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For other uses, see Do Ab.
دوآب / दोआब
Natural region
View of a canal in the lower Bari Doab of the Punjab Doabs
View of a canal in the lower Bari Doab of the Punjab Doabs
Country Pakistan and India

Doab (Urdu: دوآب, Hindi: दोआब,[1] from Persian: دوآب dōāb, from , "two" + āb, "water" or "river") is a term used in India and Pakistan for the "tongue,"[2] or tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers. It is similar to an interfluve,[3] In the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, R. S. McGregor defines it as "a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers (esp. that between the Ganges and Jumna)."[1]

In India, "doab" is now largely a historical term applied to pre-1947 India and is seldom used in contemporary Hindi or Indian English.

The Doab[edit]

A map of the Doab, shows the sub-regions, "Upper Doab", "Central or Middle Doab", and "Lower Doab

The Doab, unqualified by the names of any rivers, designates the flat alluvial tract between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers extending from the Sivalik Hills to the two rivers' confluence at Allahabad. The region has an area of about 23,360 square miles (60,500 square km); it is approximately 500 miles (805 km) in length and 60 miles (97 km) in width.

The region of the Doab figures prominently in the history and myths of Vedic period. The British divided the Doab into three administrative districts or zones, viz., Upper Doab (Meerut), Middle Doab (Agra) and Lower Doab (Allahabad). These districts are now divided into several other districts as enumerated below.

The following districts/states form part of the Doab:

Upper Doab[edit]

Dehradun, Haridwar, Rishikesh, Muzaffarnagar, Saharanpur, Meerut, Ghaziabad, Gautam Buddh Nagar, Bulandshahr and Delhi.[citation needed]

Central or Middle Doab[edit]

Etah, Kasganj, Aligarh, Agra, Hathras, Firozabad, Farrukhabad, Mainpuri, Etawah, Auraiya and Mathura.[citation needed] Mathura is in the trans-Yamuna region of Braj.

Lower Doab[edit]

Kanpur, Fatehpur, Kaushambi and Allahabad.[citation needed]

The Punjab Doabs[edit]

A map of the Punjab region ca. 1947 showing the different doabs.

Each of the tracts of land lying between the confluent rivers of the Punjab region of Pakistan and India has a distinct name, said to have been coined by Raja Todar Mal, a minister of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The names (except for 'Sindh Sagar') are a combination of the first letters, in the Persian alphabet, of the names of the rivers that bound the Doab. For example, Jech = 'Je'(Jhelum) + 'Ch'(Chenab). The names are (from west to east):

In addition, the tract of land lying between the Sutlej and the Yamuna river is sometimes called the Delhi doab, although, strictly speaking, it is not a doab, since its two bounding rivers, the Yamuna and Sutlej, are not confluent.


The Raichur Doab is the triangular region of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states which lies between the Krishna River and its tributary the Tungabhadra River, named for the town of Raichur.


  1. ^ a b McGregor 1993, p. 513.
  2. ^ doab or duab, n., OED Online, Oxford University Press, September 2013, retrieved 11 September 2013 
  3. ^ Doab., Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged., 2013, retrieved 11 September 2013