Divya Desam

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A Divya Desam (Tamil: திவ்ய தேசம்) is one of the 108 Vishnu temples that are mentioned in the works of the Tamil Azhvars (saints). Divya means "divine" and Desam indicates "place" (temple). Of the 108 temples, 105 are in India, one is in Nepal, and last two are outside the Earthly realms.The last two are Thirupalkadal and Paramapadam.Tirupalkaddal is the ocean of milk and paramapadam is the Srivaikuntam where lord Narayana presides. The Divya Desams are revered by the 12 Azhvars in the Divya Prabandha, a collection of 4,000 Tamil verses. All Divya Desams either follow Thenkalai mode of worship or Vadakalai sampradayam[1]

Azhwars[edit]

Image of Rangamannar-Andal temple in Srivilliputhur showing the pyramidal temple tower
Image of Rangamannar-Andal temple in Srivilliputhur

The word azhwar means the one who dives deep into the ocean of the countless attributes of god. Azhwars are considered the twelve supreme devotees of Vishnu, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism during the 5th-8th centuries A.D. The religious works of these saints in Tamil, songs of love and devotion, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya desam.[2][3] The saints had different origins and belonged to different castes. As per tradition, the first three azhwars, Poigai, Bhutha and Pey were born miraculously. Tirumizhisai was the son of a sage, Thondaradi, Mathurakavi, Peria and Andal were from brahmin community, Kulasekhara from Kshatria community, Namm was from a cultivator family, Tirupana from panar community and Tirumangai from kazhwar community. Divya Suri Saritra by Garuda-Vahana Pandita (11th century AD), Guruparamparaprabavam by Pinbaragiya Perumal Jiyar, Periya tiru mudi adaivu by Anbillai Kandadiappan, Yatindra Pranava Prabavam by Pillai Lokacharya, commentaries on Divya Prabandam, Guru Parampara (lineage of Gurus) texts, temple records and inscriptions give a detailed account of the azhwars and their works. According to these texts, the saints were considered incarnations of some form of Vishnu. Poigai is considered an incarnation of Panchajanya (Krishna's conch), Bhoothath of Kaumodakee (Vishnu's Mace/Club), Pey of Nandaka (Vishnu's sword), Thirumalisai of Sudarshanam (Vishnu's discus), Namm of Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander), Madhurakavi of Vainatheya (Vishnu's eagle, Garuda), Kulasekhara of Kaustubha (Vishnu's necklace), Periy of Garuda (Vishnu's eagle), Andal of Bhoodevi (Vishnu's wife, Lakshmi, in her form as Bhudevi), Thondaradippodi of Vanamaalai (Vishnu's garland), Thiruppaan of Srivatsa [4](An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest) and Thirumangai of Saranga (Krishna's bow). The songs of Prabandam are regularly sung in all the Vishnu temples of South India daily and also during festivals.[3][5]

According to traditional account by Manavala Mamunigal, the first three azhwars namely Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belong to Dwapara Yuga (before 4200 BC). Modern historians place the period of azhwars from the 5th to 8th century AD, but there is dispute about the chronology and relation between each other. But it is widely accepted by tradition and historians that the trio are the earliest among the twelve azhwars.[2][3][6][7][8] Along with the three Saiva nayanmars, they influenced the ruling Pallava kings, creating a Bhakti movement that resulted in changing the religious geography from Buddhism and Jainism to these two sects of Hinduism in the region. The azhwars were also instrumental in promoting the Bhagavatha cult and the two epics of India, namely, Ramayana and Mahabaratha.[9] The azhwars were instrumental in spreading Vaishnavism throughout the region.[10] The verses of the various azhwars were compiled by Nathamuni (824-924 AD), a 10th-century Vaishnavite theologian, who called it the "Tamil Veda".[11][12]

List of Deities in Divyadesams[edit]

S.No. Name of the temple Location Photo Presiding deity Notes/Beliefs Azhwars
1 Srirangam Srirangam, Trichy district
Tamil Nadu
10°51′45″N 78°41′23″E / 10.8625°N 78.689722°E / 10.8625; 78.689722
Srirangam14.jpg
Ranganayagi
Ranganathar (Periya Perumal)
Srirangam temple is often listed as the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world, the still larger Angkor Wat being the largest existing temple. The temple occupies an area of 156 acres (631,000 m²) with a perimeter of 4,116m (10,710 feet) making it the largest temple in India and one of the largest religious complexes in the world.[13][14] The annual 21 day festival conducted during the Tamil month of Margazhi (December–January) attracts 1 million visitors.[15] Periyalvar
Aandaal
Kulasekara Alvar
Thirumalisai Alvar
Thondaradippodi Alvar
Thiruppaan Alvar
Thirumangai Alvar
Poigai Alvar
Bhoothathalvar
Peyalvar
Nammalvar
2 Sri Azhagiya Manavala Perumal Temple Uraiyur, Trichy district
Tamil Nadu
10°49′N 78°40′E / 10.82°N 78.67°E / 10.82; 78.67
Nachiyar4.jpg
Kamalavalli Vasalakshmi
Azhagiya Manavala Perumal
The temple locally called Nachiyar Koil and is one of the few Divyadesams where the goddess has prominence over Vishnu.[16][17]The temple is believed to be the birthplace of Thiruppaan Alvar, one of the twelve Azhwar saints belonging to the 6th-8th centuries. In Srirangam, the yearly birth festival of Tirupannazhwar is celebrated wit Viswaroopa darshan of Ranganatha at the sanctum on the occasion of his birthday. The festive idol of Tiupannazhwar is taken from the temple to Srirangam.[18] Kulasekara Alvar - 11
Thirumangai Alvar - 13
3 Uthamar Kovil Bhikshandar Kovil, Trichy district
Tamil Nadu
10°29′N 78°49′E / 10.49°N 78.81°E / 10.49; 78.81
Uthamarkoil1.jpg
Poornaavalli
Purushothama Perumal
The temple is only a few of the temples that are dedicated to the Hindu god Trimurti (trinity) namely Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma. As per Hindu legend, the temple is believed to have been constructed by Janakar, the king of Janakapuri and the father of Sita from the epic Ramayana. Thirumangai Azhwar is believed to have resided in the temple to build the surrounding walls of the Srirangam Ranganathaswamy temple.[19] Thirumangai Alvar - 10
4 Pundarikakshan Perumal Temple Uraiyur, Trichy district
Tamil Nadu
10°58′N 78°40′E / 10.96°N 78.67°E / 10.96; 78.67
Tiruvellarai1.jpg
Rakthapankajavalli
Pundarikaksha Perumal
Pundarikakshan Perumal temple is believed to have been built by the Pallava king Dantivarman (796–847 AD).[20][21]A swastika-shaped temple tank built during 800 AD is present in the south-western corner of the street around the temple. It has four stepped gateways, each having 51 steps. The tank is believed to have been built by Kamban Araiyan during the reign of Dantivarman. In modern times, it is maintained by the Department of Archaeology of the Government of Tamil Nadu. The temple complex covers an area of 2.62 ha (6.5 acres), while the tank covers an area of 0.1256 ha (0.310 acres).[22][23]The chariot festival is unique in the state as a community feast is offered by several individuals and committees, a custom many centuries old.[24][25] Thirumangai Alvar - 10
Periazhwar - 10
5 Vadivazhagiya Nambi Perumal Temple Anbil, Trichy district
Tamil Nadu
10°52′04″N 78°52′56″E / 10.867735°N 78.882171°E / 10.867735; 78.882171
Tiruanbil4.jpg
Soundaryavalli
Sundaramoorthaye Poornaya Perumal
King Sundara Chola who ruled the area was a devotee of the temple and during each of his innumerable victories in wars, he showered a lot of wealth on this temple. His prime minister Anirudha Brahmarayar is believed to be from Anbil, the village where the temple is located. The copper plates having the records from the Chola period from Anbil indicate generous contribution from the Medieval Cholas indicate various gifts to the temple.[26][27] Thirumazhisai Azhwar - 2
6 Appakkudathaan Perumal Temple Koviladi, Trichy district
Tamil Nadu
10°50′22″N 78°53′21″E / 10.839307°N 78.889073°E / 10.839307; 78.889073
Koviladi1.jpg
Indravalli
Appala Ranganatha Perumal
The temple has inscriptions from the 18th year of the reign of Aditya Chola.[28] The recorded inscriptions in this temple are numbered 283, 300, 301 and 303 of 1901.[29] The temple is one of the five Pancharanga Kshetrams (also called Pancharangams, meaning the five Rangams or Ranganathas), a group of five Hindu temples on the banks of the Kaveri River dedicated to Ranganatha, a form of Vishnu.[30][31] Periyalvar- 33
Thirumangai Azhwar
Thirumalisai Alvar
Nammazhwar
7 Hara Saabha Vimocchana Perumal Temple Kandiyur, Thanjavur district
Tamil Nadu
10°51′37″N 79°06′32″E / 10.860255°N 79.108891°E / 10.860255; 79.108891
Tirukandiyur.jpg
Indravalli
Appala Ranganatha Perumal
Since Vishnu relieved (vimochana) the sin (saabha) of Shiva (also called Hara), the temple is called Hara Saabha Vimochana Temple. [32]
8 Thirukoodalur Aduthurai
, Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°55′31″N 79°12′13″E / 10.925152°N 79.203532°E / 10.925152; 79.203532
Aduthurai perumal1.jpg
Padmasani
Jagathrakshaga Perumal
9 Thirukavithalam Kapisthalam
, Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°56′49″N 79°15′23″E / 10.946890°N 79.256512°E / 10.946890; 79.256512
009 - Thiru Kavithalam.jpg
Ramamanivalli
Gajendravaradha Perumal
10 Thiruppullamboothangudi Pullabhoothangudi
, Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°58′18″N 79°18′12″E / 10.971596°N 79.303415°E / 10.971596; 79.303415
Hemabja
Thrudathanvee Ramabadhra Perumal
11 Thiruaadhanur Adanur
, Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°58′35″N 79°18′48″E / 10.976470°N 79.313454°E / 10.976470; 79.313454
Adhanur perumal.jpg
Ranganayagi
Varshakalathinayaka Perumal
12 Thirukudanthai Kumbakonam, Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°57′35″N 79°22′30″E / 10.959649°N 79.374999°E / 10.959649; 79.374999
Gopuras in Kumbakonam - India.JPG
Komalavalli
Aparyapthamrutha Perumal
13 Thiruvinnagar Tirunageswaram, Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°57′42″N 79°25′55″E / 10.961570°N 79.432080°E / 10.961570; 79.432080
Uppiliappan koil3.JPG
Boodevi
Lavanavarjitha Srinivasa Perumal
14 Thirunaraiyur Nachiyar Kovil, Thiruvarur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°54′57″N 79°26′44″E / 10.915844°N 79.445554°E / 10.915844; 79.445554
Nachiyar Kovil (13).jpg
Vanjulavalli
Srinivasa Perumal
15 Thirucherai Tirucherai, Thiruvarur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°52′45″N 79°27′16″E / 10.879135°N 79.454402°E / 10.879135; 79.454402
Thirucherai (9).jpg
Saranayagi
Saranatha Perumal
16 Thirunandhipura Vinnagaram Nathan Kovil,
Thiruvarur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°55′19″N 79°22′20″E / 10.922075°N 79.372192°E / 10.922075; 79.372192
Natankovil1.jpg
Shenbagavalli
Jagannatha Perumal
17 Thiruvelliyangudi Thiruvelliyangudi,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°03′24″N 79°26′35″E / 11.056687°N 79.443095°E / 11.056687; 79.443095
Velliyangudi temple.jpg
Maragadhavalli
Srungarasundara Danushbani Ramaya Perumal
18 Thirukannamangai Thirukannamangai,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°47′58″N 79°35′12″E / 10.799552°N 79.586645°E / 10.799552; 79.586645
Thirukannamangai2.JPG
Abishegavalli
Bhaktavatsala Perumal
19 Thirukannapuram Tirukannapuram,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°52′07″N 79°42′15″E / 10.868499°N 79.704266°E / 10.868499; 79.704266
Tirukannapuram9.JPG
Kannapura
Sowriraja Perumal
20 Thirukannangudi Tirukannankudi,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°45′26″N 79°45′48″E / 10.757222°N 79.763290°E / 10.757222; 79.763290
Loganayagi
Lokanatha Perumal
21 Thirunagai Nagapattinam,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°45′35″N 79°50′37″E / 10.759830°N 79.843706°E / 10.759830; 79.843706
Thirunagai8.JPG
Soundaryavalli
Soundararaja Perumal
22 Thiruthanjai Mamanikoil Thanjavur,
Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°48′56″N 79°08′19″E / 10.815669°N 79.138677°E / 10.815669; 79.138677
Rakthapankajavalli
Neelamega Perumal
Manikundram Thanjavur,
Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°49′01″N 79°08′14″E / 10.816923°N 79.137229°E / 10.816923; 79.137229
Ambujavalli
Maniparvatha Perumal
Thanjaiyali Nagar Thanjavur,
Thanjavur district,
Tamil Nadu
10°48′58″N 79°08′21″E / 10.816022°N 79.139155°E / 10.816022; 79.139155
Thanjanayagi
Narasimha Perumal
23 Thiruvazhundur Theranzhdur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°02′48″N 79°34′46″E / 11.046532°N 79.579468°E / 11.046532; 79.579468
Therazhunthur 3.jpg
Rakthapankajavalli
Devadhiraja Perumal
24 Thiruchirupuliyur Thirusirupuliyur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
10°59′28″N 79°40′10″E / 10.991202°N 79.669440°E / 10.991202; 79.669440
Tiruchirupuliur4.jpg
Dhayanayagi
Krupasamudra Perumal
25 Thiruthalaichanga Nanmadiyam Thalachangadu,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°07′47″N 79°47′07″E / 11.129789°N 79.785252°E / 11.129789; 79.785252
Siras sanga
Chandrasabahara Perumal
26 Thiruindalur Indalur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°04′29″N 79°43′54″E / 11.074792840373451°N 79.73170427624518°E / 11.074792840373451; 79.73170427624518
Parimala Ranganathar Temple.jpg
Pundareegavalli
Parimalaranganatha Perumal
27 Thirukazhicheerama Vinnagaram Sirkazhi,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°04′29″N 79°43′54″E / 11.074792840373451°N 79.73170427624518°E / 11.074792840373451; 79.73170427624518
Thadalankoil (10).jpg
Loganayagi
Lokanatha Thrivikrama Perumal
28 Thirukkavalambadi Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′37″N 79°46′57″E / 11.176927669494754°N 79.78247312847907°E / 11.176927669494754; 79.78247312847907
Thirukavalambadi2.jpg
Pankajavalli
Gopala Krishna Perumal
29 Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′40″N 79°46′54″E / 11.177685493369651°N 79.78152899090583°E / 11.177685493369651; 79.78152899090583
Arimeya Vinnagaram - Kuamadukoothan5.jpg
Amrudhagadavalli
Gadakeli Narthanaya Perumal
30 Thiruvanpurushothamam Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′44″N 79°46′36″E / 11.178783°N 79.776690°E / 11.178783; 79.776690
Thrivuanpurushotam2.jpg
Purushothama
Purushothama Perumal
31 Thirusemponsaikoil Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′42″N 79°46′47″E / 11.178446°N 79.779651°E / 11.178446; 79.779651
Thiruchsemponsey2.jpg
Sweda Pushpavalli
Hemaranganatha Perumal
32 Thirumanimadakoil Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′26″N 79°46′37″E / 11.173971°N 79.776872°E / 11.173971; 79.776872
Narayana Perumal5.jpg
Pundareegavalli
Sashvatha Deepaya Narayana Perumal
33 Thiruvaigunda Vinnagaram Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′47″N 79°46′42″E / 11.179804°N 79.778267°E / 11.179804; 79.778267
Vaikunda vinnagaram 2.jpg
Vaigundavalli
Vaikuntanatha Perumal
34 Thiruthetriambalam Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′23″N 79°47′43″E / 11.173022740077984°N 79.79514388386542°E / 11.173022740077984; 79.79514388386542
Pallikonda Perumal - Thiruthetriambalam3.jpg
Rakthapankajavalli
Lakshmiranga Perumal
35 Thirumanikoodam Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′39″N 79°46′40″E / 11.177415°N 79.777838°E / 11.177415; 79.777838
Thirumanikoodam4.jpg
Boonayagi
Varadharaja Perumal
36 Thiruparthanpalli Parthanpalli,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°10′12″N 79°47′51″E / 11.169952°N 79.797515°E / 11.169952; 79.797515
Thiruparthanpalli1.jpg
Kamala
Parthasarathy roopa, Kamalapathaye Perumal
37 Thiruvali Thiruvali,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°12′11″N 79°46′28″E / 11.202979°N 79.774538°E / 11.202979; 79.774538
Thiruvali4.jpg
Amrudhagadavalli
Kedarapathivaraya Perumal
Thirunagari Thirunagari,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°13′35″N 79°48′01″E / 11.226354°N 79.800335°E / 11.226354; 79.800335
Thirunagari1.jpg

38 Thiruthevanarthogai Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°11′49″N 79°46′32″E / 11.196842°N 79.775504°E / 11.196842; 79.775504
Thiruthevanarthogai3.jpg
Samudradanaya
Devanayaka Perumal
39 Thiruvellakulam Thirunangur,
Nagapattinam district,
Tamil Nadu
11°11′24″N 79°45′54″E / 11.190106°N 79.764929°E / 11.190106; 79.764929
Annan koil.jpeg
Padmavathi
Srinivasa Perumal
40 Thiruchitrakoodam Chidambaram,
Cuddalore district,
Tamil Nadu11°23′57″N 79°41′36″E / 11.399207°N 79.693364°E / 11.399207; 79.693364
Temple Tank (Sivaganga), Nataraja Temple - panoramio.jpg
Pundareegavalli
Govindaraja Perumal
41 Thiruvaheendrapuram Thiruvanthipuram,
Cuddalore district,
Tamil Nadu11°44′42″N 79°42′34″E / 11.745099°N 79.709351°E / 11.745099; 79.709351
Hemabujavalli
Devanatha Perumal
42 Thirukkovalur Thirukoyilur,
Tiruvannamalai district,
Tamil Nadu11°58′01″N 79°12′09″E / 11.967006°N 79.202479°E / 11.967006; 79.202479
Ulagalantha Perumal9.JPG
Pushpavalli
Thrivikrama Perumal
43 Thirukkachi - Atthigiri Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°49′09″N 79°43′29″E / 12.819137°N 79.724646°E / 12.819137; 79.724646
Varadaraja Perumal Temple Kanchipuram (31).jpg
Perundevi
Devathiraja Perumal
44 Ashtabuyagaram Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°49′22″N 79°42′39″E / 12.822736°N 79.710806°E / 12.822736; 79.710806
Ashtabhujakaram (9).jpg
Padmasani
Gajendravarada Perumal
45 Thiruthanka Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°49′28″N 79°42′20″E / 12.824382°N 79.705543°E / 12.824382; 79.705543
Vilakkoli-perumal108dd.jpg
Maragadhavalli
Deepaprakasa Perumal
46 Thiruvelukkai Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°49′20″N 79°42′23″E / 12.822197°N 79.706450°E / 12.822197; 79.706450
Tiruvelukkai (3).jpg
Amruthavalli
Sundharayoghanarasimha Perumal
47 Thiruneeragam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′21″N 79°42′19″E / 12.839122°N 79.705185°E / 12.839122; 79.705185
Ulagalantha perumal Kanchipuram3.jpg
Boovalli
Jagadeeswara Perumal
48 Thiruppadagam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′34″N 79°41′49″E / 12.842726°N 79.696941°E / 12.842726; 79.696941
Pandavathoothar (7).jpg
Rukmani Sathyabama
Pandavadootha Perumal
49 Nilathingal Thundam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′51″N 79°41′58″E / 12.847463°N 79.699313°E / 12.847463; 79.699313
Ekambareswarar3.jpg
Chandrasoodavalli
Chandrasooda Perumal
50 Thiruooragam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′21″N 79°42′19″E / 12.839122°N 79.705185°E / 12.839122; 79.705185
Ulagalantha perumal Kanchipuram3.jpg
Amudavalli
Thrivikrama Perumal
51 Thiruvehka Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°49′27″N 79°42′45″E / 12.824070°N 79.712462°E / 12.824070; 79.712462
Yathothkari (2).jpg
Komalavalli
Yathokthakari Perumal
52 Thirukkaragam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′21″N 79°42′19″E / 12.839122°N 79.705185°E / 12.839122; 79.705185
Ulagalantha perumal Kanchipuram3.jpg
Padmamani
Karunagara Perumal
53 Thirukkarvaanam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′21″N 79°42′19″E / 12.839122°N 79.705185°E / 12.839122; 79.705185
Ulagalantha perumal Kanchipuram3.jpg
Kamalavalli
Neelamega Perumal
54 Thirukkalvanur Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′26″N 79°42′12″E / 12.840653°N 79.703250°E / 12.840653; 79.703250
Kanchipuram.in Kamakshi-Amman Temple - panoramio.jpg
Sundarabimbavalli
Choranatha Perumal
55 Thiruppavalavannam Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′37″N 79°42′27″E / 12.843658°N 79.707604°E / 12.843658; 79.707604
Manavalamamunigal 05.jpg
Pravalavalli
Pravalavarna Perumal
56 Thiruparamechura Vinnagaram Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°50′14″N 79°42′34″E / 12.837151°N 79.709482°E / 12.837151; 79.709482
Parameswara Vinnagaram.JPG
Vaigundavalli
Vaikundanatha Perumal
57 Thirupputkuzhi Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°52′22″N 79°37′07″E / 12.872642°N 79.618683°E / 12.872642; 79.618683
Tirupukuzhi1.jpg
Maragadavalli
Vijayaraghava Perumal
58 Thirunindravur Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu13°06′45″N 80°01′34″E / 13.112501°N 80.026096°E / 13.112501; 80.026096
Bakthavtsala perumal gopuram.jpg
Sudhavalli
Bhaktavatsala Perumal
59 Thiruvallur Thiruvallur,
Tiruvallur district,
Tamil Nadu13°08′36″N 79°54′27″E / 13.143204°N 79.907439°E / 13.143204; 79.907439
Tiruvallur9.jpg
Kanagavalli
Vaidhya Veeraraghava Perumal
60 Thiruvallikeni Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu13°03′14″N 80°16′37″E / 13.053920°N 80.276942°E / 13.053920; 80.276942
Tiruvallikeni1.jpg
Rukmani
Venkatakrishna Perumal
61 Thiruneermalai Kanchipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°57′50″N 80°06′54″E / 12.963808°N 80.114953°E / 12.963808; 80.114953
Thiruneermalai temple.jpg
Sundaravalli
Jalathivarnaya Perumal
62 Thiruidaventhai Thiruvidanthai,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°45′48″N 80°14′33″E / 12.763217°N 80.242538°E / 12.763217; 80.242538
Thiruvidanthai8.JPG
Komalavalli
Lakshmivaraha Perumal
63 Thirukkadalmallai Mahabalipuram,
Kanchipuram district,
Tamil Nadu12°37′03″N 80°11′36″E / 12.617464°N 80.193303°E / 12.617464; 80.193303
Thirukadalmallai Temple.jpg
Boosthalamangadevi
Sthalasayana Perumal
64 Thirukkadigai Sholinghur,
Vellore district,
Tamil Nadu13°05′37″N 79°25′29″E / 13.093698°N 79.424626°E / 13.093698; 79.424626
Sholingar (15).JPG
Amruthabalavalli
Yoganarasimha Perumal
65 Thiruvayothi Ayodhya,
Faizabad district,
Uttar Pradesh26°42′53″N 82°49′22″E / 26.71481229589839°N 82.82272486035163°E / 26.71481229589839; 82.82272486035163
Seethadevi
Ramachandra Perumal
66 Thirunaimisaranyam Naimisaranya,
Uttar Pradesh27°26′11″N 80°34′14″E / 27.43625013764861°N 80.57052759472663°E / 27.43625013764861; 80.57052759472663
Cakratirtham.jpg
Sriharilakshmi
Devaraja Perumal
67 Thirupruthi Jyothirmath,
Chamoli district,
Uttarakhand29°55′47″N 79°25′21″E / 29.929813918670746°N 79.42245630566413°E / 29.929813918670746; 79.42245630566413
JyothirMutt.JPG
Parimalavalli
Paramapurushaya Perumal
68 Thirukkandamenum Kadinagar Devaprayag,
Tehri Garhwal district,
Uttarakhand26°57′00″N 80°26′19″E / 26.95009444667719°N 80.43869165722663°E / 26.95009444667719; 80.43869165722663
Devprayag2008.JPG
Pundareegavalli
Neelamega Perumal
69 Thiruvadariyachramam Badrinath,
Chamoli district,
Uttarakhand26°57′00″N 80°26′19″E / 26.95009444667719°N 80.43869165722663°E / 26.95009444667719; 80.43869165722663
Badrinath temple.jpg
Aravindavalli
Badrinarayana Perumal
70 Thirusalakraamam 28°49′00″N 83°52′17″E / 28.816711°N 83.871280°E / 28.816711; 83.871280
Muktinath Temple view.JPG
Sridevi
Srimoorthi Perumal
71 Thiruvadamadurai Mathura,
Mathura district,
Uttar Pradesh 27°30′17″N 77°40′11″E / 27.504756°N 77.669646°E / 27.504756; 77.669646
Mathura Temple-Mathura-India0002.JPG
Sathyabama
Govardhanagiridhari Perumal
72 Thiruvaipadi Gokul,
Mathura district,
Uttar Pradesh26°57′00″N 80°26′19″E / 26.95009444667719°N 80.43869165722663°E / 26.95009444667719; 80.43869165722663
Gokul temple.JPG
Rukmani Sathyabama
Navamohanakrishna Perumal
73 Thirudwaragai Dwarka,
Devbhoomi Dwarka district,
Gujarat 24°00′36″N 73°19′50″E / 24.00995182854946°N 73.33053736035163°E / 24.00995182854946; 73.33053736035163
Dwarakadheesh Temple.jpg
Lakshmi
Rukmanyadhi Ashtamahishi, Dwarakadeesa Perumal
74 Thirusingavelkundram(Ahobilam) Ahobilam,
Kurnool district,
Andhra Pradesh15°20′28″N 79°09′12″E / 15.340994741780234°N 79.15329126660163°E / 15.340994741780234; 79.15329126660163
Upper Ahobilam temple Gopuram.jpg
Amruthavalli Senchulakshmi
Lakshminarasimha Perumal
75 Thiruvengadam(Tirupati) Tirupati,
Chittoor district,
Andhra Pradesh13°50′02″N 79°24′31″E / 13.833933106565155°N 79.40872339550788°E / 13.833933106565155; 79.40872339550788
Tirumala Venkateswara temple entrance 09062015.JPG
Padmavathi
Srinivasa(Venkateswara) Perumal
76 Thirunavai Tirunavaya,
Mallapuram district,
Kerala10°21′39″N 76°50′12″E / 10.36070479443391°N 76.83654932324225°E / 10.36070479443391; 76.83654932324225
Thirunavaya Navamukunda Temple.JPG
Vithuvakoduvalli
Abhayapradhaya Perumal
77 Thiruvithuvakodu Thiruvithuvakoodu,
Palakkad district,
Kerala10°21′39″N 76°50′12″E / 10.36070479443391°N 76.83654932324225°E / 10.36070479443391; 76.83654932324225
Vathsalyavalli
Katkaraswami Perumal
78 Thirukatkarai Thrikkakara,
Ernakulam district,
Kerala10°21′39″N 76°50′12″E / 10.36070479443391°N 76.83654932324225°E / 10.36070479443391; 76.83654932324225
Thirukatkarai3.jpg
Madhuraveni
Sookthinatha Perumal
79 Thirumoozhikkalam Thirumoozhikulam,
Ernakulam district,
Kerala10°21′39″N 76°50′12″E / 10.36070479443391°N 76.83654932324225°E / 10.36070479443391; 76.83654932324225
Thirumoozhikalam2.jpg
Vathsalyavalli
Sundaraya Perumal
80 Thiruvallavazh 9°25′38″N 76°49′02″E / 9.427237776661839°N 76.8173232490235°E / 9.427237776661839; 76.8173232490235
Sree Vallaba Temple 5.JPG
Karpagavalli
Amruthanarayana Perumal
81 Thirukkadithalam Thrikkodithanam,
Kottayam District,
Kerala9°25′38″N 76°49′02″E / 9.427237776661839°N 76.8173232490235°E / 9.427237776661839; 76.8173232490235
Thrickodithanam 8.JPG
Rakthapankajavalli
Devathideva Perumal
82 Thiruchengundrur Chengannur,
Alappuzha District,
Kerala9°25′38″N 76°49′02″E / 9.427237776661839°N 76.8173232490235°E / 9.427237776661839; 76.8173232490235
Hemalatha
Mayashaktiyuthaswamy Perumal
83 Thiruppuliyur Thripuliyur,
Alappuzha District,
Kerala9°25′38″N 76°49′02″E / 9.427237776661839°N 76.8173232490235°E / 9.427237776661839; 76.8173232490235
Puliyoor.JPG
Padmasani
Vamana Perumal
84 Thiruvaranvilai Aranmula,
Pathanamthitta District,
Kerala9°21′20″N 76°45′37″E / 9.355428897955141°N 76.76033167187506°E / 9.355428897955141; 76.76033167187506
Aranmula Temple.JPG
Kamalavalli
Kamalanatha Perumal
85 Thiruvanvandoor Thiruvanvandoor,
Alappuzha District,
Kerala9°21′20″N 76°45′37″E / 9.355428897955141°N 76.76033167187506°E / 9.355428897955141; 76.76033167187506
Thiruvanvandoor Pambanaiappan Temple 1.JPG
Harilakshmi
Ananthapadmanabha Perumal
86 Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram,
Thiruvananthapuram District,
Kerala8°32′02″N 76°55′40″E / 8.534020947115657°N 76.92787317578131°E / 8.534020947115657; 76.92787317578131
Padmanabhaswamy Temple Thiruvananthapuram.jpg
Maragadhavalli
Adhikesava Perumal
87 Thiruvattaru Thiruvattar,
Kanyakumari district,
Tamil Nadu8°22′08″N 77°14′30″E / 8.368978087164939°N 77.24167017285163°E / 8.368978087164939; 77.24167017285163
Thiruvattar Adhi Kesava Temple.JPG
Kamalavalli
Thiruvazhmarbhan Perumal
88 Thiruvanparisaram Thiruppathisaram,
Kanyakumari district,
Tamil Nadu8°15′15″N 77°28′13″E / 8.25415386006807°N 77.47032312695319°E / 8.25415386006807; 77.47032312695319
Thriuppathisaram.jpg
vamanashetravalli
Vamanakshetrapoornaya Perumal
89 Thirukkurungudi Thirukkurungudi,
Tirunelveli district,
Tamil Nadu8°26′13″N 77°31′33″E / 8.436905508248756°N 77.525941413086°E / 8.436905508248756; 77.525941413086
Thirukarungudi temple.jpg
Chireevaramangaivalli
Thothadhrinatha Perumal
90 Thirucheeravaramangai Nanguneri,
Tirunelveli district,
Tamil Nadu8°26′13″N 77°31′33″E / 8.436905508248756°N 77.525941413086°E / 8.436905508248756; 77.525941413086
Naguneri18.jpg
Boonayagi, Vaigundavalli
Vaikuntanatha Perumal
91 Thiruvaigundam (Navathirupathi) Srivaikuntam,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′35″N 77°58′34″E / 8.609726703977469°N 77.9760375434571°E / 8.609726703977469; 77.9760375434571
Srivaikuntam6.jpg
Varagunavalli
Vijayasana Perumal
92 Thiruvaragunamangai (navathirupathi) Natham,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′35″N 77°58′34″E / 8.609726703977469°N 77.9760375434571°E / 8.609726703977469; 77.9760375434571
Varagunamangai1.jpg
Boonayagi
Boomipalaya Vairinedharchidha Gopaya Perumal
93 Thiruppuliangudi (Navathirupathi) Thirupulingudi,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′35″N 77°58′34″E / 8.609726703977469°N 77.9760375434571°E / 8.609726703977469; 77.9760375434571
Thirupuliyangudi3.jpg
Visalakrishnakshidevi
Aravindhalochana Perumal
94 Thirutholaivillimangalam(Navathirupathi) Tholavillimangalam,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′35″N 77°58′34″E / 8.609726703977469°N 77.9760375434571°E / 8.609726703977469; 77.9760375434571
Aravinda Lochanar temple2.jpg
Baligavalli Padmavathi
Srinivasa Perumal
95 Thirukkulandai(Navathirupathi) Perungulam,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′25″N 77°57′02″E / 8.606968631450961°N 77.95054582897956°E / 8.606968631450961; 77.95054582897956
Thirukulandhai1.jpg
Kolurvalli
Nikshepavithaya Perumal
96 Thirukkolur(Navathirupathi) Thirukolur,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′23″N 77°58′26″E / 8.606501878727164°N 77.97389177624518°E / 8.606501878727164; 77.97389177624518
Thirukkolur3.jpg
Kundalakarnadevi
Dheerga Magarakundaladharaya Perumal
97 Thirupperai (Navathirupathi) Thenthiruperai,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′23″N 77°58′26″E / 8.606501878727164°N 77.97389177624518°E / 8.606501878727164; 77.97389177624518
Then Thirupperai3.jpg
Aadhinathavalli
Aadhinatha Perumal
98 Thirukkurugur (Navathirupathi) Alwarthirunagari,
Thoothukudi district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′25″N 77°57′02″E / 8.606968631450973°N 77.95054582897956°E / 8.606968631450973; 77.95054582897956
Azhwar Thirunagari9.jpg
Kodhadevi
Vadapathrasayee Perumal
99 Thiruvillipputhur Srivilliputhur,
Virudhunagar district,
Tamil Nadu8°36′25″N 77°57′02″E / 8.606968631450973°N 77.95054582897956°E / 8.606968631450973; 77.95054582897956
Andal Temple.jpg
Rakthapankajavalli
Narayana Perumal
100 Thiruthangal Thiruthankal
Virudhunagar district,
Tamil Nadu9°00′39″N 77°53′07″E / 9.010702846890304°N 77.88531450573737°E / 9.010702846890304; 77.88531450573737
Thiruthankal1.jpg
Madhuravalli
Sangamasundharaya Perumal
101 Thirukkoodal Madurai,
Madurai district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 78°15′52″E / 9.988609360758243°N 78.26434282604987°E / 9.988609360758243; 78.26434282604987
Koodalazhagar (15).jpg
Sundaravalli
Chorasundara Perumal
102 Thirumaliruncholai Alagar Koyil,
Madurai district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 78°15′52″E / 9.988609360758243°N 78.26434282604987°E / 9.988609360758243; 78.26434282604987
AzhagarKovil Madurai.JPG
Mohavalli
Kalamega Perumal
103 Thirumogur Thirumohur,
Madurai district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 78°15′52″E / 9.988609360758243°N 78.26434282604987°E / 9.988609360758243; 78.26434282604987
Tirumohur (9).jpg
Mahalakshmi
Uraga Mrudusayanaya Perumal
104 Thirukkoshtiyur Thirukoshtiyur,
Sivaganga district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 78°15′52″E / 9.988609360758243°N 78.26434282604987°E / 9.988609360758243; 78.26434282604987
Thirukkottiyur1.jpg
Kalyanavalli, Padmasani
Kalyana Jagannatha Perumal
105 Thiruppullani Thirupullani,
Ramanathapuram district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 8°15′52″E / 9.988609360758243°N 8.26434282604987°E / 9.988609360758243; 8.26434282604987
Tirupullani1.jpg
Ujjeevana
Sathyagirinatha Perumal
106 Thirumeyyam Thirumayam,
Pudukottai district,
Tamil Nadu9°59′19″N 78°15′52″E / 9.988609360758243°N 78.26434282604987°E / 9.988609360758243; 78.26434282604987
Thirumayam temple.jpg
Sridevi
Venkatesa Perumal
107 Thiruparkadal Heavenly Mahalakshmya
Paramapadhanathaya Perumal
108 Thirupparamapadham Heavenly
The Churning of the Ocean of Milk (6124603065).jpg

List of Divya Desams[edit]

The list of 108 Divya Desams is given in this table:[33][34]

108 Divya Desams
North India and Andhra Pradesh Malai Nadu Madurai Kanchipuram Chennai & Vellore

1. Tirumala Venkateswara Temple - AP
2. Ahobilam - AP
3. Muktinath, Saligramam Nepal
4. Naimisaranya - UP
5. Mathura - UP
6. Gokul - UP
7. Raghunathji Temple - UTK
8. Badrinath temple - UTK
9. Jyotirmath (Joshimutt) - UTK
10. Ayodhya - UP
11. Dwarka - Gujarat

12. Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple
13. Thirukatkarai
14. Moozhikkalam
15. Tiruvalla
16. Thirukadithanam
17. Sengunroor
18. Thiruppuliyoor
19. Thiruvaaranvilai
20. Thiruvanvandoor
21. Thiru naavaay
22. Viththuvakkodu

23. Thirumeyyam
24. Thirukoshtiyur
25. Koodal Azhagar Temple
26. Kallazhagar Temple
27. Kalamegha Perumal temple
28. Srivilliputhur
29. Tiruththangal
30. Thiruppullani

31. Tirukkacchi
32. Ashtabujakaram
33. Tiruvekkaa
34. Tiruththanka
35. Tiruvelukkai
36. Tirukalvanoor
37. Tiru oorakam
38. Tiru neeragam
39. Tiru kaaragam
40. Tirukaarvaanam
41. Tiru parameswara vinnagaram
42. Tiru pavala vannam
43. Tiru paadagam
44. Nilathingal Thundam Perumal temple
45. Thiruputkuzhi

46. Thiruvallikeni
47. Thiruneermalai
48. Thiruvidandai
49. Thirukadalmallai
50. Thiruninravur
51. Thiruvallur
52. Thirukkadigai

Mayiladuthurai and Sirkazhi Thanjavur Trichy Tirunelveli Kanyakumari

53. Thiruvazhunthoor
54. Thiruindaloor
55. Kazheesirama Vinnagaram
56. Thirukkavalampadi
57. Thiruchsemponsey
58. Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram
59. Thiru Vanpurushothamam
60. Thiruvaikunda vinnagaram
61. Thirumanimadam
62. Thiruthevanartthogai
63. Thiruthetriyambalam
64. Thirumanikkoodam
65. Thiruvellakkulam
66. Thiruppaarththanpalli
67. Thalai Sanga Nanmathiyam
68. Thiruchsirupuliyur
69. Thiruvali-Thirunagari

70. Thiruccithra kootam
71. Thirukkannangudi
72. Thirunagai
73. Thiru Thanjai
74. Thirukkoodaloor
75. Thiru Kavith Thalam
76. Thiru Adhanoor
77. Thirupullabhoothangudi
78. Thirukkudandhai
79. Thiruccherai
80. Thirunandipura Vinnagaram
81. ThiruNaraiyoor
82. Thiruvinnagar
83. Thiruvelliyangudi
84. Thirukkanamangai
85. Thirukkkannapuram
86. Thiruvahithipuram
87. Tirukkoilur
88. Thirukkandiyur

89. Sri Rangam
90. Thirukkozhi
91. Thirukkarambanoor
92. Thiruvellarai
93. Thiru Anbil
94. Thirupper Nagar

95. Thiruvaramangai
96. Thirukkurungudi
97. Srivaikundam
98. Thiruvaragunamangai
99. Thiruppulingudi
100. Thirukkurugoor
101. Thirutthulaivillimangalam
102. Thirukkoloor
103. Thirukkulandhai
104. Thentirupperai

105. Thiruvattaru
106. Thiruvanparisaram

Vinnulagam (Outside the Earthly realm)

107. Thiruparkadal
108. Thiruparamapadham

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Maps[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ R.K.K. Rajarajan (2012) Antiquity of the Vaiṣṇava divyakśētras in Pāṇḍinādu. Acta Orientalia, Societates Orientales Danica Fennica Norvegia Svecia, Vol. 73, pp. 59-104. ISSN 0001-6438. https://www.academia.edu/7529429/Antiquity_of_the_divyak%E1%B9%A3etras_in_P%C4%81%E1%B9%87%E1%B8%8Din%C4%81%E1%B8%8Du and R.K.K. Rajarajan (2013) Historical sequence of the Vaiṣṇava Divyadeśas. Sacred venues of Viṣṇism. Acta Orientalia, Societates Orientales Danica Fennica Norvegia Svecia, Vol. 74, pp. 37-90. ISSN 0001-6438. https://www.academia.edu/12405403/Historical_sequence_of_the_Vai%E1%B9%A3%E1%B9%87ava_Divyade%C5%9Bas._Sacred_venues_of_Vi%E1%B9%A3%E1%B9%87ism
  2. ^ a b Rao, P.V.L. Narasimha (2008). Kanchipuram – Land of Legends, Saints & Temples. New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 978-93-5018-104-1. 
  3. ^ a b c Dalal 2011, pp. 20-21
  4. ^ R.K.K. Rajarajan (2016) Master-Slave Ambivalence in the hagiography of the Āḻvārs. The Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society 107.1: 44-60. ISSN 0047-8555. https://www.academia.edu/27087316/Master-Slave_Ambivalence_in_the_hagiography_of_the_%C4%80%E1%B8%BBv%C4%81rs
  5. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780810864450. 
  6. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1920). Early history of Vaishnavism in south India. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–18. 
  7. ^ Lochtefeld, James (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 515. ISBN 9780823931804. 
  8. ^ Krishna (2009). Book Of Vishnu. Penguin Books India. p. 136. ISBN 9780143067627. 
  9. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 42
  10. ^ B.S. 2011, pp. 47-48
  11. ^ Mukherjee (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literatures: Beginnings-1850 Volume 1 of A Dictionary of Indian Literature, A Dictionary of Indian Literature. Orient Blackswan. p. 15. ISBN 9788125014539. 
  12. ^ Garg, Gaṅgā Rām (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: Ak-Aq. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 352–354. ISBN 9788170223757. 
  13. ^ Mittal, Sushil; Thursby, G. R. (2005). The Hindu World. New York: Routelge. p. 456. ISBN 0-203-67414-6. 
  14. ^ Vater, Tom (2010). Moon Spotlight Angkor Wat. USA: Perseus Books Group. p. 40. ISBN 9781598805611. 
  15. ^ Jones, Victoria (2004). Wonders of the World Dot-to-Dot. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. p. 4. ISBN 1-4027-1028-3. 
  16. ^ S., Prabhu (27 December 2012). "Unique drama unfolds during procession". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  17. ^ "Unique drama unfolds during procession". The Hindu. 8 April 2005. Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  18. ^ S., Prabhu (6 January 2012). "Ranganatha suffered his pain". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  19. ^ T.A., Srinivasan (21 March 2003). "Temple for the Great Trinity". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  20. ^ Daniel, Val (1984). Fluid Signs: Being a Person the Tamil Way. University of California Press. pp. 139–140. ISBN 9780520061675. 
  21. ^ Hultzsch, Eugen (1890). South-Indian inscriptions, Volumes 9–10. Superintendent, Gov't press. p. 298. 
  22. ^ "Swastik Well, Tiruvellarai". Department of Archaeology, Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 2013-07-07. 
  23. ^ M., Balaganessin (2008-05-17). "Pallava-built tank plagued by vandalism at Tiruvellarai". The Hindu. Tiruchi. Retrieved 2013-03-04. 
  24. ^ "Hundreds pull temple car". The Hindu. Tiruchi. 2010-04-09. Retrieved 2013-03-04. 
  25. ^ "Devotees pull temple car". The Hindu. Tiruchi. 2012-03-19. Retrieved 2013-03-04. 
  26. ^ "Sri Sundararaja Perumal temple". Dinamalar. Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  27. ^ Ayyar, P. V. Jagadisa (1982). South Indian Shrines: Illustrated. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 533. ISBN 9788120601512. 
  28. ^ Jouveau-Dubreuil, Tony (1994). The Pallavas. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 77. ISBN 81-206-0574-8. 
  29. ^ Jouveau-Dubreuil, G. (1994). Pallava Antiquities – 2 Vols. Asian Educational Services. p. 13. ISBN 978-81-206-0571-8. 
  30. ^ S., Prabhu (16 September 2010). "Restoring the glory of a temple". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  31. ^ Soundara Rajan, Kodayanallur Vanamamalai (2001). Concise classified dictionary of Hinduism. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 65. ISBN 81-7022-857-3. 
  32. ^ "Temple for the Great Trinity". The Hindu. 11 June 2005. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  33. ^ "108 Divya Desams". srivaishnava.org. Retrieved 2007-07-16.  External link in |work= (help)
  34. ^ Govindāchārya 1902, p. 59-69

References[edit]

R.K.K. Rajarajan (2013) Historical sequence of the Vaiṣṇava Divyadeśas. Sacred venues of Viṣṇism. Acta Orientalia, Societates Orientales Danica Fennica Norvegia Svecia, Vol. 74, pp. 37–90. ISSN 0001-6438

R.K.K. Rajarajan (2016) Master-Slave Ambivalence in the hagiography of the Āḻvārs. The Quarterly Journal of the Mythic Society 107.1: 44-60. ISSN 0047-8555

External links[edit]