Dniester Pumped Storage Power Station
|Dniester Pumped Storage Power Station|
Location of Dniester Pumped Storage Power Station in Ukraine
|Pumped-storage power station|
|Upper reservoir||Dniester Upper|
|Upper res. capacity||38,800,000 m3 (31,456 acre·ft)|
|Lower reservoir||Dniester HPP-I Dam|
|Lower res. capacity||70,000,000 m3 (56,750 acre·ft)|
|Hydraulic head||38.7 m (127 ft)|
|Generating units||7 x 324 MW reversible Francis turbines|
|Nameplate capacity||648 MW|
The Dniester Pumped Storage Power Station is a pumped storage hydroelectric scheme that uses the Dniester River 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) northeast of Sokyriany in Chernivtsi Oblast, Ukraine. Currently, two of the seven 324 megawatts (434,000 hp) generators are operational and when complete in 2017, the power station will have an installed capacity of 2,268 megawatts (3,041,000 hp).
As part of the Dniester Hydro Power Complex, the pumped storage power station (PSP) was planned in the 1970s along with two dams (Dniester I & II) and a nuclear power plant. In 1983, Dniester II, a dam which creates the PSP's lower reservoir, was completed. The PSP was approved by 1988 and construction began that same year. Three years later in 1991 though, construction was suspended due to a funding fallout from the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The project was re-approved in 1993 and construction commenced again in 2001. Project costs increased due to the poor state of the existing facilities which were not maintained while the project was suspended. On December 22, 2009, the PSP's first generator was commissioned. The second generator was commissioned in December 2013 and third generators is expected to be operational in 2015.
Ukraine's problems funding the project have been compounded by controversy surrounding the project's transparency and impacts on the environment and water flow to Moldova downstream. Ukraine had sought funding from the World Bank who, in 2007, only funded US$29.6 million towards the PSP's electrical transmission system. Industry experts believe Ukraine will be able to complete the project independently. The power station is expected to be fully operational in 2017.
Design and operation
The power station begins operation by using reversible turbines to pump water, during low energy demand periods, from the lower reservoir which is created by the Dniester HPP-II Dam, located 7.5 kilometres (5 mi) to the southeast near the border with Moldova at liver"-shaped embankment dam. The upper reservoir has a 38,800,000 m3 (31,456 acre·ft) storage capacity. During periods of high energy demand, water is released from the upper reservoir back to the power station for generation. This process is routinely repeated and helps balance loads. The difference in the two reservoirs affords a hydraulic head of 38.7 m (127 ft).. The lower reservoir has a storage capacity of 70,000,000 m3 (56,750 acre·ft). Water pumped from this reservoir is placed in the upper reservoir which is formed by a 360° "
While only two are currently operational, the power station will contain seven 324 MW reversible Francis turbine generators. Its installed capacity will be 2,268 MW when generating and during pumping, the power station will consume a maximum of 2,947 MW. Regulating flows into the lower reservoir is the Dniester HPP-I Dam which is located upstream, 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) north of the power plant at . HPP-I has its own power plant with an installed capacity of 702 MW and a storage capacity of 3,000,000,000 m3 (2,432,140 acre·ft). HPP-II has an installed capacity of 40.8 MW.
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