Divya Desam

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Vishnu and Lakshmi, the revered divine couple venerated in most Divya Desams

A Divya Desam or Vaishnava Divya Desam[1] is one of the 108 Vishnu and Lakshmi temples that is mentioned in the works of the Alvars, the poet-saints of the Sri Vaishnava tradition.

Of the 108 temples, 105 are in India, one is in Nepal, and the last two are believed to outside the earth, in Tirupparkatal and Vaikuntham. In India, they are spread over the states of Tamil Nadu (84), Kerala (11), Andhra Pradesh (2), Gujarat (1), Uttar Pradesh (4), and Uttarakhand (3). Muktinath, Saligramam is the only Divya Desam in Nepal. The Divya Desams are revered by the 12 Alvars in the Naalayira Divya Prabandham, a collection of 4,000 Tamil verses. The Divya Desams follow either Tenkalai or Vadakalai modes of worship.[2]

Etymology[edit]

Sculpture of Vishnu and Lakshmi at Ajanta

In Sanskrit, divya means "divine" and desam indicates "realm" (temple).[3][4]

Geography[edit]

Divya Desams are classified into six regions:

  1. Chera Nadu
  2. Chola Nadu
  3. Pandya Nadu
  4. Pallava Nadu
  5. Vada Nadu
  6. Vinnulaga Divya Desams

Alvars and Divya Prabandham[edit]

The word Alvar in Tamil, means "the immersed", referring to the their deep devotion of God. Alvars are considered to be the twelve poet-saints of Vishnu, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism during the 5th-8th centuries CE. The religious works of these saints in Tamil, their hymns of love and devotion, are compiled as the Naalayira Divya Prabandham, containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya Desams.[5][6] The saints had different origins and belonged to different varnas. According to tradition, the first three Alvars (mudhal alvargal), Poigai, Bhuthathalvar, Peyalvar and Andal were said to be born "out of divinity", Tirumalisai was the son of a sage, Thondaradi, Mathurakavi, Periyalvar were of Brahmin birth, Kulasekhara from the Kshatriya community, Nammalvar was from a cultivator family, Tirupanalvar from the panar community and Tirumangai was from the kalvar community.

The Divya Suri Saritra by Garuda-Vahana Pandita (11th century CE), Guruparamparaprabhavam by Pinbaragiya Perumal Jeeyar, Periya tiru mudi adaivu by Anbillai Kandadiappan, Yatindra Pranava Prabavam by Pillai Lokam Jeeyar, commentaries on the Naalayira Divya Prabandam, Guru Parampara (lineage of Gurus) texts, temple records and inscriptions give a detailed account of the Alvars and their works. According to these texts, the saints are considered to be incarnations of attributes of Vishnu. Poigai is considered to be an incarnation of Panchajanya (Krishna's conch), Bhoothath of Kaumodaki (Vishnu's mace), Peyalvar of Nandaka (Vishnu's sword), Thirumalisai of Sudarshana Chakra (Vishnu's discus), Nammalvar of Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander), Madhurakavi of Vainatheya (Garuda), Kulasekhara of Kaustubha (Vishnu's gemstone), Periyalvar of Garuda (Vishnu's demigod eagle), Andal of Bhudevi (Vishnu's wife, Lakshmi, in her form as Bhudevi), Thondaradippodi of Vanamalai (Vishnu's garland), Thiruppaan of Srivatsa[7] (An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest) and Thirumangai of Sharanga (Vishnu's bow). The songs of Prabandham are sung in several Vishnu temples of Tamil Nadu daily and also during festivals.[6][8]

Significance[edit]

In Hindu texts, these temples are often referred to as Bhuloka Vaikuntham, which in Tamil means heavens on earth.[9] Each of the Divya Desam has its own significance related to Sri Vaishnava legend. Almost all of these temples have separate shrines for Vishnu and Lakshmi.[1]

List of Divya Desams[edit]

The 106 earthly Divya Desam temples are spread over the Indian states of Tamil Nadu (84), Kerala (11), Uttar Pradesh (4), Uttarakhand (3), Andhra Pradesh (2) and Gujarat (1), and the country of Nepal (1) (Muktinath). The last two are believed to be outside earthly realms.

Name Location Photo Presiding deities Notes
Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam Srirangam, Trichy district
Tamil Nadu
10°51′45″N 78°41′23″E / 10.8625°N 78.689722°E / 10.8625; 78.689722
Srirangam14.jpg
Ranganathaswamy and Ranganayaki The Srirangam temple is often listed as the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world. The temple occupies an area of 156 acres (631,000 m2) with a perimeter of 4,116m (10,710 feet) making it the largest temple in India and one of the largest religious complexes in the world.[10][11] The annual 21 day festival conducted during the Tamil month of Margaḻi (December–January) attracts 1 million visitors.[12]
Thirukoḻi Uraiyur, Trichy district
Tamil Nadu
10°49′N 78°40′E / 10.82°N 78.67°E / 10.82; 78.67
Nachiyar4.jpg
Kamalavalli Nachiyar and
Aḻagiya Manavala Perumal
The temple is locally called Nachiyar Koil (to be distinguished from Thirunaraiyur) and is one of the few Divya Desams where the goddess is offered prominence over Vishnu.[13][14] The temple is the birthplace of Thiruppaan Alvar, one of the twelve Alvars. In Srirangam, the yearly birth festival of Thiruppaan Alvar is celebrated with the Vishvarupa Darshanam of Ranganatha at the sanctum on the occasion of his birthday. The utsavar of Thiruppaan Alvar is taken from the temple to Srirangam.[15]
Thirukkarambanoor Uthamarkoil, Tiruchirappalli district
Tamil Nadu
10°29′N 78°49′E / 10.49°N 78.81°E / 10.49; 78.81
Uthamarkoil1.jpg
Purushottama Nayaki and Purushottama Perumal This rare temple is dedicated to the Hindu Trimurti (trinity) namely Vishnu, Shiva, and Brahma. According to Hindu legend, the temple is believed to have been constructed by Janakar, the king of Janakapuri and the father of Sita from the epic Ramayana. Thirumangai Alvar is believed to have resided in the temple to build the surrounding walls of the Srirangam Ranganathaswamy temple.[16]
Pundarikakshan Perumal Koil Thiruvellarai, Trichy district
Tamil Nadu
10°58′N 78°40′E / 10.96°N 78.67°E / 10.96; 78.67
Tiruvellarai1.jpg
Pankaja Nayaki and
Pundarikaksha Perumal
The Pundarikakshan Perumal temple is believed to have been built by the Pallava king Dantivarman (796–847 CE).[17][18] A swastika-shaped temple tank built during 800 CE is present in the south-western corner of the street around the temple. It has four stepped gateways, each having 51 steps. The tank is believed to have been built by Kamban Araiyan during the reign of Dantivarman. In modern times, it is maintained by the Department of Archaeology of the Government of Tamil Nadu. The temple complex covers an area of 2.62 ha (6.5 acres), while the tank covers an area of 0.1256 ha (0.310 acres).[19][20] The chariot festival is unique in the state as a community feast is offered by several individuals and committees, a custom many centuries old.[21][22]
Vadivaḻagiya Nambi Perumal Koil Anbil, Trichy district
Tamil Nadu
10°52′04″N 78°52′56″E / 10.867735°N 78.882171°E / 10.867735; 78.882171
Tiruanbil4.jpg
Saundaryavalli and Sundararaja Perumal King Sundara Chola, who ruled the area, was a devotee of the temple, and during each of his innumerable victories in wars, he showered a lot of wealth on this temple. His prime minister Anirudha Brahmarayar is believed to be from Anbil, the village where the temple is located. The copper plates having the records from the Chola period from Anbil indicate generous contribution from the Medieval Cholas indicate various gifts to the temple.[23][24]
Appakkudathaan Perumal Koil Koviladi, Tanjore district
Tamil Nadu
10°50′22″N 78°53′21″E / 10.839307°N 78.889073°E / 10.839307; 78.889073
Koviladi1.jpg
Indravalli and Appakudatthan Perumal The temple has inscriptions from the 18th year of the reign of Aditya Chola.[25][26] The temple is one of the five Pancharanga Kshetrams, a group of five Hindu temples on the banks of the Kaveri River dedicated to Ranganatha, a form of Vishnu.[27][28]
Hara Saabha Vimocchana Perumal Temple Kandiyur, Thanjavur district
Tamil Nadu
10°51′37″N 79°06′32″E / 10.860255°N 79.108891°E / 10.860255; 79.108891
Hara Saabha Vimochana Perumal .jpg
Kamalavalli and
Hara Saabha Vimochana Perumal
Since Vishnu relieved (vimochana) the curse (sābha) of Shiva (also called Hara), the temple is called Hara Sābha Vimochana Temple.[29]
Thirukoodalur Aduthurai, Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°55′31″N 79°12′13″E / 10.925152°N 79.203532°E / 10.925152; 79.203532
Aduthurai perumal1.jpg
Padmasani and Jagathrakshaga Perumal Kaveri wanted to cleanse herself, and approached the Hindu god Brahma. She is believed to have worshipped Vishnu at this place, and received relief. A parrot that was devoted to Vishnu was shot down in the nearby forest. Vishnu rescued the parrot and apprised him of his previous birth. Thus, it is believed that Vishnu descends here for all forms of life. Vishnu is also believed to have appeared for sage Nandaka.[30]
Thirukavithalam Kabisthalam
, Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°56′49″N 79°15′23″E / 10.946890°N 79.256512°E / 10.946890; 79.256512
009 - Thiru Kavithalam.jpg
Ramamanivalli and Gajendra Varadha Perumal Based on Gajendra Moksha, Gajendra Varadha is believed to have appeared to Gajendra the elephant also called Indrajumnan, the crocodile called Huhu, Sage Parasara and Anjaneya.[31] The temple is one of the Panchakanna (Krishnaranya) Kshetrams, the five holy temples associated with Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu.[32][33]
Thiruppullamboothangudi Pullabhoothangudi
, Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°58′18″N 79°18′12″E / 10.971596°N 79.303415°E / 10.971596; 79.303415
Pullabhoothangudi (11).jpg
Hemambujavalli and Rama Perumal Kolavalli Ramar is believed to have appeared for Sita, and the temple is believed to be the place where Rama performed the last rites of the eagle king Jatayu.[34]
Thiruaadhanur Adanur,
Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°58′35″N 79°18′48″E / 10.976470°N 79.313454°E / 10.976470; 79.313454
Adhanur perumal.jpg
Ranganayaki Thayar and Andalukkum Aiyyan Perumal Andalakkum Aiyarn is believed to have appeared for an affluent devotee trying to save Rangantha.[35] It is also believed that the presiding deity appeared for Kamadhenu, the divine cow, and also for Thirumangai Alvar, the saint poet of the 8th century.[36]
Thirukudanthai Kumbakonam, Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°57′35″N 79°22′30″E / 10.959649°N 79.374999°E / 10.959649; 79.374999
Gopuras in Kumbakonam - India.JPG
Komalavalli and Aravamuda Perumal The temple is called Ubaya Pradhana Kshetram as the mulavar (presiding deity) and utsavar (festive deity) enjoy the same importance. It is believed that the presiding deity asked Nathamuni to compile the four thousand verses of Naalayira Divya Prabandham at this place.[37] The twin temple chariots weigh 300 t (660,000 lb) each and are next only in size to the ones in Thygaraja temple in Thiruvarur and Andal Temple in Srivilliputhur.[38] This temple is along Kaveri and is one of the Pancharanga Kshetrams.[39]
Thiruvinnagar Tirunageswaram, Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°57′42″N 79°25′55″E / 10.961570°N 79.432080°E / 10.961570; 79.432080
Uppiliappan koil3.JPG
Bhumidevi and Uppiliappan Perumal It is believed that Vishnu appeared as Uppiliappan to marry sage Hemarishi's daughter, who was Lakshmi's avatar. Since the sage stated that his girl was too young to offer him food with salt, Vishnu agreed to accept an offering without salt.[40]
Thirunaraiyur Nachiyar Kovil, Thiruvarur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°54′57″N 79°26′44″E / 10.915844°N 79.445554°E / 10.915844; 79.445554
Nachiyar Kovil (13).jpg
Vanchulavalli and Srinivasa Perumal According to local lore, Vishnu was of the view that during Kali Yuga, men would have to listen to women. Hence, he decided that he would first set an example and listen to the goddess here. During all festive occasions, the first rights are reserved for Nachiyar, who moves ahead, while Srinivasa follows her. Even the food is first served to Nachiyar, and then to Srinivasa.[40] The Kal Garuda image in the temple used during the festive occasions is believed to increase in weight seeking 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 people in succession when the procession comes out of various gates from the sanctum to the main entrance of the temple.[14]
Thirucherai Tirucherai, Thiruvarur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°52′45″N 79°27′16″E / 10.879135°N 79.454402°E / 10.879135; 79.454402
Thirucherai temple tank (1).jpg
Saranayaki and Saranatha Perumal Saranathan is believed to have appeared to river Kaveri, sage Markandeya, and Hindu god Indra. The crown of some of the images from the Chola period show influence of Buddhist tradition in the region.[41] The metal image of Sita is believed to be a classic example of Chola Art during the 9th-10th centuries.[42][43]
Thirunandhipura Vinnagaram Nathan Kovil,
Thiruvarur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°55′19″N 79°22′20″E / 10.922075°N 79.372192°E / 10.922075; 79.372192
Natankovil1.jpg
Shenbagavalli and Jagannatha Perumal Nandi, the sacred bull of Shiva, is believed to have got his curses relieved by worshipping Vishnu here, and hence the place is called Nandipuram and Nandhipura Vinnagaram.[44] It is also believed that king Sibi worshipped Vishnu at this place.[45]
Thiruvelliyangudi Thiruvelliyangudi,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°03′24″N 79°26′35″E / 11.056687°N 79.443095°E / 11.056687; 79.443095
Velliyangudi temple.jpg
Maragadhavalli and Kolavilli Rama Perumal The temple is counted as Vaishnava Sukra Kshetra as Vishnu appeared as a beautiful deity to please his devotee Sukra (Venus).[46] The place derived its name Thiruvelliyangudi hence and the presiding deity is also referred to as Velliyan. It is believed that Vishnu appeared in Kalyana Kolam (marriage posture) to Parasarar, Markendeyar, Mayan, Brahma, Sukran, and Bhudevi. To de-stress or relieve Vishnu, his mount or vahana, the eagle Garuda, holds the conch and the Sudarshana Chakram of Vishnu, making this the only temple where Garuda is depicted in such a posture.[47]
Thirukannamangai Thirukannamangai,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°47′58″N 79°35′12″E / 10.799552°N 79.586645°E / 10.799552; 79.586645
Thirukannamangai2.JPG
Abishekavalli and Bhaktavatsala Perumal The temple is one of the Panchakanna (Krishnaranya) Kshetrams, the five holy temples associated with Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu.[32][33] The temple also has a statue of the Buddha worshipped in the shrine.
Thirukannapuram Tirukannapuram,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°52′07″N 79°42′15″E / 10.868499°N 79.704266°E / 10.868499; 79.704266
Tirukannapuram9.JPG
Kannapura Nayaki and Sowriraja Perumal The idol of Perumal is depicted with silky hair at this locale. Legend has it that he grew the hair to safeguard his devotee's words. The temple is one of the Panchakanna (Krishnaranya) Kshetrams, the five holy temples associated with Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu.[32][33]
Thirukannangudi Tirukannankudi,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°45′26″N 79°45′48″E / 10.757222°N 79.763290°E / 10.757222; 79.763290
Thirukannangudi 01 09 2021 withRahul.jpg
Loganayaki and Lokanatha Perumal The temple is one of the Panchakanna (Krishnaranya) Kshetrams, the five holy temples associated with Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu.[32][33]
Thirunagai Nagapattinam,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°45′35″N 79°50′37″E / 10.759830°N 79.843706°E / 10.759830; 79.843706
Thirunagai8.JPG
Saundaryavalli and Sundararaja Perumal The tributary of river Cauvery, Odambokki, passes close to the temple and the river is also called Virutha Kaveri. This leads to one of the names of presiding deity, "Kaveri Thuraivan". The present day Nagapattinam is believed to have been a forest, historically named Sundararinyam. During the Treta Yuga, a prince, Dhruva, heard about the importance of the forest, and began a penance, wishing to see Vishnu.[48]
Thiruthanjai Mamanikoil Thanjavur,
Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°48′56″N 79°08′19″E / 10.815669°N 79.138677°E / 10.815669; 79.138677
Neelamegha Perumal temple (5).jpg Raktapankajavalli
and Neelamegha Perumal
Unlike other Divya Desams where a single shrine is referred, this set of temples is referred together in all the pasurams (verses). During the Treta Yuga, there were three demons by the names of Tanchakan, Tantakan, and Kacamukan who were blessed by Shiva, and became very powerful. They grew arrogant and troubled sage Parashara, who was doing penance at this place. Vishnu killed Thanjakan, after whom Thanjavur was named.[49]
Manikundram Thanjavur,
Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°49′01″N 79°08′14″E / 10.816923°N 79.137229°E / 10.816923; 79.137229
Manikundra Perumal temple, Thanjavur (4).jpg Ambujavalli and Maniparvata Perumal The temples are located in the banks of the Vennaaru river. Manikunram has a small east facing shrine with the deity and his consort in the same sanctum. All of the pasurams (verses) of Nammalvar and Thirumangai Alvar that mention Thanjai refer to this shrine.[50]
Thanjaiyali Nagar Thanjavur,
Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°48′58″N 79°08′21″E / 10.816022°N 79.139155°E / 10.816022; 79.139155
Veeranarasimha Perumal temple (1) 02.jpg Thanjanayaki and Narasimha Perumal Thanjiyali Nagar is home to Veera Narasimha Perumal, who has a small east facing shrine with the deity and his consort in the same sanctum. Veera Narasimha Perumal is sculpted in a seated posture, giving darshanam to sage Markandeya. The shrine over the sanctum is called Vedasundara Vimana, and the water body associated with it is called Surya Pushkarani.[50]
Thiruvazhundur Theranzhdur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°02′48″N 79°34′46″E / 11.046532°N 79.579468°E / 11.046532; 79.579468
Therazhunthur 3.jpg
Senkamalavalli and Sri
Devadiraja Perumal
In a Hindu legend, Brahma, the creator deity, drove away the cattle belonging to Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu. Krishna created another herd. Realising that the herd belonged to Krishna, Brahma apologised, and wished Krishna to set his abode at this place. Since Krishna appeared for the cattle and settled here, the presiding deity is called Amaruviappan (the one who is flanked by cattle). Following the legend, the presiding deity in the sanctum is portrayed with cattle surrounding him.[51]
Thiruchirupuliyur Thirusirupuliyur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°59′28″N 79°40′10″E / 10.991202°N 79.669440°E / 10.991202; 79.669440
Tiruchirupuliur4.jpg
Dayanayaki and Krupasamudra Perumal Shiva ordered the sage Vyaghrapada to perform penance at Srirangam, requesting the god Vishnu to give him a place in his abode, Vaikuntha. Vyaghrapada was joined by sage Patanjali in his journey. Because of his poor eyesight, the sages instead went southward, lost their way and reached Krupa Samudram, modern day Tirusirupuliyur. They prayed to Vishnu to come from Srirangam to grant them moksha (divine liberation). Vishnu is also believed to have appeared for sage Vyasa at this place.[52]
Thiruthalaichanga Nanmadiyam Thalachangadu,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°07′47″N 79°47′07″E / 11.129789°N 79.785252°E / 11.129789; 79.785252
Thalachanga Nanmathiyam (6).jpg
Thalaichanga Nachiyar and Chandrasaabahara Perumal Chandra once conducted a sacrifice called Rajasuyagna, which was attended by all the celestial deities. Dhara, the wife of Guru (Jupiter) was attracted by Chandra. Guru appealed to Vishnu on the event and cursed Chandra to have leprosy. Dhara bore Bhudha (Mercury) for Chandra and since he came out of illicit relation, Bhudha hated his father. To propitiate himself of the curse, Chandra started worshipping Vishnu in this place.[53]
Thiruindalur Indalur,
Mayiladuthurai district,
Tamil Nadu
11°06′35″N 79°38′46″E / 11.109733°N 79.646232°E / 11.109733; 79.646232
Indaloor1.jpg
Parimala Ranganayaki and Sri
Parimala Ranganatha Perumal
According to Hindu legend, this site is where the moon god, Chandra is believed to have been relieved of his curse. Indu means moon, and the place Tiruindaloor derives its name from the legend. Chandra, worshipped Vishnu, who appeared to please his devotee.[54]
Thirukazhicheerama Vinnagaram Sirkazhi,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°14′27″N 79°43′54″E / 11.240964°N 79.731689°E / 11.240964; 79.731689
Thadalankoil (10).jpg
Lokanayaki and Trivikrama Perumal Thirumangai Aḻvar was requested by the Shaiva Kuravar Sambandar to praise God through pasurams. The deity in the temple is praised as "Man alantha tadalan", meaning the one who measured the land.[55] The name Tadalan is in honour of Tiruvikrama (Vamana) form and the mulavar (central deity) fixed in the central shrine is in this form. The presiding deity, Tiruvikrama, appeared for sage Ashtakoma.[56][57]
Thirukkavalambadi Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′37″N 79°46′57″E / 11.1769°N 79.7824°E / 11.1769; 79.7824
Thirukavalambadi2.jpg
Senkamala Nachiyar and Gopala Krishna Perumal Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, and his consort Satyabhama, chose this location for their garden, as it resembled the one in the palace of the king of celestial deities, Indra.[37] Kavalam indicates elephant, and padi indicates place - it is believed that Krishna saved an elephant at this place leading to the name of the temple. The event is described in the verses of Tirumangai Alvar in the Naalayira Divya Prabandham.[58]
Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′40″N 79°46′53″E / 11.17768°N 79.78152°E / 11.17768; 79.78152
Arimeya Vinnagaram - Kuamadukoothan5.jpg
Amrudhagadavalli and Kudamudakoothan Perumal The Hindu god Shiva is believed to have started dancing in fury at this place after the death of his consort Sati during the yagna (sacrifice) of Daksha. Each time his lock of hair touched the ground, there were eleven other forms of Shiva who appeared. The celestial deities were worried that if the dance continues, it would result in the decimation of all of creation. They prayed to Vishnu for help, who appeared at this place. On seeing Vishnu, Shiva's anger reduced, and he requested Vishnu to appear in eleven forms like he had. On his request, Vishnu appeared in eleven different forms at Tirunangar. The eleven places where Vishnu appeared are believed to be where the eleven temples in Tirunangar are located.[59]
Thiruvanpurushothamam Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′44″N 79°46′36″E / 11.178783°N 79.776690°E / 11.178783; 79.776690
Thrivuanpurushotam2.jpg
Purushotthama Nayaki and Purushottama Perumal Same as Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram.
Thirusemponsaikoil Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′42″N 79°46′47″E / 11.178446°N 79.779651°E / 11.178446; 79.779651
Thiruchsemponsey2.jpg
Sweda Pushpavalli and Hemaranganatha Perumal Same as Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram.
Thirumanimadakoil Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′26″N 79°46′37″E / 11.173971°N 79.776872°E / 11.173971; 79.776872
Narayana Perumal5.jpg
Pundareegavalli and Sashvatha Deepaya Narayana Perumal Same as Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram.
Thiruvaikunta Vinnagaram Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′47″N 79°46′42″E / 11.179804°N 79.778267°E / 11.179804; 79.778267
Vaikunda vinnagaram 2.jpg
Vaikundavalli and Vaikundanatha Perumal Same as Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram.
Thiruthetriambalam Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′23″N 79°47′42″E / 11.17302°N 79.7951°E / 11.17302; 79.7951
Pallikonda Perumal - Thiruthetriambalam3.jpg
Rakthapankajavalli and Lakshmiranga Perumal Same as Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram.
Thirumanikoodam Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′39″N 79°46′40″E / 11.177415°N 79.777838°E / 11.177415; 79.777838
Thirumanikoodam4.jpg
Boonayagi and Varadharaja Perumal Same as Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram.
Thiruparthanpalli Parthanpalli, Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′12″N 79°47′51″E / 11.169952°N 79.797515°E / 11.169952; 79.797515
Thiruparthanpalli1.jpg
Tamarai Nayagi and Taamaraiyaal Kelvan Perumal Same as Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram, and also a site where Arjuna prayed to Krishna.
Thiruvali Thiruvali, Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°12′11″N 79°46′28″E / 11.202979°N 79.774538°E / 11.202979; 79.774538
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Amrudhagadavalli and Kedarapathivaraya Perumal Associated with Narasimha's slaying of Hiranyakashipu, and his pacification by Lakshmi sitting on his lap.
Thirunagari Thirunagari, Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°13′35″N 79°48′01″E / 11.226354°N 79.800335°E / 11.226354; 79.800335
Thirunagari1.jpg
Amurdha Valli and Devaraja Perumal Regarded to be the site where Ranganatha offered a darshanam to Thirumangai Alvar and his wife.
Thiruthevanarthogai Thirunangur, Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°11′49″N 79°46′32″E / 11.196842°N 79.775504°E / 11.196842; 79.775504
Thiruthevanarthogai3.jpg
Samudradanaya and Devanayaka Perumal Same as Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram.
Thiruvellakulam Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°11′24″N 79°45′54″E / 11.190106°N 79.764929°E / 11.190106; 79.764929
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Padmavathi and Srinivasa Perumal Same as Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram.
Thiruchitrakootam Chidambaram,
Cuddalore district,
Tamil Nadu11°23′57″N 79°41′36″E / 11.399207°N 79.693364°E / 11.399207; 79.693364
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Pundareekavalli and Govindaraja Perumal The shrine has close connections with the Govindaraja temple in Tirupati, dating back to the saint Ramanuja of the 11-12th century. Ramanujar fled to Tirupati with the utsava (festival image) of the temple to escape Shaiva persecution.
Thiruvaheendrapuram Thiruvanthipuram,
Cuddalore district,
Tamil Nadu11°44′42″N 79°42′34″E / 11.745099°N 79.709351°E / 11.745099; 79.709351
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Hemambujavalli and Devanatha Perumal A number of sages bore witness to Mahavishnu in his resplendent form, with his weapons Sudarshana Chakra (discus), Panchajanya (conch) and the Kaumodaki (mace) gracing his arms.
Thirukkovalur Thirukoyilur,
Kallakurichi district,
Tamil Nadu11°58′01″N 79°12′09″E / 11.967006°N 79.202479°E / 11.967006; 79.202479
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Pushpavalli and Trivikrama Perumal The temple is believed to be the place where the first three Alvars, the Vaishnava saints, namely, Poigai Alvar, Bhoothathalvar, and Peyalvar attained salvation. The temple is one of the Panchakanna (Krishnaranya) Kshetrams, the five holy temples associated with Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu.[32][33]
Thirukkachi - Atthigiri Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°49′09″N 79°43′29″E / 12.819137°N 79.724646°E / 12.819137; 79.724646
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Perundevi and Devadiraja Perumal One of the greatest Hindu scholars of the Vaishnava Vishishtadvaita philosophy, Ramanuja, is believed to have resided in this temple.[60] The temple, along with Ekambareswarar Temple and Kamakshi Amman Temple in Kanchipuram, is popularly known as Mumurtivasam (abode of the trio),[61] while Srirangam is referred to as ‘The Koil’ (temple) and Tirupati as the ‘Malai’ (hill).
Ashtabuyagaram Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°49′22″N 79°42′39″E / 12.822736°N 79.710806°E / 12.822736; 79.710806
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Padmasani and Ashtabhuja Perumal Also based on the Gajendra Moksha: The elephant Gajendra used to worship Vishnu with the lotus fetched from the temple tank every day. Once, while picking up a lotus, a crocodile caught the leg of Gajendra, who started calling the name of Vishnu for help. Vishnu sent his discus to punish the crocodile, and relieve the elephant. The presiding deity is addressed by various names like Adikesava Perumal, Gajendra Varadhan, and Chakradhar.[62]
Thiruthanka Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°49′28″N 79°42′20″E / 12.824382°N 79.705543°E / 12.824382; 79.705543
Vilakkoli-perumal108dd.jpg
Maragadhavalli and Deepaprakasa Perumal Vedanta Desika (1268 - 1369 CE) was an ardent devotee of Deepa Prakasa Temple at Thoppul. The devotion of Desika is mentioned in Saranagathi Deepika in 59 verses. He was born in this kshetra. Vedanta Desika also has a shrine inside the temple. A statue of Hayagriva worshipped by him also has a temple nearby to him.[63]
Thiruvelukkai Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°49′20″N 79°42′23″E / 12.822197°N 79.706450°E / 12.822197; 79.706450
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Amritavalli and Yoga Narasimha Perumal Aḻagiya Singar is believed to have appeared to slay Hiranya, the demon king. Velukkai is derived from Vel (desire) and irukkai (place of stay), meaning the place where Vishnu desired to stay, which became Velukkai from Velirukkai.[64]
Thiruneeragam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′21″N 79°42′19″E / 12.839122°N 79.705185°E / 12.839122; 79.705185
Ulagalantha perumal Kanchipuram3.jpg
Nilamangai Valli and Jagadeesha Perumal The temple has no presiding deity, but just a festive image probably brought from another shrine. The images of the festival deity, Jagadishvara, facing the east and having four arms, is housed in a hall in the second precinct. The water body associated with the temple is Akrura Tirtham and the vimana is Jagadiswara Vimanam. According to Pillai Perumal Aiyangar in his Nurrettrutiruppatiyantati, Vishnu revealed himself to a sage in the form of a child in a banyan leaf.[65]
Thiruppadagam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′34″N 79°41′49″E / 12.842726°N 79.696941°E / 12.842726; 79.696941
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Rukmini and Pandavadootha Perumal The temple is considered one of three oldest temples in Kanchipuram, and is believed to have been built by the Pallavas of the late 8th century CE, with later contributions from Medieval Cholas and Vijayanagara kings. The temple is associated with a chapter in Mahabharata when Krishna went to the Kauravas as a missive (called Thoota locally) to the Pandavas.[66]
Nilathingal Thundam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′51″N 79°41′58″E / 12.847463°N 79.699313°E / 12.847463; 79.699313
Ekambareswarar3.jpg
Chandrasoodavalli and Chandrasooda Perumal Shiva once attempted to test the devotion of his consort Parvati by setting her aflame while she meditated under the temple's mango tree. When she prayed for Vishnu's intervention, he seized Shiva's crescent, and used its power to douse the divine flame.
Thiruooragam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′21″N 79°42′19″E / 12.839122°N 79.705185°E / 12.839122; 79.705185
Ulagalantha perumal Kanchipuram3.jpg
Amudavalli and Trivikrama Perumal The central shrine of temple is most commonly referred as Peragam, while the smaller shrine where the image of the demigod Adishesha is houses is called Tiruoorgam. According to tradition, Mahabali, at the foot of Vamana, could not view the vishvarupam and requested him to produce a smaller form. Vishnu obliged and appeared as a snake in a smaller shrine. The shrine is frequented by childless couple praying for offspring.[65]
Thiruvekka Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°49′27″N 79°42′45″E / 12.824070°N 79.712462°E / 12.824070; 79.712462
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Komalavalli and Yathottakari Perumal The goddess Saraswati, angry with Brahma, attempted to disrupt his yajna. Vishnu stopped her in these efforts. Defeated, Saraswati took the form of the Vegavati river. As Vishnu interfered the path of the river, it was termed Vegavani, then as Vegannai, which gradually corrupted to Vekka.
Thirukkaragam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′21″N 79°42′19″E / 12.839122°N 79.705185°E / 12.839122; 79.705185
Ulagalantha perumal Kanchipuram3.jpg
Padmamani and Karunagara Perumal The shrine is located on the third precinct of the temple. According to Hindu legend, sage Garga performed his penance at this temple and obtained knowledge. The place thus derived its name Garagaham, which later became Kaaragam. The presiding deity of the shrine is Karunakara Perumal facing north and seated on Adisesha and his consort Padmamani Nachiar. The temple tank associated with it is called Agraya Tirtha and the vimana is called Vamana Vimanam or Ramaya Vimanam.[65]
Thirukkarvaanam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′21″N 79°42′19″E / 12.839122°N 79.705185°E / 12.839122; 79.705185
Ulagalantha perumal Kanchipuram3.jpg
Kamalavalli and Neelamega Perumal The shrine is located in the second precinct. The presiding deity is called Kalvar and faces north, while his consort is Kamalvalli Thayar. Gauri Tatakam and Taratara Tatakam are the temple tanks associated with the temple and the vimana is called Puskala Vimana.[65][67] There is a separate for Aranavalli Thayar.[65]
Thirukkalvanur Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′26″N 79°42′12″E / 12.840653°N 79.703250°E / 12.840653; 79.703250
Kanchipuram.in Kamakshi-Amman Temple - panoramio.jpg
Anjilai Valli and Adi Varaha Perumal The shrine is present inside the Kamakshi Amman temple, and glorifies Vishnu in his form of Varaha.
Thiruppavalavannam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′37″N 79°42′27″E / 12.843658°N 79.707604°E / 12.843658; 79.707604
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Pavalavalli and Pavalavarna Perumal Associated with the legend that Vishnu purportedly assumes his form in different hues depending on the conduct of humans during a given age.
Thiru Parameswara Vinnagaram Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′14″N 79°42′34″E / 12.837151°N 79.709482°E / 12.837151; 79.709482
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Vaikundavalli and Vaikundanatha Perumal Regarded to be the site where Vishnu appeared before Pallava princes who had performed a yajna for him.
Thiruputkuzhi Thiruputkuzhi,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°52′22″N 79°37′07″E / 12.872642°N 79.618683°E / 12.872642; 79.618683
Tirupukuzhi1.jpg
Maragadhavalli and Vijayaraghava Perumal The last rites of Jatayu are believed to have been performed here by Perumal.
Thirunindravur Thirunindravur,
Chennai, Tiruvallur District,
Tamil Nadu13°06′45″N 80°01′34″E / 13.112501°N 80.026096°E / 13.112501; 80.026096
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Sudhavalli and Bhaktavatsala Perumal Regarded to be the site where Varuna worshipped Perumal.
Thiruvallur Thiruvallur,
Chennai, Tiruvallur district,
Tamil Nadu13°08′36″N 79°54′27″E / 13.143204°N 79.907439°E / 13.143204; 79.907439
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Kanakavalli and Vaidya Veeraraghava Perumal Regarded to be the site where Vishnu tested the devotion of a sage by asking him large portions of his food and residence before blessing him.
Thiruvallikeni Chennai,
Chennai district,
Tamil Nadu13°03′14″N 80°16′37″E / 13.053920°N 80.276942°E / 13.053920; 80.276942
Tiruvallikeni1.jpg
Rukmini and Venkatakrishna Perumal The name Parthasarathy, in Tamil, means the 'charioteer of Arjuna', referring to Krishna's role as a charioteer to Arjuna in the epic Mahabharata. It was originally built by the Pallavas in the 8th century and considered the oldest structural in Chennai.[68]
Thiruneermalai, Chennai Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°57′50″N 80°06′54″E / 12.963808°N 80.114953°E / 12.963808; 80.114953
Thiruneermalai temple.jpg
Animamalar Mangai and Neervanna Perumal Brahmanda Purana refers this place Toyatri, meaning a mountain surrounded by water. Thiruneermalai, the modern Tamil name also means a sacred mountain surrounded by water. Among the eight sacred Vishnu temples where he manifested himself called "Ashtaswayamvaka Kshetra".[64]
Thiruvidanthai Thiruvidanthai,
Chennai, Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°45′48″N 80°14′33″E / 12.763217°N 80.242538°E / 12.763217; 80.242538
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Komalavalli and Nityakalyana Perumal The sage Kalava had 360 daughters who wished to wed Varaha, and the site derives its name from the belief that Varaha marries a maiden here everyday.
Thirukkadanmallai Mahabalipuram, Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°37′03″N 80°11′36″E / 12.617464°N 80.193303°E / 12.617464; 80.193303
Thirukadalmallai Temple.jpg
Boosthalamangadevi and Sthalasayana Perumal The temple is believed to be the birthplace of the Vaishnava Alvar saint Bhoothathalvar. Sthalasayana Perumal is believed to have appeared to sage Pundarika. The temple is one of the 32 Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram that are declared as UN world heritage sites, but unlike others that are maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India, the temple is maintained and administered by the Hindu Religious and Endowment Board of the Government of Tamil Nadu.[69]
Thirukkadigai Sholinghur,
Vellore district,
Tamil Nadu13°05′37″N 79°25′29″E / 13.093698°N 79.424626°E / 13.093698; 79.424626
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Amritavalli and Yoga Narasimha Perumal The temple has twin hills, with the one of Yoga Narasimha called the Periya malai (big hill) 750 ft (230 m) tall and occupying an area of 1.25 acres (5,100 m2). The top of the hill is approached through a flight of 1,305 steps. The temple is seen as one of the famous temples of Narasimha and a powerful image of Hanuman.[70] Manavala Mamunigal is believed to have performed enunciation of Thirupavai at this place on the request of his disciple Erumbiappa. The town originally was under the control of Shaivites which is substantiated by the temple ruins near Parappan Kulam, in the valley between two hills. This is where original Sholinghur was situated. Unfinished Nandhis and Sthupas are found in numerous places in Sholinghur.[71]
Thiruvayothi (Ram Janmabhoomi) Ayodhya,
Ayodhya district,
Uttar Pradesh26°42′53″N 82°49′22″E / 26.71481°N 82.82272°E / 26.71481; 82.82272
Ayodhya 500 (9).jpg
Sita and Ramachandra Perumal Believed to be the birthplace of Rama, and the shrine is of the infant prince
Naimisaranyam Misrikh Neemsar,
Uttar Pradesh27°26′11″N 80°34′14″E / 27.43625°N 80.57052°E / 27.43625; 80.57052
Cakratirtham.jpg
Harilakshmi and Devaraja Perumal Regarded to be the site where Vishnu offered counsel to Indra regarding defeating Vrita.
Thirupruthi (Jyothirmath) Shri Narsimmha Mandir/ Parampurusha Perumala Mandir. Jyotirmath,
Chamoli district,
Uttarakhand
29°55′47″N 79°25′21″E / 29.92981°N 79.42245°E / 29.92981; 79.42245
Shri Narsimmha Mandir
Parimalavalli and Paramapurusha Perumal A pilgrimage site of the Alvars, who venerated Vishnu as Narasimha.
Thirukkandamenum Kadinagar Devaprayag,
Tehri Garhwal district,
Uttarakhand
30°08′44″N 78°33′52″E / 30.145556°N 78.564444°E / 30.145556; 78.564444
Devprayag2008.JPG
Pundareegavalli and Purushottama Perumal Believed to be the site Rama performed a penance after slaying Ravana, the son of a sage.
Thiruvadari (Badrinath) Badrinath,
Chamoli district,
Uttarakhand
30°44′41″N 79°29′28″E / 30.744695°N 79.491175°E / 30.744695; 79.491175
Badrinath temple.jpg
Aravindhavalli and Badrinarayana Perumal Lakshmi is believed to have protected and massaged Vishnu's feet at this site.
Thiru Saligram (Muktinath) Muktinath Valley
Mustang District
Nepal
28°49′00″N 83°52′17″E / 28.816711°N 83.871280°E / 28.816711; 83.871280
Muktinath Temple view.JPG
Sridevi and Srimurti Perumal Praised by Thirumangai Alvar as a sacred site of Vishnu, possibly owing to its proximity to shaligarma stones.
Thiruvadamadurai (Krishna Janmabhoomi) Mathura,
Mathura district,
Uttar Pradesh
27°30′17″N 77°40′11″E / 27.504756°N 77.669646°E / 27.504756; 77.669646
Mathura Temple-Mathura-India0002.JPG
Satyabama and Govardhanagiridhari Perumal Believed to be the site Krishna was born.
Thiruvaipadi (Gokula) Gokul,
Mathura district,
Uttar Pradesh
26°57′00″N 80°26′19″E / 26.95009°N 80.43869°E / 26.95009; 80.43869
Gokul temple.JPG
Rukmini, Sathyabama, and Navamohanakrishna Perumal Regarded to be the site Krishna danced over the serpent Kaliya.
Thirudwarakai (Dwarakadheesh) Dwarka,
Devbhoomi Dwarka district,
Gujarat
24°00′36″N 73°19′50″E / 24.00995°N 73.33053°E / 24.00995; 73.33053
Dwarakadheesh Temple.jpg
Rukmini and Dwarakadeesha Perumal Regarded to be the site Krishna's chief wife, Rukmini, was cursed by the sage Durvasa, and was liberated by her husband.
Thirusingavelkundram (Ahobilam) Ahobilam,
Kurnool district,
Andhra Pradesh
15°20′28″N 79°09′12″E / 15.34099°N 79.15329°E / 15.34099; 79.15329
Upper Ahobilam temple Gopuram.jpg
Amruthavalli and Prahlada Varada Perumal This is believed to be the site where Narasimha appeared to protect his devotee Prahlada. The giant massive pillar from which he appeared is called Ugra Stambha, and one can still see it. Here, Narasimha appears in nine different forms; these re collectively called Nava Narasimha.
Thiruvenkadam Tirupati,
Chittoor district,
Andhra Pradesh
13°50′02″N 79°24′31″E / 13.83393°N 79.40872°E / 13.83393; 79.40872
Tirumala Venkateswara temple entrance 09062015.JPG
Padmavati and Srinivasa Perumal Vishnu, in his form as Srinivasa, married Padmavati, the mortal princess avatar of Lakshmi, at this temple. It is one of the holiest, and most visited temples in India.
Thirunavai Tirunavaya,
Mallapuram district,
Kerala
10°21′39″N 76°50′12″E / 10.360704°N 76.83654°E / 10.360704; 76.83654
Thirunavaya Navamukunda Temple.JPG
Malarmangai and Navamukunda Perumal Regarded to be the site Lakshmi and Gajendra offered worship to Vishnu.
Thiruvithuvakodu Thiruvithuvakoodu,
Palakkad district,
Kerala
10°21′39″N 76°50′12″E / 10.36070°N 76.83654°E / 10.36070; 76.83654
Thiruvithuvakoodu (3).jpg
Vithuvakoduvalli and Abhayapradhaya Perumal The temple is regarded to have been built by Parashurama for the veneration of Shiva.
Thrikkakara Vamanamoorthy Kshethram (Thirukatkarai) Thrikkakara,
Ernakulam district,
Kerala
10°21′39″N 76°50′12″E / 10.36070°N 76.83654°E / 10.36070; 76.83654
Thirukatkarai3.jpg
Vathsalyavalli and Katkaraswami Perumal Associated with the Vamana avatar and the humbling of Mahabali.
Thirumoozhikkalam Thirumoozhikulam,
Ernakulam district,
Kerala
10°21′39″N 76°50′11″E / 10.36070°N 76.8365°E / 10.36070; 76.8365
Thirumoozhikalam2.jpg
Madhuraveni and Sookthinatha Perumal The brothers Lakshmana and Bharata are believed to have prayed to Vishnu in this temple.
Sree Vallabha Temple (Thiruvallavazh) Thiruvalla,
Pathanamthitta district,
Kerala
9°25′38″N 76°49′02″E / 9.42723°N 76.81732°E / 9.42723; 76.81732
Sree Vallaba Temple 5.JPG
Vathsalyavalli and Sundaraya Perumal Sridevi, the daughter of the sea, is regarded to have prayed to Vishnu for the boon of marrying him in this site.
Thrikodithanam Mahavishnu Temple (Thirukkodithanam) Thrikkodithanam,
Changanassery,
Kottayam District,
Kerala
9°25′38″N 76°49′02″E / 9.42723°N 76.81732°E / 9.42723; 76.81732
Thrickodithanam 8.JPG
Karpagavalli and Amruthanarayana Perumal Believed to be the temple constructed by the Pandava Sahadeva during a pilgrimage, after the coronation of Parikshit.
Thrichittatt Mahavishnu Temple (Thiruchengundrur) Chengannur,
Alappuzha District,
Kerala
9°25′38″N 76°49′02″E / 9.42723°N 76.81732°E / 9.42723; 76.81732
Thrichittatt Maha Vishnu Temple1.JPG
Rakthapankajavalli and Devathideva Perumal It is one of the five ancient shrines in the Chengannur area of Kerala, connected with the legend of Mahabharata, where the five Pandavas are believed to have built one temple each; the temple is believed to have been built by Yudhishthira. The Imayavar (devas) came to this place prior to Yudhishthira, and hence the deity here is referred as Imayavarappar.[72] There is another version that the Pandavas worshipped the idols during their reign, and started installing them in different places during the end of their reign.[73]
Thiruppuliyur Thripuliyur,
Alappuzha District,
Kerala
9°25′38″N 76°49′02″E / 9.42723°N 76.81732°E / 9.42723; 76.81732
Puliyoor.JPG
Porkodi Nachiyar and Maayapiran Perumal Believed to be the temple constructed by the Pandava Bhima during a pilgrimage, after the coronation of Parikshit.
Aranmula Parthasarathy Temple (Thiruvaranvilai) Aranmula,
Pathanamthitta District,
Kerala
9°21′20″N 76°45′37″E / 9.35542°N 76.76033°E / 9.35542; 76.76033
Aranmula Temple.JPG
Padmasani Nachiyar and Kuralappan Perumal Believed to be the temple constructed by the Pandava Arjuna during a pilgrimage, after the coronation of Parikshit.
Thiruvanvandoor Thiruvanvandoor,
Alappuzha District,
Kerala
9°21′20″N 76°45′37″E / 9.35542°N 76.76031°E / 9.35542; 76.76031
Thiruvanvandoor Pambanaiappan Temple 1.JPG
Kamalavalli Nachiyar and Paambanaiyappan Perumal It is one of the five ancient shrines in the Chengannur area of Kerala, connected with the legend of Mahabharata, where the five Pandavas are believed to have built one temple each; this temple is believed to have been built by Nakula. Earliest references to this temple appear in the verses and hymns composed by the greatest of Alvar saints – Nammalvar, in circa 800 CE. Stone inscriptions in the temple date it back to the Second Chera Empire (800–1102 CE).[74]
Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram,
Thiruvananthapuram District,
Kerala
8°32′02″N 76°55′40″E / 8.53402°N 76.92787°E / 8.53402; 76.92787
Padmanabhaswamy Temple Thiruvananthapuram.jpg
Harilakshmi and Ananthapadmanabha Perumal

It is widely regarded to be the richest shrine in India and is the dynastic deity of Travancore.

Thiruvattaru Thiruvattar,
Kanyakumari district,
Tamil Nadu
8°22′08″N 77°14′30″E / 8.36897°N 77.241670°E / 8.36897; 77.241670
Thiruvattar Adhi Kesava Temple.JPG
Maragadhavalli and Adhikesava Perumal The site is associated with the legend of Keshava slaying the asura Keshi.
Thiruvanparisaram Thiruppathisaram,
Kanyakumari district,
Tamil Nadu8°15′15″N 77°28′13″E / 8.254153°N 77.47032°E / 8.254153; 77.47032
Thriuppathisaram.jpg
Kamalavalli and Thiruvaḻmarbhan Perumal Kulashekara Alvar is believed to have constructed the temple after bathing in a nearby water tank.
Thirukkurungudi Thirukkurungudi,
Tirunelveli district,
Tamil Nadu8°26′13″N 77°31′33″E / 8.436906°N 77.5259°E / 8.436906; 77.5259
Thirukarungudi temple.jpg
Vamanakshetravalli and Vamanakshetrapoornaya Perumal Vishnu is regarded to have assumed his Varaha avatar and stayed here with his consort, Varahi, both assuming a small stature.
Thirucheeravaramangai Nanguneri,
Tirunelveli district,
Tamil Nadu8°26′13″N 77°31′33″E / 8.436905°N 77.5259°E / 8.436905; 77.5259
Naguneri18.jpg
Chireevaramangaivalli and Thothadhrinatha Perumal Lakshmi is believed to have been born here in one of her earthly incarnations.
Thiruvaigundam Srivaikuntam,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′35″N 77°58′34″E / 8.609726°N 77.9760°E / 8.609726; 77.9760
Srivaikuntam6.jpg
Boonayagi, Vaigundavalli and Vaikuntanatha Perumal Vishnu assumed his Matsya avatar to retrieve the Vedas from an asura and return them to Brahma, after which he resided here for a while.
Thiruvaragunamangai Natham,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′35″N 77°58′34″E / 8.60972°N 77.976037°E / 8.60972; 77.976037
Varagunamangai1.jpg
Varagunavalli and Vijayasana Perumal A sage named Vedavitha performed penance after the death of his parents. Vishnu appeared in the form of a Brahmin, and advised him to perform a penance at Varagunamangai. After several years of penance and pleased by the devotion of Vedavitha, Vishnu appeared before him. Vedavitha requested Vishnu to appear as Vijayasnar at this place.
Thiruppuliangudi Thirupulingudi,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′35″N 77°58′34″E / 8.60972°N 77.976037°E / 8.60972; 77.976037
Thirupuliyangudi3.jpg
Malarmagal Nachiyar and Poomagal Nachiyar and Kaaichina Vendhan Perumal Regarded to be the site where Vishnu appeased the jealous Bhudevi, the second aspect of Lakshmi, appearing with Sridevi.
Thirutholaivillimangalam (Navathirupathi) Tholavillimangalam,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′35″N 77°58′34″E / 8.60972°N 77.97603°E / 8.60972; 77.97603
Aravinda Lochanar temple2.jpg
Karunthadanganni Nachiyar and Aravindalochana Perumal Regarded to be the site Vishnu blessed the sage Suprabha.
Thirukkulandai (Navathirupathi) Perungulam,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′25″N 77°57′02″E / 8.606968°N 77.950545°E / 8.606968; 77.950545
Thirukulandhai1.jpg
Alamelumangai Thayar and Kulandhai Valli and Srinivasa Perumal An asura once abducted Kumudhavalli, the wife of a Vaishnava. The asura was vanquished by Vishnu, who danced on his head, and restored Kumudhavalli to her husband.
Thirukkolur (Navathirupathi) Thirukolur,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′23″N 77°58′26″E / 8.6065018°N 77.97389°E / 8.6065018; 77.97389
Thirukkolur3.jpg
Amudhavalli and Koloorvalli and Vaithamanithi Perumal Regarded to be the site Vishnu relieved Kubera of his misfortune.
Thirupperai Thenthiruperai,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′23″N 77°58′26″E / 8.60650°N 77.97389°E / 8.60650; 77.97389
Then Thirupperai3.jpg
Kuḻaikkadhu Valli, and Thirupperai Nachiyar and Magara Nedungkuḻai Kathar Perumal Believed to be the site Bhudevi's beauty was restored after being cursed by Durvasa.
Thirukkurugur Alwarthirunagari,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′25″N 77°57′02″E / 8.60696°N 77.95054°E / 8.60696; 77.95054
Azhwar Thirunagari9.jpg
Aadhinadha Valli and Gurukoor valli and Aadhinatha Perumal Associated with Nammalvar and Madhurakavi Alvar.
Srivillipputhur Srivilliputhur,
Virudhunagar district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′25″N 77°57′02″E / 8.60696°N 77.95054°E / 8.60696; 77.95054
Andal Temple.jpg
Kodhadevi and Vatapatrasayee Perumal Regarded to be the site where the deity Ranganatha of Srirangam married his ardent devotee and Alvar, Andal.
Thiruthangal Thiruthankal
Virudhunagar district,
Tamil Nadu9°00′39″N 77°53′07″E / 9.010702°N 77.8853°E / 9.010702; 77.8853
Thiruthankal temple (1).jpg
Sengamala Thayar and Narayana Perumal The temple in its present form was believed to have been built by Devendra Vallabha, a Pandya king. The temple has three inscriptions in its two rock-cut caves, two dating from the period of the 8th century. Ninra Narayana is believed to have appeared to Sridevi and Bhudevi. Ranganatha from the Srirangam Ranganathaswamy temple is believed to have been enamoured by the devotion of Andal. He started a journey to Srivilliputhur Divya Desam to seek her hand for marriage. While reaching the place, it became dark, and he decided to spend the night in the place. Since he stayed at this place, it came to be known as Thiruthangal and the hillock came to be known as Thalagiri.[75]
Thirukkoodal Madurai,
Madurai district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 78°15′52″E / 9.98860°N 78.26434°E / 9.98860; 78.26434
Koodalazhagar (15).jpg
Madhuravalli Thayar and Koodal Aḻagar Perumal Historians are of the opinion that Koodal Aḻagar temple finds mention in Sangam literature (3 century BCE – 3 century CE) in works like Madurai Kanchi by Mangudi Marudan, Paripāṭal, Kaliththokai and Silappatikaram. Periyalvar obtained the name as he is believed to be an ardent worshipper of Vishnu. While coming out of Madurai, he was taken out in procession to Srivilliputhur and he got the divine vision of Vishnu at the instance. He started reciting his composition, Periya Tirumoḻi, which was compiled in the Naalayira Divya Prabhandam by Manavala Mamunigal. Manavala decreed that the verses of Periyalvar starting with Tirupallandu should be the first and last verse while reciting Pradandam in any sacred occasion in Vishnu temples. Ramanuja, a proponent during the 10th century, believes that Tirupallandu originated at Madurai. Thus Koodal Aḻagar temple finds an indomitable position in Vaishnavite belief. During Mahapralaya, the great disaster, the devotees sought the abode of Vishnu in Madurai.[76]
Thirumaliruncholai Alagar Koyil,
Madurai district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 78°15′52″E / 9.988609°N 78.2643428°E / 9.988609; 78.2643428
AzhagarKovil Madurai.JPG
Sundaravalli and Kallaḻagar Perumal Kallaḻagar was worshipped by Yama, the Hindu god of death. He requested Vishnu to stay in the place and built a temple with the help of Vishvakarma, the divine architect.[77] Kallaḻagar is believed to have appeared to redeem sage Suthapava off his curse from sage Durvasa.[78] The temple houses some rare Vijayanagara sculptures.[79]
Thirumogur Thirumohur,
Madurai district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 78°15′52″E / 9.98860°N 78.26434°E / 9.98860; 78.26434
Tirumohur (9).jpg
Mohavalli and Kalamega Perumal According to Hindu legend, the presiding deity is believed to have appeared as a female Mohini to lure the asuras to support the devas, the celestial deities. The temple is also known as Mohanapuram and Mohanakshetram.[80]
Thirukkoshtiyur Thirukoshtiyur,
Sivaganga district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 78°15′51″E / 9.98860°N 78.2643°E / 9.98860; 78.2643
Sowmyanarayana Perumal (8).jpg
Mahalakshmi and Uraga Mellanayaan Perumal The temple is known as the place where Ramanuja, the expounder of Vaishnavadatta philosophy preached the mantra "Om Namo Narayana" to all people irrespective of their birth. Sowmyanarayana Perumal is believed to have appeared as Narasimha avatar to the devas, the celestial deities.[81]
Thiruppullani Thirupullani,
Ramanathapuram district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 8°15′52″E / 9.98860°N 8.26434°E / 9.98860; 8.26434
Tirupullani1.jpg
Kalyanavalli, Padmasani and Kalyana Jagannatha Perumal The temple is believed to have been built during the late 8th century CE, with later contributions from Medieval Cholas, later Pandyas, Sethupathi Kings of Ramnad. According to Hindu legend, Rama is believed to have done penance to worship Varuna to seek a path to Lanka upon the grass, giving the name Dharbasayanam to the place.[82]
Thirumeyyam Thirumayam,
Pudukottai district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 78°15′51″E / 9.98860°N 78.2643°E / 9.98860; 78.2643
Thirumayam temple.jpg
Uyya Vandha Nachiyar and Sathyagirinatha Perumal Historians believe that the temple was built during the 9th century by the Pandyas. M.A. Dhaky places the period to be the 7th decade of 9th century. He has also compared the images of the temple to that of Vijayalaya Choleeswaram in Narthamalai, built by Muttaraiyar kings during the same period.[83] Another view is that the temple to have been built by a vassal of Pallavas following the rock-cut architecture of the group of monuments at Mahabalipuram built by Mahendravarman I (590-630 CE) and his son Narasimhavarman I.[84]
Kshira Sagara (Tirupparkatal) (Ocean of Milk) Vinnulaga Tirupati
Vishnu and Lakshmi on Shesha Naga, ca 1870.jpg
Kadal Magal and Parkadal Natha Perumal This Divya Desam is not located on Earth. But the divine essence of this ocean is believed to be present in these temples - Prasanna Venkatesa Perumal Temple, Perumal Koil Street, District Vellore, Walaja Taluk, Tirupparkatal, Tamil Nadu, India
Thirupparamapadham (Vaikuntha) Vinnulaga Tirupati
Picture of Vaikunda - Garuda eagle is the vehicle of Vishnu.jpg
Paramapada Nayaki and Paramapadha Nathan This Divya Desam is not located on Earth. Vaikuntha is the abode of Narayana (Vishnu) and Lakshmi. While the first 106 Divya Desams are Bhuloka Vaikunthams, this is the Vaikuntha situated upon the spiritual sky (Paravyoma).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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References[edit]

External links[edit]