Formerly known as a Market Community Lešno, the first written mention of the place comes from a 1320 document. The town obtained the right of beer-brewing prior to this 1320 document. In the 14th century it became known as Dobruška, a seat of Church administration. In 1495, with arrival of Noble Family of Trčka of Lípa, the town started to develop. The centre of the town gained its present appearance in Neo-Gothic style after a large fire broke out on October 7, 1866, which was painted by Alois Beer (1833-1897).
The town of Dobruška is known mainly because of the Czech patriotic writer František Ladislav Hek, whose career was described in Alois Jirásek's novel entitled F. L. Věk (there is organized The International Music Festival of F. L. Vek), and also thanks to the beautiful Renaissance castle in nearby Opočno.