NCAA Division III
NCAA Division III (D-III) is a division of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the United States. D-III consists of athletic programs at colleges and universities that choose not to offer athletic scholarships to their student-athletes.
The NCAA's first split was into two divisions, the University and College Divisions, in 1956, the College Division was formed for smaller schools that did not have the resources of the major athletic programs across the country. The College Division split again in 1973 when the NCAA went to its current naming convention: Division I, Division II, and Division III. Division III schools are not allowed to offer athletic scholarships, while D-II schools can.
Division III is the NCAA's largest division with around 450 member institutions, which are 80% private and 20% public. The median undergraduate enrollment of D-III schools is about 2,750, although the range is from 418 to over 38,000. Approximately 40% of all NCAA student-athletes compete in D-III.
Division III institutions must sponsor at least three team sports for each sex/gender, with each playing season represented by each gender. Teams in which men and women compete together are counted as men's teams for sports sponsorship purposes. In a feature unique to D-III, the total number of required sports varies with each school's full-time undergraduate enrollment. Schools with an enrollment of 1,000 or less must sponsor five men's and five women's sports; those with larger enrollments must sponsor six for each sex/gender. Institutions that sponsor athletic programs for only one sex/gender (single-sex schools, plus a few historically all-female schools that are now coeducational) need only meet the sponsorship requirements for that sex. There are minimum contest rules and participant minimums for each sport.
Division III athletic programs are non-revenue-generating, extracurricular programs that are staffed and funded like any other university department. They feature student-athletes who receive no financial aid related to their athletic ability. Student-athletes cannot redshirt as freshmen, and schools may not use endowments or funds whose primary purpose is to benefit athletic programs.
Division III schools "shall not award financial aid to any student on the basis of athletics leadership, ability, participation or performance". Financial aid given to athletes must be awarded under the same procedures as for the general student body, and the proportion of total financial aid given to athletes "shall be closely equivalent to the percentage of student-athletes within the student body". The ban on scholarships is strictly enforced. As an example of how seriously the NCAA takes this rule, in 2005 MacMurray College became only the fifth school slapped with a "death penalty" after its men's tennis program gave grants to foreign-born players. The two service academies that are D-III members, Merchant Marine and Coast Guard, do not violate the athletic scholarship ban because all students, whether or not they are varsity athletes, receive the same treatment, a full scholarship.
Another aspect that distinguishes Division III from the other NCAA divisions is that D-III institutions are specifically banned from using the National Letter of Intent, or any other pre-enrollment form that is not executed by other prospective students at the school. The NCAA provides for one exception—a standard, nonbinding celebratory signing form that may be signed by the student upon his or her acceptance of enrollment. However, this form cannot be signed at the campus of that college, and staff members of that college cannot be present at the signing.
An "all-sports conference" is defined here as one that sponsors both men's and women's basketball. While the NCAA has a much more detailed definition of the term, every NCAA conference (regardless of division) that sponsors basketball meets the organization's requirements for "all-sports" status.
- Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference[conf 1]
- American Rivers Conference[conf 1]
- American Southwest Conference[conf 1]
- Atlantic East Conference[conf 2]
- Centennial Conference[conf 1]
- City University of New York Athletic Conference[conf 2]
- Coast to Coast Athletic Conference[conf 2]
- College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin[conf 1]
- Collegiate Conference of the South[conf 2]
- Colonial States Athletic Conference[conf 2]
- Commonwealth Coast Conference[a]
- Empire 8 Conference[conf 1]
- Great Northeast Athletic Conference[conf 2]
- Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- Landmark Conference[conf 2][b]
- Liberty League[conf 1]
- Little East Conference[conf 2]
- Massachusetts State Collegiate Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association[conf 1]
- Middle Atlantic Conferences[c]
- Midwest Conference[conf 1]
- Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- New England Collegiate Conference[conf 2]
- New England Small College Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- New Jersey Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- North Atlantic Conference[conf 2]
- North Coast Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- Northern Athletics Collegiate Conference[conf 1]
- Northwest Conference[conf 1]
- Ohio Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- Old Dominion Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- Presidents' Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- Skyline Conference[conf 2]
- Southern Athletic Association[conf 1]
- Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference[conf 2]
- St. Louis Intercollegiate Athletic Conference[conf 2]
- State University of New York Athletic Conference[conf 2]
- United East Conference[conf 2]
- University Athletic Association[conf 2]
- Upper Midwest Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- USA South Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference[conf 1]
- Conference sponsors football.
- Conference doesn't sponsor football.
- The Commonwealth Coast Conference does not sponsor football, but operates the single-sport Commonwealth Coast Football.
- The Landmark Conference will sponsor football, effective beginning the 2023 fall season (2023–24 school year).
- The Middle Atlantic Conferences (MAC) is an umbrella organization that operates three separate leagues. Two of these, the MAC Commonwealth and MAC Freedom, sponsor competition in the same set of 14 sports, including men's and women's basketball, but not football. The third league, known as the Middle Atlantic Conference (singular), sponsors competition in football and 12 other sports.
- Ice hockey
- New England Hockey Conference (men and women)
- Northern Collegiate Hockey Association (men and women)
- United Collegiate Hockey Conference (men and women)
- Midwest Lacrosse Conference (men only)
- Midwest Women's Lacrosse Conference (women only)
- Ohio River Lacrosse Conference (men and women)
- Men's volleyball
Division III schools with Division I programs
Ten D-III schools currently field Division I programs in one or two sports, one maximum for each gender. These schools are allowed to offer athletic scholarships only for their Division I men's and women's sports.
Five of them are schools that traditionally competed at the highest level of a particular men's sport prior to the institution of the three division classifications in 1973, a decade before the NCAA governed women's sports. These five colleges (plus three others that later chose to return their Division I programs to Division III) were granted a waiver (a.k.a. a grandfather clause) in 1983 to continue offering scholarships, a waiver that was reaffirmed in 2004. Presumably due to Title IX considerations, grandfathered schools are also allowed to field one women's sport in Division I, and all five schools choose to do so.
- Clarkson University (men's and women's ice hockey)
- Colorado College (men's ice hockey and women's soccer)
- Johns Hopkins University (men's and women's lacrosse)
- Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (men's and women's ice hockey)
- St. Lawrence University (men's and women's ice hockey)
Three formerly grandfathered schools moved completely to Division III. The State University of New York at Oneonta, which had been grandfathered in men's soccer, moved totally to Division III in 2006. Rutgers University–Newark, which had been grandfathered in men's volleyball, did the same in 2014. Hartwick College, which had been grandfathered in men's soccer and women's water polo, moved its men's soccer program to Division III in 2018 and dropped women's water polo entirely.
The other five schools chose to field Division I programs in one sport for men and/or one sport for women after the original grandfather clause went into effect, so they were not grandfathered and thus were not allowed to offer athletic scholarships. Academic-based and need-based financial aid was still available, as is the case for all of Division III.
- Franklin and Marshall College (men's wrestling)
- Hobart College (men's lacrosse)
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (women's rowing)
- Rochester Institute of Technology (men's and women's ice hockey)
- Union College (men's and women's ice hockey)
In addition, Lawrence University was formerly a non-grandfathered program in fencing, but the NCAA no longer conducts a separate Division I fencing championship. Lawrence continues to field a fencing team, but that team is now considered Division III (see below).
In August 2011, the NCAA decided to no longer allow individual programs to move to another division as a general policy. One exception was made in 2012, when RIT successfully argued for a one-time opportunity for colleges with a D-I men's team to add a women's team.
Since no more colleges would be allowed to move individual sports to Division I, the five non-scholarship programs (led by RIT and Union) petitioned to be allowed to offer scholarships in the interests of competitive equity. Division III membership voted in January 2022 to extend the grandfather clause to allow all ten colleges to offer athletic scholarships, effective immediately.
Football and basketball may not be Division I programs at Division III institutions, because their revenue-enhancing potential would give them an unfair advantage over other Division III schools. In 1992, several Division I schools playing Division III football were forced to bring their football programs into Division I, following the passage of the "Dayton Rule" (named after the University of Dayton, whose success in D-III football was seen as threatening the "ethos" of Division III sports). This led directly to the creation of the Pioneer Football League, a non-scholarship football-only Division I FCS conference.
Division III schools playing in non-divisional sports
In addition to the D-III schools with teams that play as Division I members, many other D-III schools have teams that compete alongside D-I and D-II members in sports that the NCAA does not split into divisions. Teams in these sports are not counted as playing in a different division from the rest of the athletic program. D-III members cannot award scholarships in these sports.
In 2003, concerned about the disparity of some D-III athletic programs and the focus on national championships, the Division III Presidents' Council, led by Middlebury College President John McCardell, proposed ending the athletic scholarship exemptions for D-I programs, eliminating redshirting, and limiting the length of the traditional and non-traditional seasons. At the January 2004 NCAA convention, an amendment allowed the exemption for grandfathered D-I athletic scholarships to remain in place, but the rest of the reforms passed.
- "Division III Facts and Figures" (PDF). NCAA. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 27, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- "Bylaw 20.11.3: Sports Sponsorship". 2021–22 NCAA Division I Manual. NCAA. August 1, 2021. pp. 221–25. Retrieved April 23, 2022.
- "Divisional Differences and the History of Multidivision Classification". NCAA. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- NCAA. "Bylaw 188.8.131.52 Minimum Amount of Participation" (PDF). 2012–13 NCAA Division III Manual. p. 93. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- Under Bylaw 184.108.40.206, a Division III athlete uses a year of eligibility by either practicing with or playing on a team. This differs from the rules for Divisions I and II, in which only playing on a team counts as participation.
- The so-called medical redshirt, officially known as a hardship waiver, is covered by a different NCAA bylaw—specifically Bylaw 14.2.5 (p. 96, 2012–13 NCAA Division III Manual).
- "Bylaw 15.01.5 Student-Athlete Financial Aid Endowments or Funds" (PDF). 2012–13 NCAA Division III Manual. NCAA. p. 107. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Bylaw 15.01.3 Institutional Financial Aid" (PDF). 2012–13 NCAA Division III Manual. NCAA. p. 107. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "Bylaw 15.4.1 Consistent Financial Aid Package" (PDF). 2012–13 NCAA Division III Manual. NCAA. p. 110. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- "LSDBi". ncaa.org. Archived from the original on September 9, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
- "Bylaw 13.9.1 Letter-of-intent Prohibition" (PDF). 2018–19 NCAA Division III Manual. NCAA. pp. 80–81. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 18, 2019. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- Wodon, Adam (January 12, 2004). "Scholarships Will Continue For D-III 'Play Up' Schools". USCHO.com. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- "Transitioning Scarlet Raiders Join CVC" (Press release). Rutgers–Newark Athletics. March 13, 2014. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Kennedy, Paul (February 28, 2018). "Hartwick to downgrade men's soccer, making it a Division III sport". Soccer America. Archived from the original on June 21, 2018. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
- "RIT's push for NCAA legislative change opens the door for women to move to Division I". USCHO.com. Archived from the original on April 14, 2015. Retrieved April 7, 2015.
- "Union hockey: Could scholarships be on the horizon?". January 12, 2022.
- "Union hockey teams could be on verge of offering athletic scholarships – the Daily Gazette".
- "RIT pushes for NCAA rule changes for hockey teams".
- "NCAA Votes to Allow Union Hockey to Offer Scholarships".
- Pennington, Bill (May 25, 2003). "Playing for Victory, Or Simply to Play? Colleges Are Split". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2017. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
- "NCAA Division III Defeats Effort To Repeal Waiver". Clarkson University. January 12, 2004. Archived from the original on August 18, 2018. Retrieved November 26, 2017.