|Classification||New religious movement|
|Founder||Sun Myung Moon|
Seoul, South Korea
|Revised Romanization||Tong-il Gyo|
The Unification Church (UC), also called the Unification movement and sometimes colloquially the "Moonies", is a worldwide new religious movement that was founded by and is inspired by Sun Myung Moon, a Korean spiritual leader, entrepreneur, activist, and peace advocate. It is a spiritually-based and charismatically-led movement of legally independent organizations that range from businesses, news media, projects in education and the arts, and political and social activism.
Considering that Moon repeatedly proclaimed the "end of religion" and his desire to not have a "church", the term "Unification movement", rather than "Unification Church" is sometimes used to describe the theology, organizations, and individuals associated with him.
In Moon's autobiography, he writes that his early followers:
"...hung out a sign that read 'Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.' We chose this name to signify that we belonged to no denomination, and we certainly had no plans to create a new one... 'Unification Church' became our commonly known name later, but it was given to us by others."
- 1 Terminology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Origins in Korea
- 2.2 Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity
- 2.3 Political activism
- 2.4 Scholarly studies
- 2.5 1990s and the 21st century
- 2.6 Succession and legacy
- 3 Beliefs
- 4 Related organizations
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Annotated bibliography
- 8 External links
Moonie is a colloquial term sometimes used to refer to members of the Unification Church. This is derived from the name of the UC's founder Sun Myung Moon, and was first used in 1974 by the American media. Unification Church members have used the word Moonie, including Moon himself, President of the Unification Theological Seminary David Kim, and Bo Hi Pak, Moon's aide and president of Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea. In the 1980s and 1990s the Unification Church of the United States undertook an extensive public relations campaign against the use of the word by the news media. Some journalistic authorities, including The New York Times and Reuters, now discourage its use in news reporting, although the BBC continues to.
Origins in Korea
Unification Church members believe that Jesus appeared to Mun Yong-myong when he was 16 years old on Easter morning of 1935 (April 17) and asked him to accomplish the work left unfinished because of his crucifixion. After a period of prayer and consideration, Mun accepted the mission, later changing his name to Mun Son-myong (Sun Myung Moon).
Moon's teachings, called the Divine Principle, were first published as Wonli Wonbon (원리 원본, "Original Text of the Divine Principle") in 1945. The earliest manuscript was lost in North Korea during the Korean War. A second, expanded version, Wonli Hesol (원리 해설), or Explanation of the Divine Principle, was published in 1957. Finally, its most propagated text, the Exposition of the Divine Principle was published in 1966.
Moon preached in northern Korea after the end of World War II and in 1946 was imprisoned by the communist regime in North Korea. He was released from prison by the advance of United Nations forces during the Korean War, and moved south along with many other North Koreans. He built his first church from mud and cardboard boxes as a refugee in Busan.
Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity
Moon founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC) in Busan on May 1, 1954. It expanded rapidly in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 centers throughout the nation. The HSA-UWC expanded throughout the world with most members living in South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, and other nations in East Asia.
In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to America. Missionary work took place in Washington, DC, New York, and California. It found success in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the HSA-UWC expanded in Oakland, Berkeley, and San Francisco. By 1971, the Unification Church of the United States had about 500 members. By 1973, it had some presence in all 50 states and a few thousand members. In the 1970s, American Unification Church members were noted for their enthusiasm and dedication, which often included raising money for UC projects on so-called "mobile fundraising teams".
The HSA-UWC also sent missionaries to Europe. They entered Czechoslovakia in 1968 and remained underground until the 1990s. Unification Church activity in South America began in the 1970s with missionary work. Later, the HSA-UWC made large investments in civic organizations and business projects, including an international newspaper.
Starting in the 1990s, the Unification Church expanded in Russia and other former communist nations. Hak Ja Han, Moon's wife made a radio broadcast to the nation from the State Kremlin Palace. As of 1994, the UC had about 5,000 members in Russia. About 500 Russian students had been sent to USA to participate in 40-day workshops.
Moon moved to the United States in 1971, although he remained a citizen of the Republic of Korea. In the 1970s, he gave a series of public speeches in the United States, including one in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1974; two in 1976 in Yankee Stadium in New York City; and one on the grounds of the Washington Monument in Washington, DC, where he spoke on "God's Hope for America" to 300,000 people. In 1975, the Unification Church held one of the largest peaceful gatherings in history, with 1.2 million people in Yeouido, South Korea.
Starting in 1972, the HSA-UWC sponsored the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences, a series of scientific conferences. The first conference had 20 participants, while the largest conference in Seoul in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries. Participants included Nobel laureates John Eccles (Physiology or Medicine 1963, who chaired the 1976 conference) and Eugene Wigner (Physics 1963).
In 1975 Moon founded the Unification Theological Seminary, in Barrytown, New York, partly in order to improve relations of the Unification Church with religious institutions. Professors from other denominations, including a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Roman Catholic priest, as well as a rabbi, were hired to teach.
In the 1980s Moon instructed UC members to take part in a program called "Home Church" in which they reached out to neighbors and community members through public service. In 1982, the first large scale Blessing ceremony held outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden in New York City with 2075 couples. In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Unification Church members became noted for their political activities, especially their support for United States president Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal, their support for anti-communism during the Cold War, and their ownership of various news media outlets through News World Communications, an international news media conglomerate which publishes The Washington Times newspaper in Washington, DC, and newspapers in South Korea, Japan, and South America, which tend to support conservatism. These political activities were opposed by some leftists. In 1976, members of the Youth International Party staged a marijuana "smoke-in" in the middle of a UC sponsored rally in Washington DC.
In 1977 the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, of the United States House of Representatives, while investigating the Koreagate scandal found that the South Korean National Intelligence Service (KCIA) had worked with Unification Church members to gain political influence within the United States, with some working as volunteers in Congressional offices. Together they founded the Korean Cultural Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit organization which undertook public diplomacy for the Republic of Korea. The committee also investigated possible KCIA influence on the Unification Church's campaign in support of Nixon.
In 1980 Moon asked UC members to found CAUSA International, an anti-communist educational organization based in New York. In August 1985, six years before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored a conference in Geneva to debate the theme, "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire." The conference was chaired by professors Morton Kaplan and Aleksandras Štromas.
In 2003, Korean FFWPU members started a political party in South Korea, "The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home." An inauguration declaration stated the new party would focus on preparing for Korean reunification by educating the public about God and peace. A FFWPU official said that similar political parties would be started in Japan and the United States.
Moon was a member of the Honorary Committee of the Ministry of Unification of South Korea. FFWPU member Jaejung Lee had been once a Unification Minister of South Korea. Another, Ek Nath Dhakal, is a member of the 2nd Nepalese Constituent Assembly and a first Minister for Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation Ministry of the Government of Nepal.
In the early 1960s John Lofland lived with Unification Church missionary Young Oon Kim and a small group of American UC members and studied their activities in trying to promote their beliefs and win new members. Lofland noted that most of their efforts were ineffective and that most of the people who joined did so because of personal relationships with other members, often family relationships. Lofland published his findings in 1964 as a doctoral thesis entitled "The World Savers: A Field Study of Cult Processes", and in 1966 in book form by Prentice-Hall as Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith. .
In 1977 Frederick Sontag, a professor of philosophy at Pomona College and a minister in the United Church of Christ., spent 10 months visiting church members in North America, Europe, and Asia as well as interviewing Moon at his home in New York State. He reported his findings and observations in Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, published by Abingdon Press. The book also provides an overview of Unification Church beliefs. In an interview with UPI Sontag compared the Unification Church with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and said that he expected its practices to conform more to mainstream American society as its members become more mature. He added that he did not want to be considered an apologist for the UC but a close look at its theology is important: "They raise some incredibly interesting issues."
In 1984 Eileen Barker published The Making of a Moonie based on her seven-year study of Unification Church members in the United Kingdom and the United States.Barker writes that she rejects the "brainwashing" theory as an explanation for conversion to the Unification Church, because, as she wrote, it explains neither the many people who attended a Unification Church recruitment meeting and did not become members, nor the voluntary disaffiliation of members.
In the 1970s the Unification Church was accused of "brainwashing" by the newly-active anti-cult movement, which included Steven Hassan and some other former UC members. Some sociologists of religion tend to argue that these accusations were based on theories that for the most part have not gained acceptance among scholars. Other scholars, including some psychologists and psychiatrists, argue that brainwashing theories are widely endorsed within the academy at large. Eileen Barker, a sociologist of religion and the founder of INFORM (Information Network Focus on Religious Movements), argues that the Unification Church and other new religious movements of that time "demonstrably did not have access to the irresistible or irreversible techniques they were reputedly wielding".
Members of the Unification Church reported that they were forcibly deprogrammed by those who wanted to pull them out of it. In 1977, the Unification Church won a lawsuit in the United States against deprogrammers, as did some other groups about the same time. Since 1990, US courts have consistently rejected testimonies about brainwashing (mind control) and manipulation, stating that such theories were not part of accepted mainline science according to the Frye standard of 1923. In 1987, scholars with American Psychological Association rejected the hypotheses of those who accused new religious movements (such as the Unification Church) of brainwashing and coercive persuasion, stating that those "conclusions...cannot be said to be scientific in any meaningful sense".
1990s and the 21st century
In 1991 Moon announced that UC members should return to their hometowns and undertake apostolic work there. Massimo Introvigne, who studied the Unification Church and other new religious movements, said that this confirmed that full-time membership is no longer considered crucial to UC members.
Family Federation for World Peace and Unification
On May 1, 1994 (the 40th anniversary of the founding of the Unification Church), Moon declared that the era of the Unification Church had ended and inaugurated a new organization: the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU) would include Unification Church members and members of other religious organizations working toward common goals, especially on issues of sexual morality and reconciliation between people of different religions, nations, and races. The FFWPU co-sponsored Blessing ceremonies in which thousands of non–Unification Church married couples were given the marriage blessing previously given only to Unification Church members.
Since 2003, the FFWPU-related Universal Peace Federation's Middle East Peace Initiative has been organizing group tours of Israel and Palestine to promote understanding, respect, and reconciliation among Jews, Muslims, and Christians.
Founder's later years and death
In 2011 in Pyongyang, to mark the 20th anniversary of Sun Myung Moon's visit to North Korea, de jure President Kim Yong-nam hosted Hyung Jin Moon in the official residence. The latter donated 600 tons of flour to North Korean children of North Pyongan Province, the birthplace of Sun Myung Moon. Also, after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, he donated $1.7 million to the Japanese Red Cross.
In 2009, Moon's autobiography, As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (Korean: 평화를 사랑하는 세계인으로), was published by Gimm-Young Publishers in South Korea. The book became a bestseller in Korea and Japan.
In 2010, Forbes reported that Moon and Han were living in South Korea while their children took more responsibility for the day-to-day leadership of the Unification Church and its affiliated organizations.
On August 15, 2012, Moon was reported to be gravely ill and was put on a respirator at the intensive care unit of St. Mary's Hospital at the Catholic University of Korea in Seoul. He died there on September 3, 2012.
In 2012 Moon was posthumously awarded North Korea's National Reunification Prize. On the first anniversary of Moon's death, North Korean president Kim Jong-un expressed condolences to Han and the family saying: "Kim Jong-un prayed for the repose of Moon, who worked hard for national concord, prosperity and reunification and world peace."
In general, most FFWPU activities have continued, although some unprofitable business projects have been reduced or discontinued.
Succession and legacy
Currently, the Unification Church is split into several groups, all of which claim legitimacy and the spiritual authority of Moon. These groups diverge theologically and doctrinally. The most prominent groups are the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification led by Moon’s widow Hak Ja Han Moon, who following Moon’s death announced her distinct messianic status; and the Family Peace Association, founded by Moon's son, Hyun Jin P. Moon. Due to the ongoing division, the future of the Unification Church or Unification movement and its theological and institutional legacy is in turmoil and yet to be defined.
Hyun Jin Preston Moon was appointed vice-president of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification in 1998. Although at the time he was commonly understood to be the successor to Sun Myung Moon, his leadership style and proposed reforms to dismantle the church structure and create a family-based peace movement were met with resistance and accusations of being unorthodox, eventually leading to his replacement in 2008 with his younger brother, Hyung Jin Sean Moon. In the United States, Sun Myung Moon's daughter In Jin Tatiana Moon also became president. However, after Sun Myung Moon's death both Hyung Jin Sean Moon and In Jin Moon were removed from their positions within FFWPU by their mother Hak Ja Han.
Hak Ja Han then took leadership over FFWPU. Hak Ja Han instigated various ritual and theological changes that were met with protest within the movement, most notably the elevation of her status as a distinct messianic figure through the concept of the "Only Begotten Daughter" and textual changes to the church's main textbook. Currently, FFWPU members praise Hak Ja Han's leadership and often refer to her as the "co-messiah" and "True Parents", signifying that they believe she is the legitimate successor within the Unification movement who is united with her husband. Recent FFWPU activities have included building projects and a revival tour.
Hyung Jin Sean Moon claims he is the rightful successor to Sun Myung Moon, referencing a coronation ceremony held in 2009. He accuses Hak Ja Han for unjustly removing him his position as International President of FFWPU and calls her new theology and rituals heretical. Hyung Jin Sean Moon founded a separate church, the World Peace and Unification Sanctuary Church, also known simply as "Sanctuary Church", in Newfoundland, Pennsylvania, which gained national attention in early 2018 for holding a marriage vows renewal ceremony that asked participants to bring their AR-15 rifles. Hyung Jin Sean Moon has likened the AR-15's to the biblical "Rod of Iron". His followers refer to him as the "Second King".
Family Peace Association
In 2017 the elder son Hyun Jin Preston Moon founded the Family Peace Association as a separate entity, stating that it would carry on the trans-religious work his late father Sun Myung Moon sought to carry on with the establishment of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification. The Family Peace Association maintains that it was established to carry on the original mission of the FFWPU to expand certain universal principles and values related to God-centered families to a broader, non-sectarian audience.
- Introvigne, Massimo. "From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994-1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes". www.cesnur.org. CESNUR - Center for the Studies on New Religions. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Introvigne, Massimo (2000-10-15). The Unification Church: Studies in Contemporary Religion. Signature Books. ISBN 1560851457.
- Kim, Jongsuk (2017-11-25). Split of the Unification Movement (Advanced copy ed.). Cheunan City, S. Korea: SARANG Kim of AUNE. pp. 11–14. ISBN 979-11-959843-3-6.
- Matczak, Sebastian (1982). Unificationism: A New Philosophy and Worldview. New York, NY: New York Learned Publications.
- Prophets and Protons: New Religious Movements and Science in Late Twentieth-Century America, Benjamin E. Zeller, NYU Press, Mar 1, 2010, page 13
- Swatos, Jr, William H. (February 1998). Encyclopedia of religion and society. Walnut Creek, California.: AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7619-8956-1. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Moon, Sun Myung (May 2006). Cheon Seong Gyeong (First ed.). Sun-jo Hwang; HSA Publications. pp. 1011,1606.
- Moon, Sun Myung. "The Proclamation of the Complete Testament Age -- View of the Principle of the Providential History of Salvation". tparents.org. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Moon, Sun Myung. "Total Indemnity". www.unification.net. Damian Anderson. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Email Us. "'Moonies' founder dies, aged 92 - The Irish Times - Mon, Sep 03, 2012". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- Moon’s death marks end of an era, Eileen Barker, CNN, 2012-9-3
- Moon, Sun Myung (2010). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (May 2010 ed.). USA: The Washington Times Foundation. pp. 119–120. OCLC 751568991.
- Miller, Timothy (1995). America's Alternative Religions. State University of New York Press. pp. 223, 414. ISBN 0-7914-2398-0.
- PacNews staff (February 17, 2006). "Church leaders unite against Moonies". PacNews. Pacific Island News Agency Service.
- Enroth, Ronald M. (2005). A Guide To New Religious Movements. InterVarsity Press. pp. 69, 72. ISBN 0-8308-2381-6.
- Shupe, Anson D.; Bronislaw Misztal (1998). Religion, Mobilization, and Social Action. Praeger. pp. 197, 213, 215. ISBN 978-0-275-95625-7.
- Ofcom (February 20, 2006). "Complaint by Mr Robin Marsh on behalf of The Family Federation for World Peace and Unification – UK (formerly known as the Unification Church)". Broadcast Bulletin. www.ofcom.org.uk (54). Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
- Gorenfeld, John (2008). Bad Moon Rising. PoliPointPress. p. 96. ISBN 0-9794822-3-2.
- Siegal, Allan M.; William G. Connolly (2002). The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage. Three Rivers Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-8129-6389-2.
- Moonies' mass wedding held in South Korea, BBC News, 20 February 2016
- excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
- Introvigne, 2000
- Email Us. "'Moonies' founder dies, aged 92 - The Irish Times - Mon, Sep 03, 2012". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. pages 12 – 16
- Moon-struck, Time, October 15, 1973, "The core members—most in their 20s, many of them converts from other spiritual, psychological or political trips—display a dogged devotion that makes even Jehovah's Witnesses look like backsliders. They are enthusiastic capitalists who rise at dawn to hit the streets with wares to exchange for "donations": flowers, votive light candles, even peanuts. Last year, when Master Moon moved his international headquarters to Tarrytown, N.Y., members sold candles across the U.S. for seven weeks to meet the down payment of $300,000 on an $850,000 estate".
- "Czechs, Now 'Naively' Seeking Direction, See Dangers in Cults", New York Times, February 14, 1996
- "Unification Church Gains Respect in Latin America", New York Times, November 24, 1996
- The Moonies in Moscow: a second coming?, Green Left Weekly, May 28, 1997. "With the dismantling of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moon's anticommunism lost much of its camouflage value. There was, however, the compensating possibility of being able to expand his operations into Russia – both with the bible, and with business. One of Moon's schemes in Russia during the early 1990s was reportedly to rent Red Square for a mass wedding ceremony of the type practised by his sect in many cities around the world, in which scores and perhaps hundreds of couples – selected for one another by UC leaders, and introduced only a few days previously --are married simultaneously. This plan came to nothing. The most that was achieved was that Moon's wife was allowed to broadcast from the stage of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses".
- A Less Secular Approach, The Saint Petersburg Times, June 7, 2002
- Schmemann, Serge (July 28, 1993). "Religion Returns to Russia, With a Vengeance". The New York Times.
- Lifestyle: Conversations with Members of Unification Church – "Quebedeaux, Richard" – Google Книги. Books.google.kg. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference Harvard Crimson, 10 August 1976.
- Church Spends Millions On Its Image The Washington Post. 17 September 1984
- "Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference – News – The Harvard Crimson".
- Eugene Paul Wigner Papers Archived 2008-02-24 at the Wayback Machine. Princeton University Library
- Yamamoto, J. I., 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6 (Excerpt: Archived 2012-02-10 at the Wayback Machine.)
"1. The Unification Theological Seminary
- a. The Unification Church has a seminary in Barrytown, New York called The Unification Theological Seminary.
- b. It is used as a theological training center, where members are prepared to be leaders and theologians in the UC.
- c. Moon's seminary, however, has not only attracted a respectable faculty (many of whom are not members of the UC), but it also has graduated many students (who are members of the UC) who have been accepted into doctoral programs at institutions such as Harvard and Yale."
- Korean Moon: Waxing or Waning Leo Sandon Jr. Theology Today, July 1978, "The Unification Church purchased the estate and now administers a growing seminary where approximately 110 Moonies engage in a two-year curriculum which includes biblical studies, UC history, philosophy, theology, religious education, and which leads to a Master of Religious Education degree."
- Dialogue with the Moonies Rodney Sawatsky, Theology Today, April 1978. "Only a minority of their teachers are Unification devotees; a Jew teaches Old Testament, a Christian instructs in church history and a Presbyterian lectures in theology, and so on. Typical sectarian fears of the outsider are not found among Moonies; truth is one or at least must become one, and understanding can be delivered even by the uninitiated."
- Where have all the Moonies gone? K. Gordon Neufeld, First Things, March 2008, "While I was studying theology, church history, and the Bible—taught by an eclectic faculty that included a rabbi, a Jesuit priest, and a Methodist minister—most of my young coreligionists were standing on street corners in San Francisco, Boston, and Miami urging strangers to attend a vaguely described dinner."
- Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon's adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
- Patrick Hickey Tahoe Boy: A journey back home John, Maryland, Seven Locks Press (May 15, 2009) ISBN 0-9822293-6-4 ISBN 978-0-9822293-6-1 pages 163-168
- MARRIAGE BY THE NUMBERS; MOON PRESIDES AS 6,500 COUPLES WED IN S. KOREA Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. Peter Maass Washington Post October 31, 1988
- "6,000 Couples Are Married in Korea". The New York Times. October 31, 1988.
- Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. page 16
- SFgate.com, San Francisco Chronicle September 3, 1983
- "Revista Envío – How to Read the Reagan Administration: The Miskito Case".
- Washington 2002: The Other Paper Archived 2006-04-19 at the Wayback Machine.
- Bardach, Ann Louise; David Wallis (2004). Moonstruck: The Rev. and His Newspaper. Nation Books. pp. 137–139, 150. ISBN 1-56025-581-1.
- Washington Times Moves to Reinvent Itself, Alex S. Jones, New York Times, January 27, 1992.
- New business models for news are not that new, Nikki Usher, Knight Digital Media Center, 2008-12-17, "And the Washington Times' conservative stance pursues its agenda from the Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church."
- From Slogans to Mantras: Social Protest and Religious Conversion in the Late Vietnam War Era, Stephen A. Kent, Syracuse University Press, 2001, page 168
- Spiritual warfare: the politics of the Christian right, Sara Diamond, 1989, Pluto Press, Page 58
- Ex-aide of Moon Faces Citation for Contempt, Associated Press, Eugene Register-Guard, August 5, 1977
- "Moon's 'Cause' Takes Aim At Communism in Americas." The Washington Post. August 28, 1983
- Sun Myung Moon's Followers Recruit Christians to Assist in Battle Against Communism Christianity Today June 15, 1985
- Projections about a post-Soviet world-twenty-five years later. // Goliath Business News
- 'Moonies' launch political party in S Korea,The Independent (South Africa), March 10, 2003
- "자유게시판". Unikorea.go.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "mk ´ş˝ş ĹëŔĎąłŔ°˝ÉŔÇŔ§ °łĂÖ..łťłâ ĹëŔĎąłŔ° šćÇâ źłÁ¤". News.mk.co.kr. 2006-12-28. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Nepalese Constituent Assembly Archived 2012-03-02 at the Wayback Machine.
- "News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual". Myrepublica.Com. 2012-05-19. Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America: African diaspora traditions and other American innovations, Volume 5 of Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, W. Michael Ashcraft, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-98717-5, ISBN 978-0-275-98717-6, page 180
- Exploring New Religions, Issues in contemporary religion, George D. Chryssides, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001ISBN 0-8264-5959-5, ISBN 978-0-8264-5959-6 page 1
- Exploring the climate of doomArchived 2012-04-23 at the Wayback Machine., Rich Lowry, 2009-12-19 'The phrase "doomsday cult" entered our collective vocabulary after John Lofland published his 1966 study, "Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith." Lofland wrote about the Unification Church.'
- Conversion Archived 2012-01-21 at the Wayback Machine., Unification Church Archived 2012-01-13 at the Wayback Machine., Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, Hartford Institute for Religion Research, Hartford Seminary
- Frederick E. Sontag dies at 84; Pomona College philosophy professor, Los Angeles Times, June 20, 2009
- Who is this Pied Piper of Religion?, St. Petersburg Times, February 4, 1978
- Moon: an objective look at his theology, Boca Raton News, 1977-11-25
- Review, William Rusher, National Review, December 19, 1986.
- NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS - SOME PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION George Chryssides, Diskus, 1997.
- Kent, Stephen; Theresa Krebs (1998). "Academic Compromise in the Social Scientific Study of Alternative Religions". Nova Religio. 2 (1): 44–54. doi:10.1525/nr.19184.108.40.206.
- Lester R. Kurtz, 2007, Gods in the Global Village: The World's Religions in Sociological Perspective, Pine Forge Press, ISBN 1412927153 page 227
- Barker, Eileen (1986). "Religious Movements: Cult and Anti-Cult Since Jonestown". Annual Review of Sociology. 12: 329–346. doi:10.1146/annurev.so.12.080186.001553.
- Zablocki, Benjamin (October 1997). "The Blacklisting of a Concept". Nova Religio. 1 (1): 96–121. doi:10.1525/nr.19220.127.116.11.
- Eileen Barker. Did the Moonies really brainwash millions? Time to dispel a myth. // The Guardian, 4 September 2012
- "Obituary: Sun Myung Moon". BBC News. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- "California Court Backs Moonies". Toledo Blade: 9. 7 October 1977.
- Shupe, Anson; Darnell, Susan E. (2006). Agents of Discord. New Brunswick (US), London (UK): Transaction Publishers. pp. 180–184. ISBN 0-7658-0323-2.
- Anthony, D. and Robbins, T. (1992), Law, social science and the "brainwashing" exception to the first amendment. Behav. Sci. Law, 10: 5–29.
- APA Brief in the Molko Case, from CESNUR website, 1987.
- Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, pages 47-52
- Stymied in U.S., Moon's Church Sounds a Retreat, Marc Fisher and Jeff Leen, Washington Post, November 24, 1997
- Universal peace federation, Middle east peace initiative Archived 2013-01-17 at the Wayback Machine.
- Andrea Noble, The Gazette, Bowie resident pushes for peace, Gazette.net, Jan. 8, 2009
- "문선명은 김정일 사망 알았나".
- Associated Press Son of Unification Church founder meets with senior North Korean official in Pyongyang, The Washington Post, 15 December 2011 (копия)
- "S. Korea says food aid reached intended beneficiaries in N. Korea".
- "Kbs News". Sports.kbs.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "はてなブックマーク – たびのわ »UCニュース»日本赤十字社に文総裁からの寄付金を渡された文亨進世界会長". B.hatena.ne.jp. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Family Federation for World Peace and Unification". 18.104.22.168. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "문선명 자서전, 전국 목회자에 발송 :한국 교회의 나침반 뉴스파워". newspower.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "mk ´ş˝ş [šŽČźŇ˝Ä] šŽźą¸í ĂŃŔç ŔÚźŔü 100¸¸şÎ ľšĆÄ". News.mk.co.kr. Archived from the original on 2012-07-15. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "mk ´ş˝ş [şŁ˝şĆŽźżˇŻ] ˝Ĺ°ćź÷ źŇźł 3Ŕ§ˇÎ ťó˝Â". News.mk.co.kr. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "▒▒▒ 사천신문 ▒▒▒". 4000news.com. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Kirk, Donald (May 2, 2010). "Sons rise in a Moon's shadow". Forbes. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- Yoon, Sangwon (August 15, 2012). "Unification Church Says Leader Moon Is 'Gravely Ill'". Bloomberg. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- Unification Church founder dies, Korea Herald, 2012-9-3
- "Moon Sun Myung Awarded National Reunification Prize", Korean Central News Agency, 7 September 2012, archived from the original on 29 July 2014, retrieved 13 September 2012
- North Korean leader extends condolences over 1 yr anniversary of Unification Church founder death, Yonhap News, August 20, 2013
- Unification Church leaders vow to complete Rev. Moon’s mission, The Washington Post, September 3, 2012
- Pennacchia, Robyn. "The 'Moonies' Mass-Marrying Their Guns: A Fashion DO!". Retrieved 9 March 2018.
Just to be clear, it’s the Unification Church, but it’s also not the Unification Church. Basically, after Sun Myung Moon died, a bunch of other people started their own splinter groups, including his wife, his eldest son and his youngest son.
- Fefferman, Dan. "SCHISM in the Unification Church" (PDF). CESNUR Center for Studies on New Religions. 2016 CESNUR Conference. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- "FFWPU International Headquarters – Practicing True Love in Resemblance to Heavenly Parent". FFWPU International Headquarters. FFWPU International Headquarters. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- "Family Peace Association". Family Peace Association. Family Peace Association. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- "Life and Legacy of Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Movements in Scholarly Perspective". www.cesnur.org (in Italian). CESNUR Center for Studies on New Religions. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Boorstein, Michelle; Shapira, Ian (23 November 2009). "Succession, division worry church members and beneficiaries". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Song, Hongeun. "Unification Church 'I Am The Prince"" (June 2011). Shin Dong A. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Barker, Eileen (April 8, 2016). Revisionism and Diversification in New Religious Movements. Routledge. ISBN 9781317063605.
- "Today's World - July 1998 - Volume 19, Number 7" (PDF). Unification.net. World Mission Department of the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Introvigne, Massimo. "Unification Movement Schismatic Groups (2012-Present) – WRSP". wrldrels.org. World Religions and Spirituality. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Son of Moonies founder takes over as church leader The Guardian, 2008-04-28
- Unification Church Woos A Second Generation, National Public Radio, June 23, 2010
- "Anti-LGBT cult leader calls on followers to purchase assault ifles". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- "Foundation Day - Hak Ja Han". www.tparents.org. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- "Bestowing the Heavenly Scriptures » FFWPU USA". familyfed.org. FFWPU. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
“The existing Cheon Seong Gyeong had some misquoted and duplicated parts, which True Mother was sad to see.” The new edition corrected this and added speeches of True Father and True Mother from the 2000s.
- "True Peace" (PDF). #43 (English Version). January 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
- Church finds ‘holy ground’ in Sin City, Las Vegas Review Journal, June 25, 2014
- Lee, JY. "Meet the Billionaire Holy Mother of the Unification Church". OZY. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
- http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "The Rev. Sun Myung Moon, founder of The Times, dies at 92".
- Unification Church pres sees smaller mass weddings Archived 2009-03-22 at the Wayback Machine., Daily Monitor, 2008-12-30
- CNN, Amir Vera,. "Couples clutching AR-15 rifles renew wedding vows".
- Phillips, Kristine (1 March 2018). "With crowns on their heads and AR-15s in their arms, couples exchange vows in pro-gun church" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- "AR-15 rifles, pistols, crowns of bullets and renewal of wedding vows in church". 1 March 2018.
- "February 28, 2018 "Cosmic True Parents of Heaven, Earth and Humanity Cheon Il Guk Book of Life Registration Blessing" Ceremony – World Peace and Unification Sanctuary". sanctuary-pa.org.
- Sanctuary, Unification (19 January 2018). "Peace Police Peace Militia Intro" – via Vimeo.
- "Rods of Iron, Cold-War Fascism, and Neo-Moonies: The Bizarre Story Behind the AR-15 Church Ceremony". MintPress News. 3 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
- "Family Peace Association Inaugural Ceremony Founder's Address - Family Peace Association". Family Peace Association. 12 December 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Introvigne, Massimo. "Family Peace Association – WRSP". wrldrels.org. World Religions and Spirituality. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- Sontag, Frederick. 1977. Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, Abingdon Press. ISBN 0-687-40622-6
- Bryant, M. Darrol, and Herbert Warren Richardson. 1978. A Time for consideration: a scholarly appraisal of the Unification Church. New York: E. Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-88946-954-9
- Tingle, D. and Fordyce, R. 1979, Phases and Faces of the Moon: A Critical Examination of the Unification Church and its Principles, Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press ISBN 0-682-49264-7
- Kim, Young Oon, 1980, Unification Theology, Barrytown, NY: Unification Theological Seminary, Library of Congress Cataloging number 80-52872
- Matczak, Sebastian, Unificationism: A New Philosophy and World View (Philosophical Questions Series, No 11) (1982) New York: Louvain.
- Barker, Eileen, The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing? (1984) Blackwell's, Oxford, UK ISBN 0-631-13246-5.
- Bjornstad, James. 1984. Sun Myung & the Unification Church. Rev. ed. Minneapolis, Minn.: Bethany House Publishers. 57 p. N.B.: Rev. ed. of The Moon Is Not the Sun, which had been published in 1976. ISBN 0-87123-301-0
- Durst, Mose. 1984. To bigotry, no sanction: Reverend Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Chicago: Regnery Gateway. ISBN 978-0-89526-609-5
- Bromley, David G. (September 1985). "Financing the Millennium: The Economic Structure of the Unificationist Movement". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Sep., 1985), pp. Blackwell Publishing on behalf of Society for the Scientific Study of Religion. 24 (3): 253–274. JSTOR 1385816.
- Fichter, Joseph Henry. 1985. The holy family of father Moon. Kansas City, Mo: Leaven Press. ISBN 978-0-934134-13-2
- Gullery, Jonathan. 1986. The Path of a pioneer: the early days of Reverend Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. New York: HSA Publications. ISBN 978-0-910621-50-2
- Biermans, J. 1986, The Odyssey of New Religious Movements, Persecution, Struggle, Legitimation: A Case Study of the Unification Church Lewiston, New York and Queenston, Ontario: The Edwin Melton Press ISBN 0-88946-710-2
- Sherwood, Carlton. 1991. Inquisition: The Persecution and Prosecution of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway. ISBN 978-0-89526-532-6
- Chryssides, George D., The Advent of Sun Myung Moon: The Origins, Beliefs and Practices of the Unification Church (1991) London, Macmillan Professional and Academic Ltd. The author is professor of religious studies at the University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.
- Yamamoto, J. Isamu, 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan ISBN 0-310-70381-6
- Hong, Nansook, In the Shadow of the Moons: My Life in the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Family. Little Brown & Company; ISBN 0-316-34816-3; (August 1998).
- Introvigne, M., 2000, The Unification Church, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
- Ward, Thomas J. 2006, March to Moscow: the role of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon in the collapse of communism. St. Paul, Minn: Paragon House. ISBN 978-1-885118-16-5
- Hickey, Patrick 2009, Tahoe Boy: A journey back home. John, Maryland: Seven Locks Press. ISBN 0-9822293-6-4 ISBN 978-0982229361
- Moon, Sun Myung, 2009, As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen. Gimm-Young Publishers ISBN 0-7166-0299-7
|Wikisource has several original texts related to: Unification Church|
- Quotations related to Unification Church at Wikiquote
- Quotations related to Divine Principle at Wikiquote
- Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (official international website, English language version)
- Family Federation for World Peace and Unification USA (official website)
- Biography of Sun Myung Moon
- Unification Church Profile of the UC at religionfacts.com.