Dmytro Firtash

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Dmytro Firtash
Дмитро́ Фі́рташ
D F photo tif.jpg
Born Dmytro Vasylovych Firtash
(1965-05-02) 2 May 1965 (age 52)
Bohdanivka, Zalishchyky Raion, Ukraine
Occupation Businessman
Website dmitryfirtash.com

Dmytro Vasylovych Firtash (Ukrainian: Дмитро́ Васи́льович Фі́рташ; born 2 May 1965) is a Ukrainian businessman, investor and philanthropist who heads the board of directors of Group DF.[1] He was highly influential during the Yuschenko administration[citation needed] and Yanukovych administration.[2]

His many roles during the Yuschenko administration included: presidency[3] of the Federation of Employers of Ukraine (FEU); chairmanship[4] of the National Tripartite Social and Economic Council (NTSEC); co-chairmanship[5] of Domestic and Foreign Investors Advisory Council under the Ministry of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine; and membership[6] in the Committee for Economic Reforms under the President of Ukraine.

Firtash was arrested by Austrian authorities in March 2014. In February 2017, the Vienna Court of Appeals ordered that Firtash be extradited to the United States, to face charges that he had secured a titanium extraction permit in India through $18.5 million in bribes.

As of August 2016, Firtash has not returned to Ukraine following the Maidan revolution of 2014. The current status of many of his various offices and titles within Ukraine are not clear; specifically those not directly related to his own business holdings. To date, he has retained ownership of his assets within Ukraine, including those areas presently under Russian control.

Early life[edit]

Firtash[7][better source needed] was born on 2 May 1965 in Bohdanivka, Zalishchiky Raion (Ternopil oblast), Ukraine, Soviet Union. Since the 1990s, the village has been called Synkiv.

Business career and assets[edit]

Firtash began his business career almost immediately after completing his military service. He founded a trading company in Chernivtsi, Ukraine, eventually moving to Moscow in the early 1990s.

In 2007, a private international group of companies, Group DF ("the Firtash group of companies") was formed to consolidate Firtash's business assets in different sectors. Presently, Group DF incorporates assets in the chemical industry, energy sector and real estate, and this consolidation effort is still underway.

In 2008, Firtash was involved with a firm owned by Paul Manafort in a $895 million project to redevelop the Drake Hotel in New York City into a spa and luxury mall to be called Bulgari Tower. According to court records, Firtash's firm had planned to invest $100 million in the project.[8] The deal was never finalized.[9]

In 2010, Firtash launched an effort towards consolidation of the Ukrainian nitrogen business. From September 2010 to September 2011, Firtash acquired ownership in 'Concern STIROL' (Horlivka), 'Severodonetsk Production Association Azot' and 'Cherkassy Azot'.[10] In just over a year, the joint marketing strategy of the four fertilizer manufacturers owned by Firtash substantially strengthened its domestic market position.

Firtash is co-owner of RosUkrEnergo and controls much of the Ukrainian titanium industry.[11] He gained control of former state-owned titanium assets across Ukraine in 2004. He also owns several chemical plants.[12][better source needed] In May 2011, Firtash took over Nadra Bank (at the time Ukraine's 11th largest bank). Nadra Bank had gone into default in 2009, but it has since restructured its foreign debt with significant write-offs.[13]

Firtash became one of the leading investors in the power sector and chemical industry in Central and Eastern Europe.[14] His plants and companies are present in Ukraine, Germany, Italy, Cyprus, Tajikistan, Switzerland, Hungary, Austria and Estonia.

Firtash was elected President of the Joint Representative Body, a joint representative agency of employers at the national level, on 29 November 2011.[15]

Firtash bought back 100 percent of InterInter Media Group Limited from Valeriy Khoroshkovskyi on 1 February 2013, for his GDF Media Limited.[16] Firtash had sold various channels to Khoroshkovskyi's U.A. Inter Media Group Ltd in June 2007 while consolidating other business interests.[17] Firtash owns seven television channels as well as an influential Kiev-based Ukrainian News Agency. [18]

In April 2014, Firtash stated that despite the difficult conditions of doing business during Ukraine's political crisis, Ostchem enterprises, part of Dmitry Firtash's Group DF, continued to increase production.[19][20][21][22] The investments directed to the development and modernization of Ostchem enterprises allowed significant increases in the production capacities of Rivne Azot, Stirol Concern, and Crimea soda plant in the first quarter of 2014.[23]

In February 2014, the British Ministry of Defence sold the Brompton Road tube station to Firtash, who planned to convert the site into residential flats.[24] As of August 2017, the property remained unused because (according to his lawyer) Firtash "could not travel from Vienna to London due to a U.S. extradition request".[25]

Business development initiatives[edit]

Firtash united Ukrainian employers

Firtash unified the employers' organizations of Ukraine into a single powerful association, the Federation of Employers of Ukraine (FEU), which he presided over from November 2011 to September 2016. The FEU membership includes companies and enterprises collectively generating 70 percent of Ukraine's GDP. It represents employers' interests in the economic, social and labor relations with the government and trade unions at the national level.[26]

In 2012, Firtash initiated the establishment of a venture investment fund, Bukovyna, aimed at supporting small enterprise. It has become Ukraine's first investment fund offering preferential lending support to small businesses in all sectors of the economy.[27]

In October 2013, Firtash was introduced into the state commission of cooperation with the World Trade Organization by the President of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych.[28]

Politics[edit]

In spring 2002, Firtash ran for parliament as a member of the all-Ukrainian political association Women for the Future, under the patronage of Lyudmila Kuchma, a wife of Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma. The party won 2.11% of the vote,[29] below the 3% threshold required for represention in the Ukrainian parliament. In 2010, Firtash was involved in financing Viktor Yanukovych's presidential campaign.[30] Firtash stated that he sincerely believed that Yanukovych would learn from the events of 2003–2004 and adopt different policies. Since 2011, they have been at odds on questions of public policy. In 2011, Firtash said that Yushchenko had planned good reforms, but Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko had not allowed him to implement them.[31]

In March 2014, on behalf of the business circles of Ukraine, Firtash addressed Aleksandr Shokhin, the Head of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, and the wider business community concerning the situation in the political arena and urged Russian businessmen to stop the war between Russia and Ukraine.[32]

On 3 April 2014, Firtash announced that he hoped the forthcoming presidential elections would overcome the chaos in Ukraine and strengthen the country on the international political scene. He said: "I will not allow for my reputation to be ruined by those who are driven by political motivations and are not interested in Ukraine and its people".[33] On 11 April 2014, he urged big Ukrainian business to act according to the logic of "economic patriotism" and buy up goods in domestic companies.[citation needed]

A profile piece published about Firtash by the BBC on 30 April 2014[34], stated that because he acted as a go-between in east-west gas trade Yulia Tymoshenko, Ukraine prime minister at the time, made hostile attempts to push Firtash and his firm out of Ukraine-Russia gas control negotiations in 2009. Firtash said that the unstable situation in the east of Ukraine was coordinated by Tymoshenko, that she needed disorder to allow her to declare a state of emergency and disrupt the presidential elections which she had no chance of winning. He said that Tymoshenko had already practically usurped power due to the size of her parliamentary majority, with her party allies Oleksandr Turchynov and Arseniy Yatsenyuk heading the government.[citation needed]

In an interview given to the BBC in May 2014, Firtash protested his innocence, denied paying bribes and any links to organized crime. He reiterated his belief that he is a pawn in the geo-political struggle between the United States and Russia.[35]

In May 2014, Firtash also stated that Ukraine must be strong, neutral and independent. He also pointed out that the top priority faced by Ukraine is to legitimize the government, which can only become a possibility after having the elections.[citation needed]

In September 2016, after serving as president of the FEU for five years, Firtash resigned the position of the FEU President.[36]

While in Austria fighting extradition to the U.S., Firtash gave an interview to his own Inter TV channel in which he called for Ukrainian business to unite in support of the state to help it to overcome the economic crises.[37] He also promised to provide funds to support the Ukrainian army.[38] In April,[year missing] Ostchem enterprises, part of Firtash's group of companies, began supporting Ukraine's military forces.[39]

Charity[edit]

Firtash is one of Ukraine's leading philanthropists,[40] providing systemic support to education,[41] science,[42] theaters,[43][better source needed] museums,[44] and historical, cultural and humanitarian projects.[45] Firtash's enterprises have promoted the social and economic development of municipalities where they are based.[citation needed]

In 2008, on Firtash's initiative and with his financial support, the University of Cambridge (UK) established a Cambridge Ukrainian Studies program[46] aimed at promoting the study of Ukraine's rich cultural heritage. Another charity initiative by Firtash enabled the establishment of Cambridge–Ukraine studentships,[47] that make it possible for eligible students from Ukraine to seek a Master's degree at the University of Cambridge. Firtash is a member of the Guild of Cambridge Benefactors, which recognizes major benefactors of over £1 million to the University and Cambridge Colleges.[48] After Firtash’s arrest, human rights organizations criticized the university for accepting the funds.[49]

Firtash financed the construction of the Ukrainian Catholic University campus in the city of Lviv.[50]

Firtash made a sizable contribution to construction of the Holy Trinity Cathedral at the Holy Ascension Monastery in the village of Bancheny, Chernivtsi region. His support was recognized by His Holiness Patriarch Kirill of Moscow who awarded Firtash with the Order of Venerable Serafim Sarowsky, 2nd Degree.[51]

Firtash made donations to the second International Poetry Festival Meridian Czernowitz.[52][better source needed]

The celebration of the 75th anniversary of Kherson Regional Musical and Drama Theater largely owes its success to Firtash's endowment. His sponsorship enabled a major restoration of Chernivtsi Regional Musical and Drama Theater, on the theater's 80th anniversary.[citation needed]

Controversy[edit]

Firtash is a controversial figure in Ukraine.[53] According to documents uncovered during the United States diplomatic cables leak in 2010, Firtash told U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine William Taylor of needing permission from alleged Russian crime boss Semyon Mogilevich to do business in Ukraine during the lawless 1990s.[54] The same documents suggest that Firtash also claimed to be friends with President Viktor Yushchenko.[55] Firtash denied the remarks.[54] Allegedly, Gazprom, a Russian natural-gas extraction company, had asked Mogilevich to oversee natural-gas deliveries from Russia to Ukraine via gas intermediary RosUkrEnergo. All parties deny connections with Mogilevich.[54] Other cables said Firtash and Mogilevich were linked through offshore companies either by joint ownership through former spouses or through Firtash-headed companies in which Mogilevich's former spouse was the shareholder.[56] It was also suspected that Raiffeisen Bank, an Austrian-based bank, was a front to legitimize RosUkrEnergo.[56]

On 16 June 2009, Yulia Tymoshenko accused the other candidates in the 2010 Ukrainian presidential electionViktor Yushchenko, Arseniy Yatseniuk and Viktor Yanukovych – of sharing a single campaign headquarters financed by Firtash.[57][58] On 26 April 2011, Tymoshenko sued Firtash and RosUkrEnergo in a U.S. District Court in Manhattan, accusing them of manipulating an arbitration court ruling in Stockholm – the ruling had ordered Ukraine's state energy company, Naftogaz, to pay RosUkrEnergo 11 billion cubic meters of natural gas to compensate for fuel it had "expropriated" plus 1.1 billion cubic meters of gas as a penalty.[59]

Firtash and influential multi-time Minister Yuriy Boiko are alleged to be "close associates".[60][61][62]

Certain analysts and Ukrainian politicians believe that Firtash is a secret force behind the sentencing of Yulia Tymoshenko in 2011, either for revenge or to hinder Ukraine's European Union integration for personal financial gain.[63] Firtash was accused in a New York court of "masterminding" Tymoshenko's imprisonment; the case was dismissed in March 2013.[64]

In the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election, Firtash was perceived as being one of Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform's (UDAR) main sponsors.[65] This has been denied by UDAR.[66]

On 23 July 2013, brothers Ilya and Vadim Segal, the New York-based owners of Dancroft Holdings, brought charges in New York County Supreme Court against Firtash and Nadra Bank, then Ukraine's eighth-largest bank.[67] The suit accuses Firtash, the bank's owner, of seizing their assets via "sham lawsuits" over debt, and of using his connections with President Viktor Yanukovich to guarantee the outcomes in court cases.[64] The suit stated that the former head of the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU), Valeriy Khoroshkovskyi, is a business partner of Firtash, together with head of the presidential administration Serhiy Lyovochkin, and former Ukrainian energy minister, Deputy Prime Minister Yuriy Boiko. According to the complaint, the SBU, in bringing charges against the Segals, was acting on behalf of Firtash.[68]

Links between Firtash, Paul Manafort and President Trump’s administration continue to make headlines with reports that the extradition case will test US/Russia relations.[69]

In 2014, a special report by Reuters documented the Gazprom sold more than 20 billion cubic metres of gas at below market price enabling Firtash to make up to $3 billion during the deal. The report also notes the release of documents that prove Putin extended credit lines to Firtash of up to $11 billion which helped Firtash extend influence during the 2010 presidential election in Ukraine.[70]

U.S. extradition request[edit]

On 13 March 2014, Austrian authorities arrested Firtash. U.S. law enforcement authorities sought to have Firtash extradited after a judge in Virginia issued a warrant for his arrest on bribery and other charges.[71] A week later, Firtash was released on bail of 125 million (£105m, $172m), the largest in Austrian history. He said: "thankfully, I have the utmost confidence in the Austrian judicial system and will use all legal means to prove my innocence".[72] He said U.S. authorities were making allegations that were "completely absurd and unfounded".[72] In April, a U.S. grand jury in Chicago indicted Firash and five others under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act on charges that included bribery, racketeering, and money laundering. The charges centered on a $18.5 million bribe offered to government officials in India related to titanium mining licenses, with the minerals destined for sale to Chicago-based Boeing.[73][a]

Denial of U.S. extradition[edit]

The Vienna Regional Criminal Court rejected the U.S. request for the extradition of Firtash on 30 April 2015. Judge Christoph Bauer said one of the reasons was:

at least partially politically motivated accusations [made by U.S. justice ...] America obviously saw Firtash as somebody who was threatening their economic interests [but] There just wasn't sufficient proof [...] For me it is obvious: Firtash is a very influential person in politics, titanium and gas businesses. The gas is also a politics[75][76]

Bauer said that in the year since Firtash's arrest in Vienna, the U.S. authorities had not provided sufficient evidence that Firtash paid bribes in India, and in particular had not provided witness statements in support of its assertions.[77] During the proceedings, Bauer had said that he did not doubt the veracity of the Americans' witnesses so much as whether they existed at all. A New York Times reporter described the decision as a "scathing rebuke of the Justice and State Departments", reflecting the diminished credibility of the United States authorities in the eyes of a European ally.[78]

Attempted return to Ukraine[edit]

On 25 November 2015, German media reported that Firtash could return to Ukraine and participate in the FEU on 2 December.[citation needed] On 26 November, a spokesman for the Interior Ministry of Ukraine, Artem Shevchenko, said that the Interior Ministry had no criminal proceedings against Firtash, but there was a proceeding for the Ostchem group in which he was summoned as a witness.

On 28 November 2015, the head of the Ukrainian airspace administration instructed that airspace be closed to private aircraft, to prevent Firtash from returning.[citation needed] On 1 December, Firtash said that the Ukrainian government took unprecedented steps to disrupt his visit to Ukraine.[citation needed]

Court of Appeal ruling on U.S. extradition[edit]

On 21 February 2017, the High Regional Court of Vienna (Oberlandesgericht Wien) reviewed the appeal and ruled that it was allowed to extradite Firtash to the U.S. The final decision on the extradition was deferred to the Federal Minister of Justice of Austria.[75]

Judge Leo Levnaic-Iwanski noted that U.S. authorities had provided additional documentation since the lower court had ruled against them. Firtash faces up to 50 years in prison and the seizure of all his assets. Immediately following the verdict, Firtash was arrested on a Spanish arrest warrant related to charges of money laundering.[79][80]

Detention on Spanish and American orders[edit]

On 21 February 2017, a few minutes after the announcement of the High Court's decision, Austrian police detained Dmytro at the courthouse on the basis of an EU arrest warrant issued by Spain.[81] The Spanish warrant was issued as part of an investigation into money laundering. The prosecutor's office in Vienna detained Firtash for 48 hours to determine its course of action.

On 23 February, Firtash was released from custody on the €125 million bail deposited in 2014. However, that same day he was arrested and held in custody in connection with the U.S. extradition request.

On 24 February, Vienna Regional Court dismissed the Vienna prosecutor's application to impose provisional detention pending surrender regarding the U.S. extradition case. The question where Firtash was to be extradited – to Spain or the United States – is in the jurisdiction of the Minister of Justice of Austria, Wolfgang Brandstetter.[82]

In early September, 2017, Yevhen Yenin, Deputy Prosecutor General of Ukraine, noted that Firtash’s return to the Ukraine was “an unrealistic event”. Proceedings to hear extradition cases from the United States and Spain would be lengthy. Yenin also noted, “there is a political side to the case. If we consider the level of Firtash’s defense, it includes Austria’s former justice minister.”[83]

In September, anti-corruption groups including Human Rights Watch, proposed that Firtash be placed on the Magnitsky List and sanctioned by the United States government.[84][85]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The indictments were issued in June 2013 but sealed until April 2014.[74]

References[edit]

  1. ^ About Group DF
  2. ^ Caught between Russia and the US? The curious case of Ukraine's Dmytro Firtash, The Guardian (23 January 2016)
  3. ^ Site of the Federation of Employers of Ukraine. Fru.org.ua (21 March 2014). Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  4. ^ The National Tripartite Social and Economic Council. Ntser.gov.ua. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  5. ^ The Ministry of Education, Science, Youth and Sports of Ukraine
  6. ^ The Committee for Economic Reforms under the President of Ukraine. Kontrakty.ua. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  7. ^ Personal site of Dmitry Firtash. Dmitryfirtash.com (15 July 2011). Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  8. ^ Winter, Tom; Dilanian, Ken (18 August 2016). "Trump aide Paul Manafort's ties to Russia described as 'deeply disturbing'". NBC News. 
  9. ^ Janssen, Kim (1 August 2016). "Ukrainian oligarch with ties to Trump campaign fighting extradition to Chicago". Chicago Tribune. 
  10. ^ Ft. "Firtash acquires third chemical plant"
  11. ^ Interfax. "Group DF acquires 32.7% stake in Italian titanium alloy producer via its affiliated company". Interfax.com.ua (20 October 2012). Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  12. ^ Site of Group DF)
  13. ^ Ukrainian tycoon Firtash takes over bank Nadra, Reuters. 4 May 2011.
  14. ^ Worldfolio. "By making my company big and competitive, I make Ukraine big and competitive.". Worldfolio.co.uk. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  15. ^ Firtash elected head of Federation of Employers of Ukraine, Kyiv Post. Kyiv Post. 6 December 2010.
  16. ^ Khoroshkovsky sells Inter channel to Firtash (UPDATED), Kyiv Post (1 February 2013)
  17. ^ "Khoroshkovsky Creates New Media Giant in Ukraine". Kommersant. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2010.  (in English) (in Russian)
    Oligarchs strengthen grip over TV. Kyiv Post (19 August 2011)
    Tax administration to check on TV channels of Inter media group, Kyiv Post (4 January 2012)
  18. ^ "Married to the Ukrainian Mob". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  19. ^ Підприємства OSTCHEM нарощують виробництва. Ua.dmitryfirtash.com. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  20. ^ Ostchem не отказывается от инвестиционных планов на 2014 год. Rccnews.ru. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  21. ^ Рівнеазот нарощує виробництво вапняково-аміачної селітри. Ogo.ua. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  22. ^ Предприятия холдинга OSTCHEM продолжат работу и после окончания посевной. Rosinvest.com (14 April 2003). Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  23. ^ У Фірташа заявляють, що не зупинятимуть роботу черкаського "Азоту" та інших хімзаводів. Pro-vincia.com.ua. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  24. ^ "London's Brompton Road Tube station sold for £53m". BBC News. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014. 
  25. ^ Batty, David; McIntyre, Niamh; Pegg, David; Asthana, Anushka (1 August 2017). "Names of wealthy empty-home owners in Grenfell borough revealed". The Guardian. 
  26. ^ Interfax. "Federation of Employers of Ukraine proposes electing Firtash as head of federation's council". Interfax.com.ua (21 November 2011). Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ [2]
  29. ^ Voting results for parties (blocs). Online CEC. Archive for 27/06/2013 Source. Cited 19.03.2014., Menu: → Results of voting Results of voting in the multi (for parties) → 8. "Women for the Future" All-Ukrainian Political Union
  30. ^ In Vienna arrested a Ukrainian businessman Dmitry Firtash
  31. ^ "Profile: Ukrainian oligarch Dmytro Firtash". BBC News. 30 April 2014. 
  32. ^ [3]
  33. ^ "Я опинився в епіцентрі протистояння США і Росії", – Фірташ. Molbuk.ua. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  34. ^ "Profile: Oligarch Dmytro Firtash". BBC News. 2014-04-30. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  35. ^ Galpin, Richard (2014-05-01). "Dmytro Firtash breaks silence to protest his innocence". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  36. ^ A new leadership of the Federation of Employers of Ukraine elected
  37. ^ Дмитрий Фирташ: Украинское общество должно объединиться. Facenews.ua. 24 March 2014.
  38. ^ Фирташ обещает денег украинской армии и предлагает всем объединиться. ru.tsn.ua. 24 March 2014 (in Russian)
  39. ^ "Корпоративный портал ПАО "Азот"". www.azot.cherkassy.net. Retrieved 2017-07-27. 
  40. ^ Korrespondent.net. Top-ukraine.com (20 December 2011). Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  41. ^ Kholin, Yuriy. CHEMISTRY OLYMPIADS IN UKRAINE. www-chemo.univer.kharkov.ua
  42. ^ Kyivpost. "Nation suffers from lack of research, innovation". Kyivpost.com (27 August 2011). Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  43. ^ "Government Must Turn Its face to Ukrainian Theaters, Says Dmitry Firtash". Dmitryfirtash.com. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  44. ^ Confeu. "Dmitry Firtash will continue to allocate funds to support the Theater, Philharmonic Hall and Museum in Chernivtsi". Confeu.org (8 February 2012). Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  45. ^ Day. "Mark WILLIAMS: First of all you should sing with your heart". Day.kiev.ua (15 December 2011). Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  46. ^ Oleshko, Olesia (24 September 2010) Firtash donates $6.7 million to Cambridge Ukrainian studies. Kyivpost.com. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  47. ^ "Cambridgetrusts". "Cambridgetrusts". Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  48. ^ The Guild of Cambridge Benefactors. Trinhall.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  49. ^ "University accepted over £6 million from wanted Ukrainian oligarch". Varsity Online. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  50. ^ UCEF. "Ukrainian Catholic University Accepts Pledge for New Campus". Ucef.org (27 May 2011). Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  51. ^ (in Ukrainian) 24tv. "Dmitry Firtash Receives Order from Patriarch Kirill for Support in Holy Trinity Cathedral Construction". 24tv.ua. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  52. ^ Sponsorship of the 2nd Poetry Festival Meridian Czernowitz. Dmitryfirtash.com. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  53. ^ Firtash denies Mogilevich ties; won’t discuss cable, Kyiv Post (3 December 2010)
  54. ^ a b c "WikiLeaks Reveals Sensitive U.S. Talks. – Firtash, Mogilevich Ties". Kyiv Post. 3 December 2010
  55. ^ Korduban, Pavel (9 December 2010). WikiLeaks Confirms Role Played by Firtash in Ukrainian Politics. Georgian Daily. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  56. ^ a b Rachkevych, Mark (3 December 2010). "U.S. Official: Austrian Bank's Ties to RosUkrEnergo Suspicious". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  57. ^ "Tymoshenko: Yushchenko, Yatseniuk, and Yanukovych have one headquarters for three". UNIAN. 16 June 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  58. ^ Yuschenko and Yatseniuk are 'technical candidates' for Yanukovych, says Tymoshenko. Interfax-Ukraine. 16 June 2009
  59. ^ "Ukrainian ex-PM sues gas company, businessman in US court". Reuters. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  60. ^ Russian Patriarch prays for Yanukovych, honors Firtash and Boyko (updated), Kyiv Post. 2 October 2011
  61. ^ Mercedes Balmaceda, Margarita (2008). Energy Dependency, Politics and Corruption in the Former Soviet Union: Russia's Power, Oligarchs' Profits and Ukraine's Missing Energy Policy, 1995–2006. Routledge. pp. 124ff. ISBN 978-0-415-43779-0. 
  62. ^ "The Underbelly of Ukrainian Gas Dealings". Der Spiegel. 30 December 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  63. ^ EU Hopes Fade As Gas Lobby Triumphs, Kyiv Post (16 December 2011)
  64. ^ a b "Ukrainian Tycoon Firtash Sued in NYC". Sputnik News. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  65. ^ After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
  66. ^ Klitschko: UDAR's election campaign to cost Hr 90 million, Kyiv Post (15 September 2012)
  67. ^ New York businessmen sue Dmitry Firtash and Nadra Bank. Ukrainebusiness.com.ua. Retrieved on 30 May 2014.
  68. ^ Ukraine billionaire accused of fraud and coercion in US lawsuit | Business New Europe. Bne.eu. 31 July 2013.
  69. ^ "Will Trump Rescue the Oligarch in the Gilded Cage?". Bloomberg.com. 2017-02-16. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  70. ^ "SPECIAL REPORT-Putin's allies channelled billions to Ukraine oligarch". Reuters. 2014-11-26. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  71. ^ Herszenhorn, David (13 March 2014). "At Request of U.S., Austria Arrests Ukrainian Businessman". New York Times. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  72. ^ a b "Ukrainian Oligarch Dmytro Firtash: I'm Caught in the Middle of Russia and US Battleground". International Business Times. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  73. ^ Meisner, Jason (2 April 2014). "Billionaire Ukrainian industrialist indicted in Chicago on bribery charges". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  74. ^ "Six Defendants Indicted in Alleged Conspiracy to Bribe Government Officials in India to Mine Titanium Minerals" (Press release). Department of Justice Office of Public Affairs. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  75. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference DW was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  76. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (30 April 2015). "Judge Rebuffs U.S. in Rejecting Extradition of Ukraine Billionaire". New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  77. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (30 April 2015). "Judge Rebuffs U.S. in Rejecting Extradition of Ukraine Billionaire". New York Times. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  78. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (30 April 2015). "Judge Rebuffs U.S. in Rejecting Extradition of Ukraine Billionaire". New York Times. 
  79. ^ "Austrian Court Backs Extradition of Ukraine Businessman Firtash to U.S". New York Times. Reuters. 22 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017. 
  80. ^ "Austrian appeals court grants US request to extradite Firtash". KyivPost. 21 February 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2017. 
  81. ^ Walker, Shaun (2017-02-21). "Ukrainian businessman Dmytro Firtash arrested after extradition ruling". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  82. ^ "Ukraine oligarch faces extradition to US". BBC News. 2017-02-21. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  83. ^ "General Prosecutor's Office says Firtash's imminent return to Ukraine unlikely - Sep. 04, 2017". KyivPost. 2017-09-04. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  84. ^ "Rights, anti-corruption groups propose placing Firtash on Magnitsky List - Sep. 15, 2017". KyivPost. 2017-09-15. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
  85. ^ "Rights groups target police, spy chiefs globally under new U.S. law". Reuters. 2017-09-13. Retrieved 2017-11-02. 
Additional sources

External links[edit]