Dnipropetrovsk

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the city. For the football club, see FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk. For other uses, see Dnipropetrovsk (disambiguation).
Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетровськ)
Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетровск)
City of regional significance
Dnipropetrovs Collage.jpg
Transfiguration Cathedral, central Dnipropetrovsk skyline, Merefa-Kherson bridge, Monastyrsky Island and Dnieper river
Flag of Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетровськ)Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетровск)
Flag
Coat of arms of Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетровськ)Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетровск)
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Dnipro
Location in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
Location in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетровськ)Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетровск) is located in Ukraine
Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетровськ)Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетровск)
Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетровськ)
Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетровск)
Location of Dnipropetrovsk in Ukraine
Coordinates: 48°27′N 34°59′E / 48.450°N 34.983°E / 48.450; 34.983Coordinates: 48°27′N 34°59′E / 48.450°N 34.983°E / 48.450; 34.983
Country  Ukraine
Oblast  Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
City Municipality

Флаг Днепропетровска 2.png Dnipropetrovsk


Historic Governorate Yekaterinoslav
Founded 1776 (239 years ago)
City Status 1778
Administrative HQ Dnipropetrovsk City Hall,
75 Karl Marks Ave.
Raions
Government
 • Type City council, regional
 • Governing body Dnipropetrovsk City Council
 • Mayor Halina Bulavka
 • MPs: Yakov Bezbakh
Maksim Kuryachy (PPB)
Andriy Denisenko (PPB)
Borys Filatov
Ivan Kulichenko (PPB)
Area
 • City of regional significance 405 km2 (156 sq mi)
Elevation 155 m (509 ft)
Population (2015)
 • City of regional significance Decrease 979,046
 • Rank 4th, UA
 • Density 2,452/km2 (6,350/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,460,000
Demonym Dnipropetrovetsʹ, Dnipropetrovchanka, Dnipropetrovtsi
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 49000
Area code(s) +380 56(2)
GDP 207.9 million [1]
Website dniprorada.gov.ua

Dnipropetrovsk (Ukrainian: Дніпропетро́вськ [ˌdnʲiprɔpɛˈtrɔwsʲk]) or Dnepropetrovsk (Russian: Днепропетро́вск [dʲnʲɪprəpʲɪˈtrofsk]), originally Ekaterinoslav (Russian: Екатериносла́в [jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnɐˈslaf], Ukrainian: Катериносла́в, translit. Katerynoslav) is Ukraine's fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants.[2][3][4][5] It is 242 miles (390 km) southeast of the capital Kiev on the Dnieper River, in the south-central part of Ukraine. Dnipropetrovsk is the administrative centre of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance, the centre of Dnipropetrovsk municipality and extraterritorial administrative centre of Dnipropetrovsk Raion. Population: 997,754 (2013 est.)[6].

The Russian city of Ekaterinoslav, known by this name until 1925, was formally inaugurated by the Russian Empress Catherine the Great in 1787 as the administrative centre of the newly acquired vast territories of New Russia, including those ceded to Russia by the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774). The city was originally envisioned as the Russian Empire's 3rd capital city,[7] after Moscow and Saint Petersburg. A vital industrial centre of Soviet Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk was one of the key centres of the nuclear, arms, and space industries of the Soviet Union. In particular, it is home to the Yuzhmash, a major space and ballistic missile design bureau and manufacturer. Because of its military industry, Dnipropetrovsk was a closed city[8] until the 1990s. It is named in honor of Grigory Petrovsky.

Dnipropetrovsk is a powerhouse of Ukraine's business and politics as the native city for many of the country's most important figures. Ukraine's politics is still defined by the legacy of Leonid Kuchma, Pavlo Lazarenko and Yuliya Tymoshenko whose intermingled careers started in Dnipropetrovsk.

History[edit]

Toponymy[edit]

Over time, Dnipropetrovsk has been known by a number of names:

  • Ekaterinoslav 1776–1782, reestablished 1783–1797
  • Novorossiysk 1797–1802
  • Ekaterinoslav 1802–1918
  • Katerynoslav / Yekaterinoslav 1918–1926
  • Dnipropetrovsk / Dnepropetrovsk 1926–1992
  • Dnipropetrovsk 1992–present

It is also referred to as Katerynoslav, also Catharinoslav on maps of the nineteenth century.[9]

In some Anglophone media the city was also known as the Rocket City.[10]

In 1918, the Central Council of Ukraine proposed to change the name of the city to Sicheslav; however, it was never officially fulfilled.[11]

On 15 May 2015 President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko signed a bill banning communist propaganda; the new law means that that places and street names associated with Communism have to be renamed within a six months period that started on 15 May 2015.[12] Since Dnipropetrovsk was renamed after Communist leader Grigory Petrovsky (in 1926) the city will be renamed.[12][13] Mid-April 2015 a commission was already being set up to choose a new name.[12]

Middle Ages[edit]

Kipchak statues near the Historical Museum, Karla Marksa Prospekt

A monastery[clarification needed] was founded by Byzantine monks on Monastyrsky Island, probably in the 9th century (870 AD). The Tatars destroyed the monastery in 1240.[14]

At the beginning of the 15th century, Tatar tribes inhabiting the right bank of the Dnieper were driven away by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Unfortunately, by the mid-15th century, the Nogai (who lived north of the Sea of Azov) and the Crimean Khanate invaded these lands.[citation needed] The Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate agreed to a border along the Dnieper, and farther east along the Samara River (Dnieper), i.e. through what is today the city of Dnipropetrovsk. It was in this time that there appeared a new force – the free people – Cossacks. They later became known as Zaporozhian Cossacks (Zaporizhia – the lands south of Prydniprovye, translate as "The Land Beyond the Weirs [Rapids]"). This was a period of raids and fighting causing considerable devastation and depopulation in that area; the area became known as the 'Wilderness' (Russian Дикое поле) (Ukrainian Дике Поле).

Early modern[edit]

Map of Kodak fortress, which was constructed in 1635.

The first fortified town in what is now Dnipropetrovsk was probably built in the mid-16th century,[15] In 1635, the Polish Government built the Kodak fortress above the Dnieper Rapids at Kodaky (on the south-eastern outskirts of modern Dnipropetrovsk), partly as a result of rivalry in the region of Poland, Turkey and Crimean Khanate,[15] and partly to maintain control over Cossack activity (i.e. to suppress the Cossack raiders and to prevent peasants moving out of the area).[16] On the night of 3/4 August 1635, the Cossacks of Ivan Sulyma captured the fort by surprise, burning it down and butchering the garrison of about 200 West European mercenaries under Jean Marion.[16] The fort was rebuilt by French engineer Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan[17] for the Polish Government in 1638, and had a mercenary garrison.[16] Kodak was captured by Zaporozhian Cossacks on 1 October 1648, and was garrisoned by the Cossacks until its demolition in accordance with the Treaty of the Pruth in 1711.[18] The ruins of the Kodak are visible now. There is currently a project to restore it and create a tourist centre and park-museum.[18]

Under the Treaty of Pereyaslav of 1654, the territory became part of the Russian Empire. For practical purposes, the Prydniprovye lands remained a self-governing border area until the destruction of the Zaporizhian Sich in 1775.

The Zaporozhian village of Polovytsia was founded in the late-1760s, between the settlements of Stari (Old) and Novi (New) Kodaky. It was located at the present centre of the city to the West to district of Central Terminal and the Ozyorka farmers market.[19]

The city establishment[edit]

Map of Ekaterinoslav, 1885.[20]
Catherine the Great monument in Ekaterinoslav (1840-1920)
Main Post Office, 1870
Yekaterinoslav Avenue, 1910

Dnipropetrovsk was originally known as Ekaterinoslav, which could be approximately rendered as "the glory of Catherine", presumably with reference to Catherine the Great (technically, the naming might have been in honour of Saint Catherine of Alexandria[21][22]). It was founded in 1776 as the administrative centre of Russia's newly re-established Azov Governorate, which in 1783 was merged into a much bigger Ekaterinoslav Viceroyalty; later, from 1796 to 1802, as Novorossiysk, it was the centre of the recreated Novorossiya Governorate, and subsequently, till 1925, of the Ekaterinoslav Governorate.

Cossacks and the Russian army had fought against the Ottoman Empire for control of this area in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca ended this war in July 1774; and in May 1775 the Russian army destroyed the Zaporozhian Sich, thus eliminating the political autonomy of Cossacks. In 1775, Prince Grigori Potemkin was appointed governor of Novorossiya, and after the destruction of the Zaporozhian Sich, he started founding cities in the region and encouraging foreign settlers. The original town of Yekaterinoslav was founded in 1776, not in the current location, but at the confluence of the River Samara with the River Kil'chen' at Loshakivka, north of the Dnieper. By 1782, the city population was 2,194. However the site had been badly chosen because spring waters were transforming the city into a bog.[19] The settlement was later renamed Novomoskovsk.[23] In 1783, Yekaterinoslav was refounded on its current site, on the south bank of the Dnieper, near the Zaporozhian village of Polovytsia. The population of Yekaterinoslav-Kil'chen' were (according to some sources) transferred to the new site. Potemkin's plans for the city were extremely ambitious. It was to be about 30 by 25 km (19 by 16 mi) in size, and included[19] Transfiguration Cathedral (the claim that it was intended as the largest in the world probably results from confusing Potemkin's reference to San Paulo-fuori-le-mura in Rome with St Peter's Basilica.[23]); The Potemkin palace; university (never built); botanical garden on Monastyrskyi Island and wide straight avenues through the city.

The cathedral's foundation stone was laid by Empress Catherine II and Austrian Emperor Joseph II, during Catherine's Crimean journey[24] on 20 May [O.S. 9 May] 1787, which was heralded as the official date of founding the city. Nevertheless, the cathedral as originally designed was never to be built. The site for the Potemkin palace was bought from retired Cossack yesaul (colonel) Lazar' Globa, who owned much of the land near the city. Part of Lazar' Globa's gardens still exist and are now called Globa Park.[19]

A combination of yet another Russo-Turkish war that broke out later in 1787, bureaucratic procrastination, defective workmanship, and theft resulted in what was built being less than originally planned. Construction stopped after the death of Potemkin and his sponsor, Empress Catherine, who was succeeded by her son Paul I known for his open antipathy to his mother's policies and undertakings. Plans were reconsidered and scaled back. The size of the cathedral was reduced, and it was completed in 1835.

Despite the bridging of the Dnieper in 1796 and the growth of trade in the early 19th century, Ekaterinoslav remained small until the 1880s, when the railway was built and industrialization of the city began.[25] The boom was caused by two men: John Hughes, a Welsh businessman who built an iron works at what is now Donetsk (then Yuzovka) in 1869–72, and developed the Donetsk coal deposits;[19] and the Russian geologist Alexander Pol, who discovered the Krivoy Rog iron ore in 1866, during archaeological research.[19]

The Donetsk coal was necessary for smelting pig-iron from the Krivoy Rog ore, producing a need for a railway to connect Yozovka with Krivoy Rog. Permission to build the railway was given in 1881, and it opened in 1884. The railway crossed the Dnieper at Ekaterinoslav. The city grew quickly; new suburbs appeared: Amur, Nyzhnodniprovsk and the factory areas developed. In 1897, Ekaterinoslav became the third city in the Russian Empire to have electric trams. The Higher Mining School opened in 1899, and by 1913 it had grown into the Mining Institute.[19]

Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, among other things, resulted in widespread revolts against the government in many places of Russia, Ekaterinoslav being one of the major hot spots.[26] Dozens of people were killed and hundreds wounded. There was a wave of anti-Semitic attacks.[19]

From 1902 to 1933, the historian of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, Dmytro Yavornytsky, was Director of the Dnipropetrovsk Museum, which was later named after him. Before his death in 1940, Yavornytsky wrote a History of the City of Ekaterinoslav, which lay in manuscript for many years. It was only published in 1989 as a result of the Gorbachev reforms.

The Grand Hotel Ukraine, on the corner of Korolenko Street and Karla Marksa Prospekt. Peter Fetisov, the architect, built the hotel as an apartment building for Vladimir Hrennikov in 1910–14. The building burned down in 1943 and was rebuilt in 1943 by Vladimir Zuyev.[27]

Civil War[edit]

After the Russian February revolution in 1917, Ekaterinoslav became a city within autonomy of Ukrainian People's Republic under Tsentralna Rada government. In November 1917, the Bolsheviks led a rebellion and took power for a short time. The city experienced occupation by German and Austrian-Hungarian armies that were allies of Ukrainian Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi and helped him to keep authority in the country.

In the time of the Ukrainian Directorate government, with its dictator Symon Petlura, the city had periods of uncertain power. At times the anarchists of Nestor Makhno held the city, and at others Denikin's Volunteer Army. Military operations of the Red Army, which came in from the North, captured the city in 1919, and despite attempts by Russian General Wrangel in 1920, he was unable to reach Yekaterinoslav. The War ended the following year.

Soviet Union and Nazi rule[edit]

The city was renamed after the Communist leader of Ukraine Grigory Petrovsky

The city was renamed after the Communist leader of Ukraine Grigory Petrovsky in 1926.[13][28] Petrovsky was later involved in the organization of Holodomor.[13]

Dnipropetrovsk was under Nazi occupation from 17 August 1941[29] to 25 October 1943.[30]

Closed city[edit]

As early as July 1944, the State Committee of Defense in Moscow decided to build a large military machine-building factory in Dnipropetrovsk on the location of the pre-war aircraft plant. In December 1945, thousands of German prisoners of war began construction and built the first sections and shops in the new factory. This was the foundation of the Dnipropetrovsk Automobile Factory.[citation needed]

The city's 'Gorky' Theatre of Russian Drama was constructed during the Stalinist period.

Joseph Stalin suggested special secret training for highly qualified engineers and scientists to become rocket construction specialists.[citation needed]

In 1954 the administration of this automobile factory opened a secret design office with the name "Southern" (konstruktorskoe biuro Yuzhnoe – in Russian) to construct military missiles and rocket engines. Hundreds of talented physicists, engineers and machine designers moved from Moscow and other large cities in the Soviet Union to Dnipropetrovsk to join this "Southern" design office. In 1965, the secret Plant #586 was transferred to the Ministry of General Machine-Building of the USSR. The next year this plant officially changed its name into "the Southern Machine-building Factory" (Yuzhnyi mashino-stroitel’nyi zavod) or in abbreviated Russian, simply Yuzhmash.[citation needed]

The first "General Constructor" and head of the "Southern" design office was Mikhail Yangel, a prominent scientist and outstanding designer of space rockets, who managed not only the design office, but the entire factory from 1954 to 1971. Yangel designed the first powerful rockets and space military equipment for the Soviet Ministry of Defense.[citation needed]

In 1951 the Southern Machine-building Factory began manufacturing and testing new military rockets for the battlefield. The range of these first missiles was only 270 kilometres (168 miles). By 1959 Soviet scientists and engineers developed new technology, and as a result, the "Southern" design office (KBYu – as abbreviated in Russian) started a new machine-building project making ballistic missiles.[citation needed] Under the leadership of Yangel, KBYu produced such powerful rocket engines that the range of these ballistic missiles was practically without limits. During the 1960s, these powerful rocket engines were used as launch vehicles for the first Soviet space ships. During Makarov’s directorship, Yuzhmash designed and manufactured four generations of missile complexes of different types. These included space launch vehicles Kosmos, Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3 and Zenit. Under the leadership of Yangel’s successor, V. Utkin, the KBYu created a unique space-rocket system called Energia-Buran. Yuzhmash engineers manufactured 400 technical devices that were launched in artificial satellites (Sputniks). For the first time in the world space industry, the Dnipropetrovsk missile plant organised the serial production of space Sputniks. By the 1980s, this plant manufactured 67 different types of space ships, 12 space research complexes and 4 defense space rocket systems.[citation needed]

These systems were used not only for purely military purposes by the Ministry of Defense, but also for astronomic research, for global radio and television network and for ecological monitoring. Yuzhmash initiated and sponsored the international space program of socialist countries, called Interkosmos.[citation needed]

The unfinished 'Parus' hotel on the embankment has become a symbol of poor economic planning in the Soviet era.

On the eve of the collapse of the Soviet Union, KBYu had 9 regular and corresponding members of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, 33 full professors and 290 scientists holding a Ph.D. They awarded scientific degrees and presided over a prestigious graduate school at KBYu, which attracted talented students of physics from all over the USSR. More than 50,000 people worked at Yuzhmash. At the end of the 1950s, Yuzhmash became the main Soviet design and manufacturing centre for different types of missile complexes. The Soviet Ministry of Defense included Yuzhmash in its strategic plans. The military rocket systems manufactured in Dnipropetrovsk became the major component of the newly born Soviet Missile Forces of Strategic Purpose.[citation needed]

According to contemporaries, Yuzhmash was a separate entity inside the Soviet state. After a long period of competition with the Moscow centre of rocket construction of V. Chelomei (a successor of Koroliov) Yuzhmash rocket designs won in 1969. Since that time leaders of the Soviet military industrial complex preferred Yuzhmash rocket models. By the end of the 1970s, this plant became the major centre for designing, constructing, manufacturing, testing and deploying strategic and space missile complexes in the Soviet Union. The general designer and director of Yuzhmash supervised the work of numerous research institutes, design centres and factories all over the Soviet Union from Moscow, Leningrad and Kiev, to Voronezh and Yerevan. The Soviet state provided billions of Soviet rubles to finance Yuzhmash projects.

Officially, Yuzhmash manufactured agricultural tractors and special kitchen equipment for everyday needs, such as mincing-machines or juicers for peaceful Soviet households. In official reports for the general audience there was no information about the production of rockets or spaceships. However, hundreds of thousands of workers and engineers in the city of Dnipropetrovsk worked in this plant and members of their families (up to 60% of the city population!) knew about the "real production" of Yuzhmash. This missile plant became a significant factor in the arms race of the Cold War. This is why the Soviet government approved of the KGB’s secrecy about Yuzhmash and its products. According to the Soviet government’s decision, the city of Dnipropetrovsk was officially closed to foreign visitors in 1959. No citizen of a foreign country (even of the socialist ones) was allowed to visit the city or district of Dnipropetrovsk. After the late 1950s ordinary Soviet people called Dnipropetrovsk "the rocket closed city." Only during perestroika was Dnipropetrovsk opened to foreigners again in 1987.

Contemporary[edit]

In June 1990,[31] the women’s department of Dnipropetrovsk preliminary prison was destroyed in prison riots. In the ten years that followed, women under investigation (i.e. not convicted) in Dnipropetrovsk oblast were either held in Preliminary Prison 4 in Kryvyi Rih or in "detention blocks" in Dnipropetrovsk; this contravened Ukrainian Law "On preliminary incarceration". Journeys from Kryviy Rih took up to six hours in special railway carriages with grated windows. Some prisoners had to do this 14 or 15 times. After complaints by the ombudsman (Nina Karpacheva) the head of the State prison department of Ukraine (Vladimir Levochkin) arranged that finances were given for the provision of women's cells in Dnipropetrovsk Preliminary Prison, making the lives of the 15,000 unconvicted women-detainees easier from August 2000.[32]

In 2005, the most powerful representative of the "Dnipropetrovsk Faction" in Ukrainian politics was Leonid Kuchma, the former President of Ukraine and former senior manager of Yuzhmash.

In June and July 2007, Dnipropetrovsk experienced a wave of serial killings that were dubbed by the media as the work of the Dnipropetrovsk maniacs. In February 2009, three youths were sentenced for their part in 21 murders.[33]

On 27 April 2012, four bombs exploded near four tram stations in Dnipropetrovsk, injuring 26 people.

During the 2014 Euromaidan regional state administration occupations protests against President Viktor Yanukovych were also held in Dnipropetrovsk.[34] On 26 January an 3,000 anti-Yanukovych activists attempt to capture the local regional state administration building failed.[35][36][37][38][39] This was mirrored by instances of rioting[40] and the beating up of anti-Yanukovych protesters.[41][42] Dnipropetrovsk Governor Kolesnikov called the anti-Yanukovych protesters 'extreme radical thugs from other regions'.[43] Two days later about 2,000 public sector employees called an indefinite rally in support of the Yanukovych government.[44] Meanwhile, the government building was reinforced with barbed wire.[44][45][46] On 19 February 2014 there was an anti-Yanukovych picket near the Regional State Administration.[47] On 22 February 2014 after another anti-Yanukovych picket near the Regional State Administration Dnipropetrovsk Mayor Ivan Kulichenko left Yanukovych's Party of Regions "for peace in the city".[48] Simultaneously the Dnipropetrovsk City Council vowed to supports "the preservation of Ukraine as a single and indivisible state", although some members called for separatism and for federalization of Ukraine.[48] The City Council also decided to rename city's Lenin Square into "Heroes of Independence Square".[48] In the Regional State Administration building protesters dismantled Viktor Yanukovych portrait.[48] 22 February 2014 was also the day that Yanukovych was ousted out of office, after violent events in Kiev.[49]

According to media reports, Dnipropetrovsk was relatively quiet during the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, with pro-Russian Federation protestors outnumbered by those opposing outside intervention.[50][51] In March 2014 the city's Lenin Square was renamed "Heroes of Independence Square" in honor of the people killed during Euromaidan.[51][52] The statue of Lenin on the square was removed.[51][53] In June 2014 another Lenin monument was removed and replaced by a monument to the Ukrainian military fighting the War in Donbass [54][55]

Government[edit]

The City of Dnipropetrovsk is governed by the Dnipropetrovsk City Council. It is a city municipality that is designated as a separate district within its oblast.

Administratively, the city is divided into "raions" ("districts"). Presently, there are 8 of them. Aviatorske, urban-type settlement also a part of Dnipropetrovsk Municipality. The City Council Assambly makes up the administration's legislative branch, thus effectively making it a city 'parliament' or rada. The municipal council is made up of 12 elected members, who are each elected to represent a certain district of the city for a four-year term. The current council was elected in 2010. The council has 29 standing commissions which play an important role in controlling of the city and its merchants.

Dnipropetrovsk has five single-mandate parliamentary constituencies entirely within the city, through which members of parliament (MPs) are elected to represent the city in Rada. At the last general election, were won by PPB and independent candidates with. In multimember districts city voted for Opposition Bloc, union of all political forces that did not endorse Euromaidan.

In the last decades city has generally supported candidates belonging to the Party of Regions and (in the 1990s) Communist Party of Ukraine in national and local elections. Same situation was with presidential elections, strong support had Leonid Kuchma and Viktor Yanukovych. After 2014 events of Euromaidan, mass demonstrations and clashes in central city, Regions lost its influence, and Dnipropetrovsk supported Petro Poroshenko.

Dnipropetrovsk is also the seat of the oblast local administration controlled by the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast Rada. The governor of the oblast is the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast Rada speaker, appointed by the President of Ukraine.

Subdivisions[edit]

Area map
Dnipropetrovsk City Hall
Building of Dnipropetrovsk Regional Administration
Central post office of Dnipropetrovsk
Karl Marx Avenue
Prydniprovsk Power Plant
Code Name of raion Year of creation Area (hectares) Populations in 2006, (thous.) Most important streets and areas
1 Amur-Nyzhnodniprovskyi 1918/1926 7,162.6 154.4 Streets: Vulytsia Peredova, Vorontsova Propspekt, Prospekt 'Gazeta Pravdy', Vulytsia Kalynova, Vulytsia Vidcuznyana, Vulytsia Yantarna, Donetske Shosse
Areas: Amur, Nizhnedniprovsk, Kirillovka, Borzhom, Sultanovka, Sakhalin, Berezanovka, Sonyachnyi Estate, Frunzensky Estate, Livoberezhnyi Estates 1 and 2.
2 Babushkinskyi 1973 3,145.2 152.0 Streets: Vulytsia Geroiv Stalingrada, Vulytsia Karl Liebknecht/Artema, Karla Marksa Prospekt, Vulytsia Chkalova, Zaporizhske Shosse, Vulytsia Krotova
Areas: Tsentr, Slobodka, Razvlika-Podstantsiya, 12th Kvartal, Topol Estate 1,2 and 3, Mirnyi, Danila Nechaya.
3 Zhovtnevyi 1935 4,409.3 169.5 Streets: Prospekt Gagarina, Karla Marksa Prospekt, Naberezhna Lenina/Peremogy, Vulytsia Dzerzhinskogo, Vulytsia Gogolya, Vulytsia Chesnyshevskogo, Vulytsia Kosmichna, Vulytsia Yasnopolyanska
Areas: Tsentr, Narodny (Lagerny), Podstantsiya, Sokol Estate 1 and 2, Peremoga Estate 1–6, Mandrykivka, Lotskamenka, Tonnelnaya Balka, Monastyrskyi Ostriv, Kosa.
4 Industrialnyi 1969 3,267.9 132.7 Streets: Prospekt 'Gazeta Pravdy', Vulytsia Kosirova, Vulytsia Osinnya, Vulytsia Baykalska, Vulytsia Vinokurova
Areas: Klochko, Samarovka (Yozhefstal), Oleksandrivka, Livoberezhnyi Estate 1–3; Nizhnedniprovksyi Pipe Production Plant.
5 Kirovskyi 1932 1,040.3 67.2 Streets: Prospekt Kirova, Prospekt Karla Marksa, Prospekt Pushkina, Vulytsia Leningradska, Vulytsia Voitsekhovycha, Vulytsia Korolenko, Vulytsia Geroiv Stalingrada, Ostrovskogo Square
Areas: Bus Station, River Station and port.
6 Krasnohvardiiskyi 1933 3,589.7 120.6 Vulytsia Rabitnycha, Prospekt Kalinina, Prospekt Pushkina, Vulytsia Kirovozhska, Vulytsia Makorova, Vulytsia Titova, Vulytsia Beduvelnukiv, Vulytsia Geroiv Stalingrada
Areas: Chechelovka, Aptekarska Balka/Shlyakhova, 12th Kvartal, Krasnopole, Southern Machine-building Plant.
7 Leninskyi 1920 10,928 157.4 Streets: Vulytsia Naberezhna Zavodska, Prospekt Kalinina, Prospekt Petrovskogo, Prospekt Metallurgov, Vulytsia Kyivska, Vulytsia Kommunarovska, Prospekt Svobody, Vulytsia Brativ Trofimovykh, Vulytsia Mostova, Vulytsia Mayakovskogo, Vulytsia Budennogo
Areas: Toromske, Dievka, Sukhachevka, Yasny, Novi Kaydaki, Sukhii Ostriv, Chervonij Kamin Estate, Kommunar Estate, Parus Estate 1 and 2, Zakhidnyi Estate, Petrovsky Factory and other metallurgical plants.
8 Samarskyi 1977 6,683.4 77.9 Streets: Vulytsia Marshala Malinovskogo, Vulytsia Molodogvardiiska, Vulytsia Semaforna, Vulytsia Tomska, Vulytsia Kosmonavta Volkova, Vulytsia 20 rokiv Peremogy, Vulytsia Gavanska
Areas: Chapli, Pridniprovsk, Igren, Rybalske (Fischersdorf), Odinkovka, Shevchenko, Pivnichnyi Estate, Nizhniodniprovsk-Vuzol.

Geography[edit]

An aerial view of Dnipropetrovsk. The Dnieper River, city's left and right banks, and a number of bridges can be seen.

The city is built mainly upon both banks of the Dnieper, at its confluence with the Samara River. In the loop of a major meander, the Dnieper changes its course from the north west to continue southerly and later south-westerly through Ukraine, ultimately passing Kherson, where it finally flows into the Black Sea.[citation needed]

Nowadays both the north and south banks play home to a range of industrial enterprises and manufacturing plants. The airport is located about 15 km (9.32 mi) south-east of the city.

The centre of the city is constructed on the right bank which is part of the Dnieper Upland, while the left bank is part of the Dnieper Lowland. The old town is situated atop a hill that is formed as a result of the river's change of course to the south. The change of river's direction is caused by its proximity to the Azov Upland located southeast of the city.[citation needed]

One of the city's streets, Prospekt Karla Marksa, links the two major architectural ensembles of the city and constitutes an important thoroughfare through the centre, which along with various suburban radial road systems, provides some of the area's most vital transport links for both suburban and inter-urban travel.

Climate[edit]

During the summer, Dnipropetrovsk is very warm (average day temperature in July is 24 to 28 °C (75 to 82 °F), even hot sometimes 32 to 36 °C (90 to 97 °F). Temperatures as high as 36 °C (97 °F) have been recorded in May. Winter is not so cold (average day temperature in January is −4 to 0 °C (25 to 32 °F), but when there is no snow and the wind blows hard, it feels extremely cold. A mix of snow and rain happens usually in December.

The best time for visiting the city is in late spring — late April and May, and early in autumn: September, October, when the city's trees turn yellow. Other times are mainly dry with a few showers.[56]

"However, the city is characterized with significant pollution of air with industrial emissions."[57] The "severely polluted air and water" and allegedly "vast areas of decimated landscape" of Dnipropetrovsk and Donetsk are considered by some to be an environmental crisis.[58] Though exactly where in Dnipropetrovsk these areas might be found is not stated.[58]

Cityscape[edit]

Dnipropetrovsk is a primarily industrial city of around one million people; in being such it has developed into a large urban centre over the past few centuries to become, today, Ukraine's fourth-largest city.

Yavornytsky Historical Museum

Immediately after its foundation Dnipropetrovsk, or as it was then known Yekaterinoslav, began to develop exclusively on the right bank of the Dnieper River. At first the city developed radially from the central point provided by the Transfiguration Cathedral. Neo-classical structures of brick and stone construction were preferred and the city began to take on the appearance of a typical European city of the era. Of these buildings many have been retained in the city's older Zhovtnevy Raion (district).[60] Amongst the most important buildings of this era are the Transfiguration Cathedral, and a number of buildings in the area surrounding Karla Marksa Prospekt.

In the early 1950s, during the ongoing industrialisation of the city, much of Dnipropetrovsk's centre was rebuilt in the Stalinist style of Socialist Realism.[61] The statue of Lenin pictured here was removed in March 2014.[62]

Over the next few decades, until the October Revolution in 1917 the city did not change much in appearance and the predominant architectural style remained that of neo-classicism. Notable buildings built in the era preceding the Bolsheviks' rise to power and the establishment of communist Ukraine and later its absorption into the Soviet Union, include the main building of the National Mining University, which was built in 1899–1901,[63] the art-nouveau inspired building of the city's former Duma,[64] the Dnipropetrovsk National Historical Museum, and the Mechnikov Regional Hospital. Other buildings of the era that did not fit the typical architectural style of the time in Dnipropetrovsk include,[65] the Ukrainian-influenced Grand Hotel Ukraine, the Russian revivalist style railway station (since reconstructed),[66] and the art-nouveau Astoriya building on Karla Marksa Prospekt.

Stalinist architecture blends with the post-modernism of Dnipropetrovsk's 'Passage' shopping and entertainment centre.[67]

Stalinist architecture (monumental soviet classicism) dominates in the city centre.[68] Once the bolsheviks had taken power in Dnipropetrovsk the city was gradually purged of tsarist-era monuments and monumental architecture was stripped of Imperial coats of arms and other non-socialist symbolism. In 1917, a monument to Catherine the Great that stood in front of the Mining Institute was replaced with one of Russian academic Mikhail Lomonosov.[69] Later, due to damage from the Second World War, a number of large buildings were reconstructed. The main railway station, for example, was stripped of its Russian-revival ornamentation and redesigned in the style of Stalinist social-realism,[70] whilst the Grand Hotel Ukraine survived the war but was later simplified much in design, with its roof being reconstructed in a typical French mansard style as opposed to the ornamental Ukrainian baroque of the pre-war era. Other badly damaged buildings were, more often than not, demolished completely and replaced with new structures.[71] This is one of the main reasons why much of Dnipropetrovsk's central avenue, Karla Marksa Prospekt, is designed in the style of Stalinist Social Realism.[72] Many pre-revolution buildings were also reconstructed to suit new purposes. For example, the Emperor Nicholas II Commercial Institute in Dnipropetrovsk was reconstructed to serve as the administrative centre for the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, a function it fulfils to this day. Other buildings, such as the Potemkin Palace were given over to the proletariat, in this case as the students' union of the Dnipropetrovsk National University.

After the death of Stalin and appointment of Khrushchev, who had spent his early working years in Ukraine, as party secretary, the industrialisation of Dnipropetrovsk became even more profound, with the Southern (Yuzhne) Missile and Rocket factory being set up in the city. However, this was not the only development and many other factories, especially metallurgical and heavy-manufacturing plants, were set up in the city.[73] At this point Dnipropetrovsk became one of the most important manufacturing cities in the Soviet Union, producing many goods from small articles like screws and vacuum cleaners to aircraft engine pieces and ballistic missiles. As a result of all this industrialisation the city's inner suburbs became increasingly polluted and were gradually given over to large, unsightly industrial enterprises. At the same time the extensive development of the city's left bank and western suburbs as new residential areas began.[73] The low-rise tenant houses of the Khrushchev era (Khrushchyovkas) gave way to the construction of high-rise prefabricated apartment blocks (similar to German Plattenbaus). In 1976 in line with the city's 1926 renaming a large monumental statue of Grigoriy Petrovsky was placed on the square in front of the city's station.[74]

To this day the city is characterised by its mix of architectural styles, with much of the city's centre consisting of pre-revolutionary buildings in a variety of styles, stalinist buildings and constructivist architecture, whilst residential districts are, more often than not, made up of aesthetically simple, technically outdated mid-rise and high-rise housing stock from the Soviet era. Despite this, the city does have a large number of 'private sectors' were the tradition of building and maintaining individual detached housing has continued to this day.[citation needed]

Since the independence of Ukraine in 1991 and the economic development that followed, a number of large commercial and business centres have been built in the city's outskirts.

A panoramic view of the old City.

Demographics[edit]

Year Ethnicity of Citizens Foreign
Citizens
Reference
Russian Ukrainian Jewish Polish German
1887 47,200 17,787 39,979 3,418 1,438 1,075 [78]
1887 42.6% 16.0% 36.1% 3.1% 1.3% 1.0% [78]
1904(?) 52% 40% 4.5% Not Stated Not Stated [82]

Between 1923 and 1933 the Ukrainian proportion of the population of Dnipropetrovsk increased from 16% to 48%. This was part of a national trend.[87] These demographic numbers are not illustrative of the current demography of the city.

The population of the city is about 1,002 mln. people. In 2011, the average age of the city’s resident population was 40 years. The number of males declined slightly more than the number of females. The natural population growth in Dnipropetrovsk is slightly higher than growth in Ukraine in general.

Economy[edit]

Dnipropetrovsk is a major industrial centre of Ukraine. It has several facilities devoted to heavy industry that produce a wide range of products, including cast-iron, rolled metal, pipes, machinery, different mining combines, agricultural equipment, tractors, trolleybuses, refrigerators, different chemicals and many others.[citation needed] The most famous and the oldest (founded in the 19th century) is the Metallurgical Plant named after Petrovsky. The city also has big food processing and light industry factories. Many sewing and dress-making factories work for France, Canada, Germany and Great Britain[citation needed], using the most advanced technologies, materials and design. Dnipropetrovsk has also dominated in the aerospace industry since the 1950s; construction department Yuzhnoye Design Bureau and Yuzhmash are well known to the specialists[which?] all over the world.[citation needed]

Metals and metallurgy is the city’s core industry in terms of output. Employment in the city is concentrated in large-sized enterprises. Metallurgical enterprises are based in the city and account for over 47% of its industrial output. These enterprises are important contributors to the city’s budget and, with 80% of their output being exported, to Ukraine’s foreign exchange reserve. Dnipropetrovsk serves as the main import hub for foreign goods coming into the oblast and, on average, accounted for 58% of the oblast’s imports between 2005 and 2011. With economic conditions improving even further in 2010 and 2011, registered unemployment fell to about 4,100 by the end of 2011.

Dniproavia, an airline, has its head office on the grounds of Dnipropetrovsk International Airport.[88] The main shareholder in the airline is Ukrainian-Israeli entrepreneur Ihor Kolomoyskyi's Privat Group, a global business group, based in the city and grouped around the Privatbank. Privat Group controls thousands of companies of virtually every industry in Ukraine, European Union, Georgia, Ghana, Russia, Romania, United States and other countries. Steel, oil & gas, chemical and energy are sectors of the group's prime influence and expertise. None of the group's capital is publicly traded on the stock exchange. Group's founding owners are natives of Dnipropetrovsk and made their entire career here. Privatbank, the core of the group, is the largest commercial bank in Ukraine. In March 2014 was named by the American review Global Finance (magazine) as "the Best Bank in Ukraine for 2014" while British magazine "The Banker" in November 2013 named again the same bank as "the Bank of the year 2013 in Ukraine".

Privat Group is in business conflict with the Interpipe, also based in Dnipropetrovsk area. The influential metallurgical mill company founded and mostly owned by the local business oligarch Viktor Pinchuk. Other company headquartered in Dnipropetrovsk is ATB-Market. The company owns the largest national network of retail shops. The City of Dnipropetrovsk’s economy is dominated by the wholesale and retail trade sector, which accounted for 53% of the output of non-financial enterprises in 2010.

Year Factories
& Plants
Employees Production Volume[89] Reference
rubles 2007 £
million
2007 USD
million
1880 49 572 1,500,000 £10.5 m $21 m [78]
1903 194 10,649 21,500,000 £177.5 m $355 m [78]
Year Enterprises Earnings[89][90] Reference
rubles 2007 £
million
2007 USD
million
1900 1,800 40,000,000 £328.7 m $658 m [82]
1940 622 1,096,929,000 £2,120.3 m $4,242 m [78]

Transport[edit]

Local transportation[edit]

Karla Marksa Prospekt, Dnipropetrovsk's central avenue, features a green pedestrian boulevard and a tram line.

The main forms of public transport used in Dnipropetrovsk are trams, buses, electric trolley buses and marshrutkas—private minibuses. In addition to this there are a large number of taxi firms operating in the city, and many residents have private cars.

The city's municipal roads also suffer from the same funding problems as the trams, with many of them in a very poor technical state.[citation needed] It is not uncommon to find very large potholes and crumbling surfaces on many of Dnipropetrovsk's smaller roads. Major roads and highways are of better quality. In recent years the situation has, however, been improving, with a number of new used trams bought from the German cities of Dresden and Magdeburg,[91] and a number of roads, including Schmidt Street and Moskovsky Street being reconstructed with modern road-building techniques.[92]

A scheme of the Dnipropetrovsk Metro system in the city.

Dnipropetrovsk also has a metro system, opened in 1995, which consists of one line and 6 stations.[93] Work on other stations was abandoned when the city ran out of money for this project; two of these abandoned building works are in the central portion of Karla Marksa Prospekt. Completion of the next two stations is necessary to make the municipal subway system profitable. At the present time the completion date is unknown. As of 2011 the central portion of the city's metro line has seen renewed construction efforts and the metro has been transferred to municipal ownership in the hope that this will help it secure a loan from the European Bank for Development and Reconstruction.[94] Current plans envision the three station section from Teatralna, through Tsentralna, to Muzeina completed by 2015.[95]

Suburban transportation[edit]

Bridges linking the city's right and left banks are heavily used.

Dnipropetrovsk has some highways crossing through the city. The most popular routes are from Kiev, Donetsk, Kharkiv and Zaporizhia. Transit through the city is also available. As of 2011 the city is also seeing construction of a southern urban bypass, which will allow automobile traffic to proceed around the city centre. This is expected to both improve air quality and reduce transport issues from heavy freight lorries that pass through the city centre.[citation needed]

The largest bus station in eastern Ukraine is located in Dnipropetrovsk, from where bus routes are available to all over the country, including some international routes to Russia, Poland, Germany, Moldova and Turkey. It is located near the city's central railway station.

In the summertime, there are some routes available by hydrofoils on the Dnieper River, whilst various tourist ships on their way down the river, (Kiev–Kherson–Odessa) tend to make a stop in the city. Dnipropetrovsk's river port is located close to the area surrounding the central railway station, on the banks of the river. It is a good example of constructivist architecture from the late period of the Soviet Union.[citation needed]

Dnipropetrovsk's main station is one of eastern Ukraine's largest.

Rail[edit]

The city is a large railway junction, with many daily trains running to and from Eastern Europe and on domestic routes within Ukraine. There are two railway terminals, "Dnipropetrovsk Glavnij" (main station)and "Dnipropetrovsk Yuzhnyi" (south station).

Two express passenger services run each day between Kiev and Dnipropetrovsk under the name 'Capital Express'. Other daytime services include suburban trains to towns and villages in the surrounding Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. Most long-distance trains tend to run at night to reduce the amount of daytime hours spent travelling by each passenger.

Domestic connections exist between Dnipropetrovsk and Kiev, Lviv, Simferopol, Odessa, Ivano-Frankivsk, Truskavets, Donetsk, Kharkiv and many other smaller Ukrainian cities, whilst international destinations include, amongst others, Minsk in Belarus, Moscow's Kursky Station and Saint Petersburg's Vitebsky Station in Russia, Baku – the capital of Azerbaijan, and the Bulgarian seaside resort of Varna.

Aviation[edit]

The city is served by an Dnipropetrovsk International Airport (IATA: DNK) and is connected to European and Middle Eastern cities with daily flights. It is located 15 kilometres (8 NM) southeast from the city center.

Education[edit]

Oles Honchar National University is one of the leading establishments of higher education in Ukraine. It was founded in 1918.

There are 163 educational institutions among them schools, gymnasiums and boarding schools. For children of pre-school age there are 174 institutions, also a lot of out-of -school institutions such as center of out-of-school work. 87 institutions that are recognized on all Ukrainian and regional levels.

In 2006 Dnipropetrovsk hosted the All-Ukrainian Olympiad in Information Technology; in 2008, that for Mathematics, and in 2009 the semi-final of the All-Ukrainian Olympiad in Programming for the Eastern Region. In the same year as the latter took place, the youth group 'Eksperiment', an organisation promoting increased cultural awareness amongst Ukrainians, was founded in the city.

Higher education[edit]

Dnipropetrovsk is a major educational centre in Ukraine and is home to two of Ukraine's top-ten universities; the Dnipropetrovsk National University and National Mining University. The system of high education institutions connects 38 institutions in Dnipropetrovsk, among them 14 of IV and ІІІ levels of accreditation, and 22 of І and ІІ levels of accreditation. In year 2012 National Mining Institute was on the 7th and Dnipropetrovsk National University named after O. Gonchar was on the 9th place among the best high education institutions in "TOP-200 Ukraine" list.

The main building of the National Mining University

The list below is a list of all current state-organised higher educational institutions (not included are non-independent subdivisions of other universities not based in Dnipropetrovsk).

Currently around 55, 000 students study in Dnipropetrovsk, a significant number of whom are students from abroad.

Culture[edit]

Bryansk Church (Dnepropetrovsk House of Organ and Chamber Music)

Attractions[edit]

Entrance to the Taras Shevchenko Park in Dnipropetrovsk.

The city has a variety of theatres (plus an Opera) and museums of interest to tourists. There are also several parks, restaurants and beaches.

The major streets of the city were renamed in honour of Marxist heroes during the Soviet era. The central thoroughfare is known as Karla Marksa Prospekt, a, wide and long boulevard that stretches east to west through the centre of the city. It was founded in the 18th century and parts of its buildings are the actual decoration of the city. In the heart of the city is Zhovtneva [October] Square, which includes the majestic cathedral founded by order of Catherine the Great in 1787.[citation needed]

On the square, there are some remarkable buildings: the Museum of History, Diorama "Battle for the Dnieper River (World War II)", and also the park in which one can rest in the hot summer. Walking down the hill to the Dnieper River, one arrives in the large Taras Shevchenko Park (which is on the right bank of the river) and on Monastyrsky Island. This island is one of the most interesting places in the city. In the 9th century, the Byzantine monks based a monastery here.[citation needed]

A few areas retain their historical character: all of Central Avenue, some street-blocks on the main hill (the Nagorna part) between Pushkin Prospekt and Embankment, and sections near Globa (formerly known as Chkalov park until it was recently renamed) and Shevchenko parks have been untouched for 150 years.[citation needed]

The Dnieper River keeps the climate mild.[citation needed] It is visible from many points in Dnipropetrovsk. From any of the three hills in the city, one can see a view of the river, islands, parks, outskirts, river banks and other hills.

There was no need to build skyscrapers in the city in Soviet times. The major industries preferred to locate their offices close to their factories and away from the centre of town. Most new office buildings are built in the same architectural style as the old buildings. A number, however, display more modern aesthetics, and some blend the two styles.

The Dnipro-Arena in Dnipropetrovsk

Sports[edit]

The city also houses the Ukrainian Premier League and UEFA Europa League football club, FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk. This club, commonly seen as representing the city at large, holds a record for being the only Soviet team to win the USSR Federation Cup twice; since independence they have gone on to win the Ukrainian Championship once and the Ukrainian League Cup three times. Beside the association football club there also is a bandy team under the same name, basketball team and others. However, FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk is not a multi-sport club. The club is owned by the Privat Group.

Despite Dnipro's dominance, a number of other teams also call Dnipropetrovsk their home, these include, amongst others, FC Lokomotyv Dnipropetrovsk and FC Spartak Dnipropetrovsk, both of which have large fan bases in the city. On a national/international stage however, no team from the city has met with the same level of success experienced by FC Dnipro.

Recently the city built a new soccer stadium; the Dnipro-Arena has a capacity of 31,003 people and was built as a replacement for Dnipro's old stadium, Stadium Meteor. The Dnipro-Arena hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification game between Ukraine and England on 10 October 2009. The Dnipro Arena was initially chosen as one of the Ukrainian venues for their joint Euro 2012 bid with Poland. However it was dropped from the list in May 2009 as the capacity fell short of the minimum 33,000 seats required by UEFA.[96][97]

The city is the centre of Ukrainian bandy. The Ukrainian Federation of Bandy and Rink-Bandy has its office in the city.[98] The foremost local bandy club is Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk, which won the Ukrainian championship in 2014.

Notable people from Dnipropetrovsk[edit]

See also List of mayors and political chiefs of the Dnipropetrovsk city administration.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

The city of Dnipropetrovsk is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Global city GDP 2011" (PDF). 
  2. ^ Dnipropetrovsk region, statistics (Ukrainian)
  3. ^ a b gorod.dp.ua Dnipropetrovsk region, statistics (Ukrainian)
  4. ^ Ukrcensus.gov.ua — City URL accessed on 8 March 2007
  5. ^ "Official statistics, 01.08.2012 (Ukrainian)". Dneprstat.gov.ua. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  6. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 
  7. ^ Charles Wynn. Workers, Strikes, and Pogroms: The Donbass-Dnepr Bend in Late Imperial Russia, 1870-1905
  8. ^ A closed city does not allow foreigners inside without official permission.
  9. ^ "English map of 1820" (JPG). Arhivtime.ru. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  10. ^ Zhuk, S (2010). "Rock and Roll in the Rocket City: The West, Identity, and Ideology in Soviet Dniepropetrovsk, 1960–1985". Woodrow Wilson Center Press with Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  11. ^ Rada approves historic bills to part with Soviet legacy, The Ukrainian Weekly (17 April 2015)
  12. ^ a b c Poroshenko signed the laws about decomunization. Ukrayinska Pravda. 15 May 2015
    Poroshenko signs laws on denouncing Communist, Nazi regimes, Interfax-Ukraine. 15 May 20
    Goodbye, Lenin: Ukraine moves to ban communist symbols, BBC News (14 April 2015)
  13. ^ a b c Ukraine tears down controversial statue, by Rostyslav Khotin, BBC News (27 November 2009)
    Same article on UNIAN.
  14. ^ 12 March 2013. "Welcome to Dnipropetrovsk! » City Guide – Dnipropetrovsk". Gorod.dp.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  15. ^ a b "Go2Kiev Dnepropetrovsk". Go2kiev.com. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c Plokhy, Serhii, The Cossacks and Religion in Early Modern Ukraine, pub Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-19-924739-0, pages 26, 37, 40, 51, 60–1, 142, 245, and 268.
  17. ^ Guillaume le Vasseur de Beauplan wrote a book Description d'Ukrainie, published in 1651 and 1660.
  18. ^ a b www.day.kiev.ua Above Kodak, this year the unique fortress marks its 375th anniversary, by Mykola Chaban, 2010.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i "www.eugene.com.ua Dnepropetrovsk History". Eugene.com.ua. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  20. ^ There is some confusion concerning the date of this map. According to the image file the map is by Schubert and dates from about 1860. Though Ukrainian Wikipedia claims that it dates from 1885. The map shows the old Amur railway bridge across the river, which was completed in 1884.
  21. ^ Днепропетровск празднует именины. Память великомученицы Екатерины
  22. ^ Святая великомученица Екатерина Александрийская
  23. ^ a b S. S. Montefiore: Prince of Princes – The Life of Potemkin
  24. ^ Gorod.dp.ua
  25. ^ "Ukrainetrek Dnepropetrovsk (City)". Ukrainetrek.com. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  26. ^ Ekaterinoslav City in 1905: Workers, Jews, and Violence
  27. ^ "Grand Hotel Ukraine, Hotel's History". Grand-hotel-ukraine.dp.ua. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  28. ^ The Kravchenko Case: One Man's War Against Stalin by Gary Kern, Enigma Books, 2007, ISBN 978-1-929631-73-5, page 191
  29. ^ "Onwar.com, Germans reach Dniepr in Ukraine". Onwar.com. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  30. ^ "Onwar.com, Red Army crosses Dniepr River". Onwar.com. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  31. ^ New York Times, 20 June 1990 Evolution in Europe; Soviet Troops Kill an Inmate During Riot in Ukrainian Jail This stated that TASS had issued a statement saying that there had been a riot by 2,000 inmates in a prison in Dnipropetrovsk. The riot broke out on Thursday 14 June 1990, and was quelled by Soviet troops on Friday 15 June 1990, killing one prisoner and wounding another.
  32. ^ "Kievskie vedomosti, 14 August 2000.". Khpg.org. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  33. ^ "Dnepropetrovsk Maniacs: Court delivers its verdicts" (in Russian). 
  34. ^ "Ukraine protests spread to Yanukovich heartland". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  35. ^ "В Днепропетровске больше трех тысяч человек собрались возле ОГА – Днепропетровск". Dp.vgorode.ua. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  36. ^ Ukraine protests 'spread' into Russia-influenced east, BBC News (26 January 2014)
  37. ^ "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine (Jan. 24–27 live updates)". Kyiv Post. 26 January 2014. 
  38. ^ "Восток и Юг Украины вышел пикетировать ОГА: в Запорожье стреляют в митингующих, а в Сумах просят подмоги (обновлено 2.34)". Delo UA. 27 January 2014. 
  39. ^ "Майдан в Днепропетровске: стычки с титушками и ультиматум губернатору". Delo.ua. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  40. ^ "Беспорядки в Днепропетровске, ранены четыре человека, семь задержаны – Днепропетровск". Dp.vgorode.ua. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  41. ^ "Видео как "Титушки" избивают людей возле "Днепр-Арены" – Днепропетровск". Dp.vgorode.ua. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  42. ^ "Днепропетровск: титушки и милиция против местного Майдана". News.liga.net. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  43. ^ "Колесников не увидел "титушек" возле здания Днепропетровской ОГА – Днепропетровск.comments.ua". Dnepr.comments.ua. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  44. ^ a b "Регионы онлайн: "Крымское Межигорье" показали людям – Новости Украины сегодня, последние новостиУкраины – bigmir)net – Новости дня – bigmir)net". News.bigmir.net. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  45. ^ "Днепропетровскую ОГА обнесли колючей проволокой и смазали солидолом – Днепропетровск". Dp.vgorode.ua. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  46. ^ "Бывший СССР: Украина: Государство временно недоступно". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  47. ^ [1][dead link]
  48. ^ a b c d (Ukrainian) Residents Dnipropetrovsk forced mayor to withdraw from the Party of Regions, Espreso TV (February 22, 2014)
    (Russian) Dnipropetrovsk mayor left the PR 'for peace in the city', NEWSru.ua (February 22, 2014)
    (Ukrainian) In Dnepropetrovsk Lenin Square was renamed Heroes Square, the Mayor released from PR, Ukrayinska Pravda (February 22, 2014)
  49. ^ Ukraine crisis timeline, BBC News
  50. ^ В Днепропетровске состоялись два митинга: за и против новой власти (Russian)
  51. ^ a b c Olga Rudenko, Special for USA TODAY (14 March 2014). "In East Ukraine, fear of Putin, anger at Kiev". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  52. ^ "Ukraine: the Day After". Weeklystandard.com. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  53. ^ "Пам'ятник Леніну у Дніпропетровську остаточно перетворили в купу каміння "Monument to Lenin in Dnipropetrovsk finally turned into a pile of stones"". ТСН.ua. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  54. ^ "Lenin Statue Toppled in Ukrainian City of Dnipropetrovsk". Yahoo News Singapore. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  55. ^ "'". Pravda.com.ua. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  56. ^ See also: klimadiagramme.de — Climate in Dnipropetrovsk URL accessed on 20 March 2007
  57. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine – Population". Mfa.gov.ua. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  58. ^ a b www.mongabay.com Russia – Geography states: "Since 1990 Russian experts have added to the list the following less spectacular but equally threatening environmental crises: the Dnepropetrovsk-Donets and Kuznets coal-mining and metallurgical centres, which have severely polluted air and water and vast areas of decimated landscape;..."
  59. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). May 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  60. ^ "История Днепропетровска и Приднепровья". Gorod.dp.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  61. ^ "История Днепропетровска и Приднепровья". Gorod.dp.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  62. ^ In East Ukraine, fear of Putin, anger at Kiev
    Ukraine: the Day After
    Пам'ятник Леніну у Дніпропетровську остаточно перетворили в купу каміння "Monument to Lenin in Dnipropetrovsk finally turned into a pile of stones"
  63. ^ Вт, 12 марта 201307:51. "Национальный Горный Университет – Днепропетровск". Gorod.dp.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  64. ^ "Городская Дума – Старый Днепропетровск – Ретрофото – Фотоальбомы – Памятники, архитектура, история, туризм". Dneprotur.ucoz.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  65. ^ "История Днепропетровска и Приднепровья". Gorod.dp.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  66. ^ [2][dead link]
  67. ^ "Торговый комплекс "Пассаж"". Akselrod-estate.com. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  68. ^ "От "сталинского ампира" до "брежневского минимализма" " www.DNEPR.com – Главный портал города Днепропетровска". www.DNEPR.com. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  69. ^ Вт, 12 марта 201307:51 (14 September 2011). "Ломоносову М.В., памятник – Днепропетровск". Gorod.dp.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  70. ^ [3] Центральный железнодорожный вокзал был уничтожен во время войны. Потребовалось строительство нового здания
  71. ^ "История Днепропетровска и Приднепровья". Gorod.dp.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  72. ^ [4] Центральный проспект почти полностью был разрушен. Практически его нужно было создать заново
  73. ^ a b "История Днепропетровска и Приднепровья". Gorod.dp.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  74. ^ [5] В 1976 г. архитектурно-художественная композиция привокзальной площади была завершена постановкой памятника Г. И. Петровскому
  75. ^ Eugene.com states that the population in the early 19th century was 6,389, whilst Cheba states that this was the population in 1800.
  76. ^ a b Kardasis, Vassilis, Diaspora Merchants in the Black Sea: The Greeks in Southern Russia, 1775–1861, pub Lexington Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7391-0245-1, page 34.
  77. ^ a b c d e ""History" a Dnipropetrovsk Travel Page by Cheba". VirtualTourist.com. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  78. ^ a b c d e f g Dnepropetrovsk Jewish Community (DJC.com) – About Yekaterinoslav Dnepropetrovsk, accessed 1 February 2014. (English language version of this page has disappeared since 2008, but Russian language version still present.)
  79. ^ Cheba states that in a census for 1 January 1866 the population was 22,846. Eugene.com states 22,816 for 1865, while DJC.com states 22,846 for 1865.
  80. ^ Eugene.com states that the population in 1887 was 48,000, whilst Gerald Surh states that it was 47,000. Polish wikipedia says 48100.
    Dnepropetrovsk History. www.eugene.com.ua
    Surh, Gerald, Ekaterinoslav City in 1905: Workers, Jews, and Violence
  81. ^ Eugene.com states that the population in 1897 was 121,200, Cheba says 121,216, and Surh says 112,800, whilst Vassilis Kardasis states that it was 113,000.
    Dnepropetrovsk History. www.eugene.com.ua
    "History" a Dnipropetrovsk Travel Page by Cheba
    Gerald Surh, Ekaterinoslav City in 1905: Workers, Jews, and Violence
    Kardasis, Vassilis, Diaspora Merchants in the Black Sea: The Greeks in Southern Russia, 1775–1861
  82. ^ a b c d "Surh, Gerald, Ekaterinoslav City in 1905: Workers, Jews, and Violence, published in International Labor and Working-Class History No. 64, Fall 2003, pages 139–166.". Journals.cambridge.org. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  83. ^ a b The emergency evacuation of cities: a cross-national historical and geographical study, by Wilbur Zelinsky, Leszek A. Kosiński, pub Rowman & Littlefield, 1991, ISBN 978-0-8476-7673-6.
  84. ^ a b c d "China in Figures" says 1,178,000.
  85. ^ "Dnipropetrovsk." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com.
  86. ^ a b United Nations Statistics Division: cities, population, census years (discontinued), code 14720 give the population for the city proper as 1,147,000 for 1996, and 1,122,400 for 1998.
    Eugene.com states that the population in 1998 was 1,137,000
  87. ^ Volodymyr Kubiyovych; Zenon Kuzelia, Енциклопедія українознавства (Encyclopedia of Ukrainian studies), 3-volumes, Kiev, 1994, ISBN 5-7702-0554-7
  88. ^ "Contacts." Dniproavia. Retrieved on 21 June 2010.
  89. ^ a b Conversion from contemporary Imperial Russian rubles to 2007 currency used the following method:
    (1) Conversion to contemporary Sterling used table 18, which accompanies Marc Flandreau and Frédréric Zumer's book The Making of Global Finance, 1880–1913, OECD 2004.
    (2) Conversion to 2007 Sterling used RPI data from Table 63 of National Income Expenditure and Output of the United Kingdom 1855–1965, by CH Feinstein, pub Cambridge University Press, 1972 and Retail Prices Index: annual index numbers of retail prices 1948–2007 (RPI) (RPIX)
    (3) Conversion to 2007 US Dollars used the calculated 2007 Sterling value and the average exchange rate for 2007 $1 =£0.49987, taken from FXHistory: historical currency exchange rates. It would have been better to have used contemporary ruble/dollar exchange rates and US RPI data, but the latter were not available to author (March 2008).
  90. ^ Conversion from 1940 rubles to 2007 currency used a similar method to that used with Imperial Russian rubles, with the following used to generate ruble to Sterling exchange rate for 1940. Kawlsky, Daniel, Stalin and the Spanish Civil War Chapter 11 quotes a rate for the 1930s of 5.3 rubles per US dollar. measuringworth.com quotes a 1940 exchange rate of $1000000 = £261096.61.
  91. ^ вт, 12 марта 201307:52 (19 January 2011). "К нам привезли новые старые трамваи – Днепропетровск". Gorod.dp.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  92. ^ "Ремонт дорог в Днепропетровске на 16 августа 2011 года". 34.ua. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  93. ^ "Metro". Retrieved 25 March 2008. 
  94. ^ "Dnipropetrovsk Metropoliten in municipal ownership now". Kyivpost.com. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  95. ^ "Метро в Днепропетровске достроят в 2015 году – Днепропетровск". MIGnews.com.ua. 25 October 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  96. ^ "Kiev and Donetsk likely for Euro 2012, others uncertain". Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2014. 
  97. ^ [6][dead link]
  98. ^ "Ukrainian bandy and rink-bandy federation. About Federation". Ukrbandy.org.ua. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  99. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  100. ^ "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta Szczecin (in Polish). Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  101. ^ "Twinning Cities". © 2008 City of Thessaloniki. Retrieved 4 January 2009. 
  102. ^ "Žilina – oficiálne stránky mesta: Partnerské mestá Žiliny (Žilina: Official Partner Cities)". © 2008 MaM Multimedia, s.r.o.. Retrieved 4 January 2009. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Михаил Александрович Шатров (Штейн). Город на трёх холмах. — Днепропетровск: Промiнь, 1969. (in Russian)
  • Алексей Николаевич Толстой. Хождение по мукам. — М.: Художественная литература, 1976. (in Russian)
  • Дмитрий Яворницкий. История города Екатеринослава. — Днепропетровск: Сiч, 1996. (in Russian)
  • Справочник "Освобождение городов: Справочник по освобождению городов в период Великой Отечественной войны 1941—1945" / М. Л. Дударенко, Ю. Г. Перечнев, В. Т. Елисеев и др. М.: Воениздат, 1985. 598 с. (in Russian)
  • Описание населенных мест Екатеринославской губернии на 1-е января 1925 г. — Екатеринослав: Типо-Литография Екатерининской ж.д., 1925. — 635 с. (in Russian)
  • Sergei I. Zhuk, Rock and Roll in the Rocket City: The West, Identity, and Ideology in Soviet Dniepropetrovsk, 1960–1985 (Baltimore, MD: the Johns Hopkins University Press & Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2010), 18–28.

External links[edit]