like growths on the bladder commonly associated with a chronic outflow obstruction, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia in older males. Usually found in pairs on opposite sides of the bladder, bladder diverticula are often surgically removed to prevent infection, rupture, or even cancer.
  • Urethral diverticulum: Acquired diverticula are usually post-infectious in females,[13] whereas they are more likely to be congenital in males.[citation needed]

Other diverticula[edit]

  • Cardiac diverticulum: A very rare congenital malformation of the heart that is usually benign [14]
  • Diverticulum of Kommerell: is an out-pouching(aneurysm) of the aorta where an aberrant right subclavian artery is located.[15] It is unusual nomenclature, in that focal dilatations of a blood vessel are properly referred to as aneurysms.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "diverticulum | Definition of diverticulum in English by Lexico Dictionaries". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2019-07-17.
  2. ^ a b c ), Courtney M. Townsend (Jr; Daniel Beauchamp, R.; Mark Evers, B.; Mattox, Kenneth L. (2017). Sabiston textbook of surgery : the biological basis of modern surgical practice. Townsend, Courtney M., Jr.,, Beauchamp, R. Daniel,, Evers, B. Mark, 1957-, Mattox, Kenneth L., 1938- (20th ed.). Philadelphia, PA. ISBN 9780323299879. OCLC 921338900.
  3. ^ a b c Sadler, T. W. (Thomas W.) (2012). Langman's medical embryology. Langman, Jan. (12th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 9781451113426. OCLC 732776409.
  4. ^ Standring, Susan (2016). Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice. Standring, Susan (41st ed.). [Philadelphia]. ISBN 9780702052309. OCLC 920806541.
  5. ^ Elsayes, Khaled M.; Menias, Christine O.; Harvin, Howard J.; Francis, Isaac R. (July 2007). "Imaging manifestations of Meckel's diverticulum". AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology. 189 (1): 81–88. doi:10.2214/AJR.06.1257. ISSN 1546-3141. PMID 17579156.
  6. ^ Sagar, Jayesh; Kumar, Vikas; Shah, D. K. (October 2006). "Meckel's diverticulum: a systematic review". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 99 (10): 501–505. doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.10.501. ISSN 0141-0768. PMC 1592061. PMID 17021300.
  7. ^ Yam, Julie; Ahmad, Sarah A. (2019), "Esophageal Diverticula", StatPearls, StatPearls Publishing, PMID 30422453, retrieved 2019-07-17
  8. ^ O'Rourke, Ashli K.; Weinberger, Paul M.; Postma, Gregory N. (May 2012). "Killian-Jamieson diverticulum". Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal. 91 (5): 196. doi:10.1177/014556131209100507. ISSN 1942-7522. PMID 22614553.
  9. ^ Feuerstein, Joseph D.; Falchuk, Kenneth R. (August 2016). "Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 91 (8): 1094–1104. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.03.012. ISSN 1942-5546. PMID 27156370.
  10. ^ Stunell, H; Buckley, O; Geoghegan, T; O’Brien, J; Ward, E; Torreggiani, W (2008). "Imaging of adenomyomatosis of the gall bladder". Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology. 52 (2): 109–117. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1673.2008.01926.x. ISSN 1754-9477. PMID 18373800.
  11. ^ Shah, Jamil; Patel, Kalpesh; Sunkara, Tagore; Papafragkakis, Charilaos; Shahidullah, Abul (April 2019). "Gastric Diverticulum: A Comprehensive Review". Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases. 3 (4): 161–166. doi:10.1159/000495463. ISSN 2296-9365. PMC 6501548. PMID 31111031.
  12. ^ Oxford American handbook of urology. Albala, David M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2011. ISBN 9780199707720. OCLC 655896560.CS1 maint: others (link)
  13. ^ "Online Textbook of Urology". www.urology-textbook.com. Retrieved 2019-07-27.
  14. ^ Vazquez-Jimenez, Dr. Jaime (2003). "Cardiac diverticulum" (PDF). Orphanet Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
  15. ^ Raymond, Steven L.; Gray, Sarah E.; Peters, Keith R.; Fatima, Javairiah (2019-06-25). "Right-sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and Kommerell diverticulum". Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques. 5 (3): 259–260. doi:10.1016/j.jvscit.2019.02.009. ISSN 2468-4287. PMC 6600077. PMID 31304436.
  16. ^ a b "UOTW #56 - Ultrasound of the Week". Ultrasound of the Week. 21 August 2015.

External links[edit]

Classification