Dmitry Ivanovich Pisarev
Дми́трий Ива́нович Пи́сарев
|Born||October 14, 1840|
Znamenskoye, Yelets Uyezd, Oryol Governorate
|Died||July 16, 1868 (aged 27)|
|Cause of death||Drowning (possibly as suicide)|
|Resting place||Literatorskie mostki, Volkovo Cemetery, Saint Petersburg|
|Alma mater||Saint Petersburg Imperial University|
|Occupation||Literary critic, social critic, essayist, journalist|
|Known for||Bazarovism, proto-Nietzscheanism, natural science advocacy|
Dmitry Ivanovich Pisarev (Russian: Дми́трий Ива́нович Пи́сарев; 14 October [O.S. 2 October] 1840 – 16 July [O.S. 4 July] 1868) was a Russian literary and social critic, journalist, and philosopher, who was a central figure of Russian nihilism. Elements of his philosophy have been cited as forerunners of Nietzschean ideas, and his advocacy of liberation movements and natural science had significant impact on Russian development.
A critique of his philosophy became the subject of Fyodor Dostoevsky's celebrated novel Crime and Punishment. Indeed, Pisarev's philosophy embraces the nihilist aims of negation and value-destruction; in freeing oneself from all human and moral authority, the nihilist becomes ennobled above the common masses and free to act according to sheer personal preference and usefulness. These new types, as Pisarev termed them, were to be pioneers of what he saw as the most necessary step for human development, namely the reset and destruction of the existing mode of thought. Among his most famous locutions is: "What can be smashed must be smashed. Whatever withstands the blow is fit to survive; what flies into pieces is rubbish. In any case, strike out right and left, no harm can come of it."
After graduation he worked as editor for various publications. He was arrested in 1862 for anti-government writings and was imprisoned until 1866. After his release, he continued his literary work.
Pisarev was one of the writers who propelled the democratic-revolutionary trend in Russia during the 1860s. The next generation of Russians, made famous by the events of 1905 and 1917, acknowledged Pisarev's influence. Nadezhda Krupskaya, Lenin's wife, once wrote, "Lenin was of the generation that grew up under the influence of Pisarev".
Pisarev wanted, more than anything else, for his readers to learn to think independently. This desire he pursued through philosophy, literary criticism and social and family analyses.
Influence on Lenin
"There are rifts and rifts," wrote Pisarev of the rift between dreams and reality. "My dream may run ahead of the natural march of events or may fly off at a tangent in a direction in which no natural march of events will ever proceed. In the first case my dream will not cause any harm; it may even support and augment the energy of the working men.... There is nothing in such dreams that would distort or paralyse labour-power. On the contrary, if man were completely deprived of the ability to dream in this way, if he could not from time to time run ahead and mentally conceive, in an entire and completed picture, the product to which his hands are only just beginning to lend shape, then I cannot at all imagine what stimulus there would be to induce man to undertake and complete extensive and strenuous work in the sphere of art, science, and practical endeavour....
The rift between dreams and reality causes no harm if only the person dreaming believes seriously in his dream, if he attentively observes life, compares his observations with his castles in the air, and if, generally speaking, he works conscientiously for the achievement of his fantasies. If there is some connection between dreams and life then all is well." Of this kind of dreaming there is unfortunately too little in our movement. And the people most responsible for this are those who boast of their sober views, their "closeness" to the "concrete", the representatives of legal criticism and of illegal "tail-ism".
According to the recollection of Menshevik Georgiy Solomon, who held offices in the Soviet government from 1918 until he became a nevozvrashchenets in 1923, Lenin once quoted in a private conversation to him the following from Pisarev, with "a purely sadistic expression" and in an apparent "fit of hysteria": "Break, beat up everything, beat and destroy! Everything that's being broken is rubbish and has no right to life! What survives is good." Lenin allegedly used this quote in response to Solomon's remark that the activities of the Bolsheviks in power had a primarily destructive nature, and then threatened Solomon with the Cheka if he were to object to him again.
Translated works in English
- — (n.d.). "Flowers of Harmless Humour". In Wiener, Leo (ed.). Anthology of Russian Literature from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. 2. G. P. Putnam's Sons (published 1903).
- — (n.d.). Selected Philosophical, Social And Political Essays. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House (published 1958).
- Edie, Scanlan & Zeldin 1994, p. 62.
- Edie, Scanlan & Zeldin 1994, p. 63; Frank 1995.
- Frank 1995.
- Edie, Scanlan & Zeldin 1994, pp. 62–63; Frank 1995; Petrov 2019: "These 'new types', to borrow Pisarev’s designation".
- Edie, Scanlan & Zeldin 1994, p. 65; Petrov 2019.
- Babkin, B.P. (1949) Pavlov: A Biography. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
- Ленин и его семья. Париж, 1931. 116-117
- Edie, James M.; Scanlan, James; Zeldin, Mary-Barbara (1994). Russian Philosophy Volume II: the Nihilists, The Populists, Critics of Religion and Culture. University of Tennessee Press.
- Frank, Joseph (1995). Dostoevsky: The Miraculous Years, 1865–1871. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01587-2.
- Petrov, Kristian (2019). "'Strike out, right and left!': a conceptual-historical analysis of 1860s Russian nihilism and its notion of negation". Stud East Eur Thought. 71 (2): 73–97. doi:10.1007/s11212-019-09319-4.