Docklands Light Railway
|Owner||Docklands Light Railway Ltd, part of Transport for London|
|Transit type||Light metro|
|Number of lines||7|
|Number of stations||45|
|Daily ridership||340,000 (daily average, DfT 2017)|
|Annual ridership||116.8 million (2019/20)|
|Began operation||31 August 1987|
|Operator(s)||Keolis Amey Docklands Ltd. (Keolis 70%, Amey 30%)|
|Number of vehicles||149|
|Train length||2 or 3 vehicles per trainset|
|System length||24 mi (38 km)|
|No. of tracks||2|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8+1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
|Minimum radius of curvature||125 ft (38 m)|
|Electrification||750 V DC third rail (bottom contact)|
|Average speed||40 mph (64 km/h)|
Docklands Light Railway
The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is an automated light metro system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of London, England. First opened on 31 August 1987, the DLR has been extended multiple times, and now reaches north to Stratford, south to Lewisham, west to Tower Gateway and Bank in the City of London financial district, and east to Beckton, London City Airport and Woolwich Arsenal. Further extensions are under consideration.
Normal operations are automated, so there is minimal staffing on the 149 trains (which have no cabs) and at major interchange stations; the four below-ground stations are staffed, to comply with underground station health and safety regulations.
The DLR is owned by Docklands Light Railway Ltd, part of the London Rail division of Transport for London (TfL). It is operated under a franchise awarded by TfL to KeolisAmey Docklands, a joint venture between transport operator Keolis and infrastructure specialists Amey plc, having been run previously (1997–2014) by Serco Docklands.
Passenger numbers have greatly increased as the network has expanded, and in the financial year 2019/20 there were 116.8 million passenger journeys.
Origins and development
The docks immediately east of Central London began to decline in the early 1960s as cargo became containerised. They had been connected to the national railway network via the London and Blackwall Railway (L&BR), which was closed in 1966 for lack of traffic. The opening of the Tilbury container docks, further east in Essex, finally rendered them redundant, and in 1980 the government gained control of the now-derelict area.
As early as 1972, consideration was given to how to redevelop the moribund Docklands. Travis Morgan & Partners were commissioned by the London Docklands Study Team to consider the issue. They proposed, among other recommendations, that a "minitram" people-mover system capable of carrying up to 20 people in each unit should be constructed to connect the Docklands with the planned Fleet line tube railway terminus at Fenchurch Street railway station. The Greater London Council formed a Docklands Joint Committee with the Boroughs of Greenwich, Lewisham, Newham, Southwark and Tower Hamlets in 1974 to undertake the redevelopment of the area. A light railway system was envisaged, terminating either at Tower Hill tube station or at nearby Fenchurch Street, but both options were seen as too expensive. Nonetheless, in 1976 another report proposed a conventional tube railway for the area and London Transport obtained Parliamentary powers to build a line from Charing Cross station to Fenchurch Street, Surrey Docks (now Surrey Quays railway station), the Isle of Dogs, North Greenwich and Custom House to Woolwich Arsenal. This was intended to be the second stage of the Fleet line – which had been renamed the Jubilee line, the first stage of which opened in 1979 from Stanmore to Charing Cross. However, when the Thatcher Government came to power, the plans to extend the Jubilee line were halted and the new government insisted that a lower-cost option should be pursued.
The government established the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) in July 1981 to coordinate the redevelopment of the Docklands. The need to provide a cheap public transport solution led to it commissioning London Transport to evaluate a number of exclusively light rail options. The core of the route ran alongside the Great Eastern line out of London and south along the former London & Blackwall Railway line through the Isle of Dogs. Three terminus options were proposed at the west end, at Tower Hill, Minories and Aldgate East. The Tower Hill option would have required a low-level interchange to be constructed alongside the existing Underground station, but this would have been a very costly venture. The Minories option, a high-level station virtually on the site of the old Minories railway station, was selected and became the current Tower Gateway DLR terminus. Aldgate East would have been perhaps the most ambitious of all of the options, as it originally envisaged a low-level connection with the District line that would have allowed DLR trains to run on London Underground tracks to a variety of central London destinations. However, it quickly became apparent that there was no capacity on the existing network for integrating the DLR into the Underground.
Two southern terminus options were put forward, at Cubitt Town (today's Island Gardens station) and Tiller Road, on the west side of Millwall Dock, with two possible routes to reach them. A "western" route would have run from the Westferry station alongside West Ferry Road via Cuba Street, then either terminating at Tiller Road or continuing over Millwall Docks Cut to a terminus at Cubitt Town. The "central" option required the West India Docks to be infilled or bridged and would run down the middle of the peninsula, through what was at the time an area of derelict warehouses. Ultimately this latter option was chosen, though the 1981 London Transport report warned that without extensive development around Canary Wharf the area would be "very isolated with poor traffic prospects" – as indeed it was, for a number of years.
The contract for the initial system was awarded to a GEC / John Mowlem joint venture in 1984 and the system was constructed from 1985 to 1987 at a cost of £77 million.[page needed] The line was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 30 July 1987, and passenger services began on 31 August.
Initial system (1987–1990)
The initial system comprised two routes, from Tower Gateway and Stratford to Island Gardens. It was mainly elevated on disused railway viaducts or new concrete viaducts, and adopted disused surface railway formations between Poplar and Stratford. The trains were fully automated, controlled by computer, and had no driver; a Passenger Service Agent (PSA) on each train, originally referred to as a "Train Captain", was responsible for patrolling the train, checking tickets, making announcements and controlling the doors. PSAs could take control of the train in circumstances including equipment failure and emergencies. A total of eleven units supplied by Linke-Hofmann-Busch comprised the first generation of the Docklands Light Railway rolling stock.
The system was lightweight, with stations designed for trains of only a single articulated vehicle. The three branches totalled 8 miles (13 km), had 15 stations, and were connected by a flat triangular junction near Poplar. Services ran from Tower Gateway to Island Gardens and from Stratford to Island Gardens; the north side of the junction was used only for access to the depot at Poplar. The stations were mostly of a common design and constructed from standard components. A common feature was a short half-cylindrical glazed blue canopy. All stations were above ground and were generally unstaffed.
Extensions to the City and the Royal Docks (1991–1994)
The initial system had a relatively low capacity, but the Docklands area very quickly developed into a major financial centre and employment zone, increasing traffic. In particular Tower Gateway, at the edge of the City of London, attracted criticism for its poor connections, as it did not connect directly with the nearby Tower Hill tube station or Fenchurch Street railway station. The criticism arose partly because the system usage was higher than expected. Plans were developed, before the system opened, to extend it to Bank in the west and Beckton in the east. Stations and trains were extended to two-unit length, and the system was expanded into the heart of the City of London to Bank through a tunnel, which opened in 1991. This extension left Tower Gateway on a stub. The original trains were not suitable for underground usage due to not meeting the fire safety laws for underground trains. They were operated for a time on the above-ground sections only, and were later sold.
As the Canary Wharf office complex grew, Canary Wharf DLR station was redeveloped from a small wayside station to a large one with six platforms serving three tracks and a large overall roof, fully integrated into the malls below the office towers.
The east of Docklands needed better transport connections to encourage development, and a fourth branch, towards Beckton, was planned, with several route options available. A route from Poplar via Canning Town and the north side of the Royal Docks complex was chosen, and opened in 1994. Initially it was thought the line was likely to be underutilised, due to the sparse development in the area. As part of this extension, one side of the original flat triangular junction was replaced by a grade-separated junction west of Poplar. Poplar was rebuilt to give cross-platform interchange between the Stratford and Beckton lines, with a new grade-separated junction built east of the station at the divergence of the Stratford and Beckton lines.
Extension to Greenwich & Lewisham (1996–1999)
Early on, Lewisham London Borough Council commissioned a feasibility study into extending the system under the River Thames. This led the council to advocate an extension via Greenwich and Deptford, terminating at Lewisham railway station. The ambitions of the operators were supported by politicians in Parliament, including the future Labour Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott, and Lord Whitty; and by 1996 construction work had begun.
The Lewisham extension opened on 20 November 1999. It left the Island Gardens route south of the Crossharbour turn-back sidings, and dropped gently to Mudchute, where a street-level station replaced the high-level one on the former London & Blackwall Railway viaduct. The line then entered a tunnel, following the route of the viaduct to a shallow subsurface station at Island Gardens, accessible by stairs or a lift. It crossed under the Thames to Cutty Sark in the centre of Greenwich, and surfaced at Greenwich railway station, with cross-platform interchange between the northbound track and the London-bound main line. The line snaked on a concrete viaduct to Deptford Bridge, before descending to Elverson Road at street level, close to Lewisham town centre, terminating in two platforms between and below the main-line platforms at Lewisham railway station, with buses stopping outside the station. The extension quickly proved profitable.
Extensions to London City Airport & Woolwich (2004–2009)
The next developments were aided by a five-year programme of investment for public transport across London that was unveiled by Mayor of London Ken Livingstone on 12 October 2004. On 2 December 2005, an eastward branch along the approximate route of the former Eastern Counties and Thames Junction Railway on the southern side of the Royal Docks complex opened from Canning Town to King George V via London City Airport.
A further extension from King George V to Woolwich Arsenal opened on 10 January 2009, providing interchange with the North Kent main line, close to the planned future stop on the Crossrail line to Abbey Wood via West India and Royal Docks, met by Private Finance Initiative funding. Construction began in June 2005, the same month that the contracts were finalised, and the tunnels were completed on 23 July 2007, and formally opened by Boris Johnson, Mayor of London on 12 January 2009. Following completion, the project was shortlisted for the 2009 Prime Minister's Better Public Building Award.
The original Tower Gateway station was closed in mid-2008 for complete reconstruction. The two terminal tracks either side of a narrow island platform were replaced by a single track between two platforms, one for arriving passengers and the other for departing (Spanish solution). It reopened on 2 March 2009.
As part of an upgrade to allow three-car trains, strengthening work was necessary at the Delta Junction north of West India Quay. It was decided to include this in a plan for further grade separation to eliminate the conflict between services to Stratford and from Bank. A new timetable was introduced, with improved frequencies at peak hours. The new grade-separated route from Bank to Canary Wharf is used throughout the day, bypassing West India Quay station until mid-evening. Work on this project proceeded concurrently with the three-car upgrade work and the 'diveunder' (sometimes referred to as a flyunder but DLR have coined the term in this instance 'diveunder'), and the improved timetable came into use on 24 August 2009.
Upgrade to three-car trains (2007-2011)
Capacity was increased by upgrading for trains with three cars, each with four doors per side. The alternative of more frequent trains was rejected as the signalling changes needed would have cost no less than upgrading to longer trains and with fewer benefits. The railway had been built for single-car operation, and the upgrade required both strengthening viaducts to take heavier trains and lengthening many platforms. The extra capacity was useful for the 2012 Summer Olympics, which increased the use of London's transport network. The main contractor for the expansion and alteration works was Taylor Woodrow.
Elverson Road, Royal Albert, Gallions Reach and Cutty Sark have not been extended for three-car trains; such extension may be impossible in some cases. Selective door operation is used, with emergency walkways in case a door fails to remain shut. Cutty Sark station is underground, and both costs and the risk to nearby historic buildings prevent platform extension. The tunnel has an emergency walkway. Additional work beyond that needed to take the three-car trains was also carried out at some stations. This included replacing canopies with more substantial ones along the full platform length. A new South Quay station has been built 200 metres (660 ft) east of the former location as nearby curves precluded lengthening. Mudchute now has a third platform.
For this upgrade DLR purchased an additional 31 cars compatible with existing rolling stock. The works were originally planned as three phases: Bank-Lewisham, Poplar-Stratford, and the Beckton branch. The original £200m contract was awarded on 3 May 2007. Work started in 2007 and Bank-Lewisham was originally due to be completed in 2009. However, the work programme for the first two phases was merged and the infrastructure work was completed by the end of January 2010. The Lewisham-Bank route now runs three-car trains exclusively. They started running on the Beckton branch on 9 May 2011. Stratford to Lewisham and Bank to Woolwich Arsenal services sometimes operate as three-car trains; other routes run the longer trains when required.
Extension to Stratford International (2011)
In addition to the three-car station extensions, partly funded from the 2012 Olympics budget, a line was opened from Canning Town to Stratford and Stratford International railway station along the former North London Line of the national railway system, with additional stations. It parallels the London Underground Jubilee line for much of its length.
The extension to Stratford International, taking over the North London Line from Canning Town to Stratford, links the Docklands area with domestic high-speed services on High Speed 1. It was an important part of transport improvements for the 2012 Olympic Games, much of which were held on a site adjoining Stratford International.
The first contract for construction work was awarded on 10 January 2007 and construction started in mid-2007. Originally scheduled to open in mid-2010, the line opened on 31 August 2011. On 11 November 2015 the Mayor of London announced that all stations on this line would be rezoned from zone 3 to zone 2/3.
New stations were (names in bold are former North London Line stations): Canning Town, Star Lane, West Ham, Abbey Road, Stratford High Street (on the site of Stratford Market railway station), Stratford and Stratford International.
From Canning Town to Stratford the extension runs parallel to the Jubilee line of the London Underground. As well as providing interchange with the adjacent Jubilee line stations, there are additional DLR stations at Star Lane, Abbey Road and Stratford High Street.
At Stratford new platforms have been built for the North London Line at the northern end of the station. The old platforms (formerly 1 and 2) adjacent to the Jubilee line were rebuilt for the DLR, renumbered 16 (towards Stratford International) and 17 (towards Beckton/Woolwich Arsenal). Interchange between the Stratford International branch and DLR trains via Poplar is possible although the platforms are widely separated and at different levels. There is no physical connection between the two branches.
Relocation of Pudding Mill Lane station (2014)
One of the tunnel portals for Crossrail is on the original site of Pudding Mill Lane station. As a consequence, work was carried out to divert the DLR between City Mill River and the River Lea onto a new viaduct further south. This included a replacement station, which opened on 28 April 2014. The former station stood on the only significant section of single track on the system, between Bow Church and Stratford, though the opportunity was taken to double the track in three stages, to improve capacity. There was originally no provision for works beyond the realigned section in the Crossrail Act.
The DLR has 38 kilometres (24 mi) of tracks, with 45 stations. There are six branches: to Lewisham in the south, Stratford and Stratford International in the north, Beckton and Woolwich Arsenal in the east, and Central London in the west, splitting to Bank and Tower Gateway.
The northern, southern and south-eastern branches terminate at the National Rail stations at Stratford, Stratford International, Lewisham and Woolwich Arsenal. Other interchanges with National Rail are at Limehouse, Greenwich and West Ham, while out of station interchanges for Oyster card holders exist between Shadwell DLR station and London Overground's station of the same name, and between Fenchurch Street and the DLR's western termini Tower Gateway and Bank.
Between Limehouse and Tower Gateway, the DLR runs parallel to the London, Tilbury and Southend line.
Although the layout allows many different routes, the following are operated in normal service:
|Bank – Lewisham||15||Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, West India Quay (Bank-bound only), Canary Wharf, Heron Quays, South Quay, Crossharbour, Mudchute, Island Gardens, Cutty Sark, Greenwich, Deptford Bridge, Elverson Road|
|Bank – Woolwich Arsenal||7.5||Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, Poplar, Blackwall, East India, Canning Town, West Silvertown, Pontoon Dock, London City Airport, King George V|
|Tower Gateway – Beckton||7.5||Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, Poplar, Blackwall, East India, Canning Town, Royal Victoria, Custom House, Prince Regent, Royal Albert, Beckton Park, Cyprus, Gallions Reach|
|Stratford – Lewisham or Canary Wharf||15||Pudding Mill Lane, Bow Church, Devons Road, Langdon Park, All Saints, Poplar, West India Quay|
7.5tph extended beyond/towards Canary Wharf calling at Heron Quays, South Quay, Crossharbour, Mudchute, Island Gardens, Cutty Sark, Greenwich, Deptford Bridge, Elverson Road
|Stratford International – Woolwich Arsenal||7.5||Stratford, Stratford High Street, Abbey Road, West Ham, Star Lane, Canning Town, West Silvertown, Pontoon Dock, London City Airport, King George V|
|Bank – Lewisham||12||Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, West India Quay (Bank-bound only), Canary Wharf, Heron Quays, South Quay, Crossharbour, Mudchute, Island Gardens, Cutty Sark, Greenwich, Deptford Bridge, Elverson Road|
|Bank – Woolwich Arsenal||6||Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, Poplar, Blackwall, East India, Canning Town, West Silvertown, Pontoon Dock, London City Airport, King George V|
|Tower Gateway – Beckton||6||Shadwell, Limehouse, Westferry, Poplar, Blackwall, East India, Canning Town, Royal Victoria, Custom House, Prince Regent, Royal Albert, Beckton Park, Cyprus, Gallions Reach|
|Canning Town – Beckton Inter-peak only.||6||Royal Victoria, Custom House, Prince Regent, Royal Albert, Beckton Park, Cyprus, Gallions Reach|
|Stratford – Canary Wharf||6||Pudding Mill Lane, Bow Church, Devons Road, Langdon Park, All Saints, Poplar, West India Quay|
|Stratford International – Woolwich Arsenal||6||Stratford, Stratford High Street, Abbey Road, West Ham, Star Lane, Canning Town, West Silvertown, Pontoon Dock, London City Airport, King George V|
There is capability for an additional shuttle from Canning Town to Prince Regent when exhibitions are in progress at the ExCeL exhibition centre.
At terminal stations trains reverse direction in the platforms, except at Bank where there is a reversing headshunt in the tunnel beyond the station. Many peak-hour trains on the Lewisham route from Stratford turn back at Canary Wharf. During service disruption or planned engineering work, trains can also turn back at Crossharbour and Mudchute. Trains serve every station on the route, but trains from Bank to Lewisham do not call at West India Quay because they are routed along the diveunder track to avoid junction conflicts. During long-term works for extension projects, other routes may be operated at weekends, such as Beckton to Lewisham if the Bank branch is closed.
Most stations are elevated, with others at street level, in cutting or underground. Access to the platforms is mostly by staircase and lift, with escalators at some stations. From the outset the system has been fully accessible to wheelchairs; much attention was paid to quick and effective accessibility for all passengers. The stations have high platforms matching the floor height of the cars, allowing level access for passengers with wheelchairs or pushchairs.
Most stations are of a modular design dating back to the initial system, extended and improved with two side platforms, each with separate access from the street, and platform canopies, although few examples remain of the original, distinctive rounded roof design. Stations are unstaffed, except the underground stations at Bank, Stratford International and Woolwich Arsenal for safety reasons, a few of the busier interchange stations, and City Airport, which has a ticket office for passengers unfamiliar with the system. Canning Town, Custom House and Prince Regent are normally staffed on the platform whenever there is a significant exhibition at the ExCeL exhibition centre.
On 3 July 2007, DLR officially launched an art programme called DLR Art, similar to that on the London Underground, Art on the Underground. Alan Williams was appointed to produce the first temporary commission, called "Sidetrack", which portrays the ordinary and extraordinary sights, often unfamiliar to passengers, on the system and was displayed throughout the network.
Fares and ticketing
The system is part of the London fare zone system, and Travelcards that cover the appropriate zones are valid. There are one-day and season DLR-only "Rover" tickets, plus a one-day DLR "Rail and River Rover" ticket for the DLR and City Cruises river boats. Oyster pay-as-you-go is also available; or NFC enabled bank card holders (contactless) passengers need to touch both in and out on the platform readers or pass through the automatic gates. Tickets can be purchased from ticket machines at the entrance to the platforms, and are required before entering the platform. There are no ticket barriers at DLR-only stations, and correct ticketing is enforced by random on-train inspections by the PSA. Users of pay-as-you-go Oyster cards or a contactless bank card who have failed to touch in at the start of the journey, as well as other passengers without a correct ticket, may be liable to a £80 penalty fare or prosecution for fare evasion. There are barriers at Bank, Canning Town, Woolwich Arsenal, West Ham and Stratford, where the DLR platforms are within a London Underground or National Rail barrier line.
The DLR is operated by 149 high-floor bi-directional single-articulated Electric Multiple Units (EMUs). Each car has four doors on each side, and two or three cars make up a train. There are no cabs because normal operations are automated, and a small driver's console is concealed behind a locked panel at each end, from which the PSA can drive the car. Consoles at each door opening allow the PSA to control door closure and make announcements whilst patrolling the train. With the absence of a driver's position, the fully glazed car ends provide a forward and rear view for passengers. The top speed is 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph).
Despite having high floors and being automated, the cars are derived from a German light-rail design intended for street running. All cars look similar but there have been several different types, some still in service, others sold to other operators. B2007 units were purchased from Bombardier in 2005 and delivered between 2007 and 2010.
Future rolling stock
In 2017, TfL opened bidding for new trains to run on the DLR. It will order 43 new trains, which will increase capacity by 30% when they are introduced in 2022. The contract will be awarded in 2018 and the trains will feature charging points and air-conditioning. On 12 June 2019, it was announced CAF have been successful in their bid and have been awarded the contract to provide the new trains, entering service in 2023.
There are operating and maintenance depots at Poplar, now secondary to the larger site at Beckton, built on the site of the Beckton Gas Works in 1996 and accessed via a spur at Gallions Reach. Rolling stock is kept at both locations, which have maintenance workshops and extensive open-air carriage sidings. The Poplar depot, which is also the operating headquarters of Docklands Light Railway Ltd, Keolis Amey Docklands Ltd and the Emirates Air-Line cable car, houses diesel locomotives used for track maintenance. Poplar depot is alongside the north side of the Stratford line east of the station, and Beckton depot is to the east of the line on a long spur north-east of Gallions Reach. Beckton Depot has the only level crossing on DLR. It is an AHB type and the barriers are down unless a user wants to cross, much like Appleford but AHB styled.
One of the diesel locos stabled at Poplar is 1979 GEC Traction 0-4-0, one of three built for Shotton Steelworks. Since they were used at the steelworks, one has been scrapped, one has recently been acquired by the Yorkshire Wolds Railway and the third is now at Poplar named "Kevin Keaney". Its original nickname was "Sooty" because of the amount of exhaust this old engine produced.
Originally the DLR used signalling based on a fixed-block technology developed by GEC-General Signal and General Railway Signal. This was replaced in 1994 with a moving-block TBTC (Transmission Based Train Control) system developed by Alcatel, called SelTrac. The SelTrac system was bought by Thales in 2007 and updates are provided by Thales Rail Signalling Solutions. The same technology is used by rapid transit systems including Vancouver's SkyTrain, Toronto's SRT, the San Francisco Municipal Railway and Hong Kong's MTR. The SelTrac S40 system has also been adopted by the London Underground Jubilee line and Northern line. Transmissions occur via an inductive loop cable between each train's Vehicle On-Board Controller (VOBC) and the control centre (VCC, SMC) at Beckton. If this link is broken and communication is lost between the VOBC and VCC, SMC, the train stops until it is authorised to move again. If the whole system fails the train can run in restricted manual at 19 kilometres per hour (12 mph) for safety until the system is restored and communication is re-established. Emergency brakes can be applied if the train breaks the speed limit during manual control or overshoots a fixed stopping point, or if it leaves the station when the route has not been set.
Ownership and structure
The infrastructure is owned by Docklands Light Railway Ltd, part of the London Rail division of Transport for London (TfL), which also manages London Overground, London Trams, Emirates Air Line and Crossrail.
The first franchise was awarded to Serco Docklands Limited for seven years; operations began in April 1997. A management buyout backed by Serco management later sold its shares to Serco. A two-year extension was granted in 2002.
In February 2005 TfL announced that Balfour Beatty/Keolis, First Carillion, RATP/Transdev and Serco had been shortlisted to operate the franchise, and in November 2005 TfL announced that Serco had retained the franchise for seven years from May 2006.
The Lewisham, City Airport and Woolwich Arsenal extensions were designed, financed, built and maintained by private companies (concessionnaires): City Greenwich Lewisham (CGL) Rail, City Airport Rail Enterprises (CARE), and Woolwich Arsenal Rail Enterprises (WARE). In 2011, Transport Trading Limited (a subsidiary of TfL) bought out the companies responsible for the City Airport and Woolwich Arsenal extensions, leaving only the Lewisham extension under private ownership.
In April 2013 TfL announced that Go-Ahead/Colas Rail, Keolis/Amey, Serco and Stagecoach had been shortlisted to bid for the next franchise. However, on 30 August, just before the bid submission date of 9 September 2013, Go-Ahead/Colas Rail pulled out. The franchise was awarded to Keolis/Amey, with a handover date of 7 December 2014, expiring in April 2021 with an option for extension without going to tender.
Within a year of launch, annual passenger numbers reached 17 million, increasing to 64 million in 2009, and more than 80 million in 2011. The most recent figures show 116.8 million annual passengers in the financial year to 31 March 2020. The first five years had unreliability and operational problems, but the system has since become highly reliable. Research in 2008 showed 87% of the population of North Woolwich were in favour of the DLR.
The Parliamentary Transport Select Committee favourably reviewed light rail in 2005, and due to the success of the DLR, proposals for similar systems elsewhere emerged. The North and West London Light Railway was a plan for an orbital railway serving the other side of London. The DLR has been successful, as have other recent light rail systems, although it was earlier criticised for having been designed with insufficient capacity to meet the demand that quickly arose.
Until 1 July 2013, the only bicycles that were allowed were folding ones. DLR stated that this is because if evacuation is required, they would slow down the process. DLR cars, especially older rolling stock, were not designed with bicycles in mind – if they were allowed, they might obstruct doors and emergency exits. Since January 2014 full-size bicycles have been allowed on DLR trains at off-peak hours and weekends (except Bank Station, where bicycles are not permitted for safety reasons).
The key available trends in recent years for the Docklands Light Railway are (years ending 31 March):
|Passenger revenue[a] (£m)||64.0||74.9||88.8||102.8||122.1||130.0||146.2||158.4||166.5||168.3||171.6||168.8|
|'Profit' ("Financial assistance given")[b] (£m)||−43.1||−42.9|
|Number of passengers (m)||67.8||69.4||78.3||86.1||100.0||101.6||110.2||116.9||122.3||119.6||121.8||116.8|
|Number of trains (at year end)||110||149||149||149||149||149||149||149||149||149||149||149|
- Status – As of December 2020[update], technical and feasibility work underway by Transport for London
Mooted throughout the 2010s, an extension across the River Thames to Thamesmead was first proposed in November 2019 as part of the Thamesmead and Abbey Wood OAPF (Opportunity Area Planning Framework). Technical and feasibility work began in late 2020, following adoption of the OAPF. Stations would be located at Beckton Riverside and Thamesmead.
Thames Wharf station
As part of the construction of the London City Airport extension in the mid 2000s, a gap in the viaduct due west of the western end of Royal Victoria Dock, between Canning Town and West Silvertown stations - was passively safeguarded for a future station when development came forward on the brownfield and industrial sites. The potential of development on the land was on hold for until the late 2010s, as the area was being safeguarded for the route of the Silvertown Tunnel, a new Thames river crossing currently under construction on the site.
As part of the 2018 budget, the Chancellor announced funding for the DLR to support development in the Royal Docks. Following completion of the Silvertown Tunnel in the mid 2020s, around 5,000 homes will be built on the site, and a new DLR station would be constructed.
Tower Gateway station to Tower Hill interchange
- Status – long term aspiration (2050)
In July 2014, a Transport Supporting Paper from the London Infrastructure Plan 2050 by the Mayor of London considered the closure of Tower Gateway DLR station and the branch serving it, with a replacement interchange being provided via new platforms at Tower Hill Underground station. This would increase train frequencies to Bank by approximately 30%, thereby unlocking more capacity on the Bank branch.[note 1] However, this document notes that this would be a long-term aspiration - around 2050.
Extensions cancelled or not progressed
Dagenham Dock extension
- Status – Cancelled 2008
The extension to Dagenham Dock in East London, via the Barking Riverside development was first proposed in 2003, and was anticipated that the project could be completed and open for use by 2017, at a cost of around £750m. In November 2008, the Mayor of London Boris Johnson announced that due to financial constraints the extension, along with a number of other transport projects, had been cancelled. The Barking Riverside development will now be served by an extension of the London Overground to a new station at Barking Riverside, costing around £260m.
Victoria/Charing Cross extensions
- Status – Proposed 2006
While not confirmed, it is probable that the Charing Cross scheme would use the overrun tunnels between Charing Cross Jubilee platforms and slightly west of Aldwych. These tunnels were intended to be incorporated into the abandoned Phase 2 of the Fleet Line (Phase 1 became the original Jubilee line, prior to the Jubilee line Extension). However they would need enlargement because DLR gauge is larger than tube gauge and current safety regulations would require an emergency walkway in the tunnel.
Two reasons driving the proposal are capacity problems at Bank, having just one interchange between the DLR and the central portion of Underground, and the difficult journeys faced by passengers from Kent and South Coast between their rail termini and the DLR. Intermediate stations would be at City Thameslink/Ludgate Circus and Aldwych, which was intended for future connection with the proposed but now abandoned Cross River Tram.
Euston/St Pancras extension
- Status – Proposed
In 2011, strategy documents proposed a DLR extension to Euston and St Pancras. Transport for London have considered driving a line from City Thameslink via Holborn north to the rail termini. The main benefit of such an extension would be to broaden the available direct transport links to the Canary Wharf site. It would create a new artery in central London and help relieve the Northern and Circle lines and provide another metro line to serve the High Speed line into Euston.
Lewisham to Catford/Lewisham to Beckenham Junction extension
- Status – Proposed in 2006
This possible extension was considered during the latest Horizon Study. The route would follow the Southeastern line and terminate between Catford and Catford Bridge stations. It has been seen as attractive to the district, as has the current terminus at Lewisham, built in an earlier extension. A map published in 2010 by Transport for London suggests that a further extension from Catford to Forest Hill has also been considered.
However, early plans showed problems due to Lewisham station being only marginally lower than the busy A20 road, which impedes any extension. The plan is however being revised. When the Lewisham extension was first completed there were proposals to continue further to Beckenham to link it up with the Tramlink system. However, the way in which Lewisham station was built impedes this possible extension and it would prove costly to redevelop.
Lewisham to Bromley North extension
- Status – Proposed in 2012
Another proposal is to Bromley North by taking over the Bromley North Line, a short National Rail branch line which has no direct services into Central London. The scheme being considered by Transport for London and the London Borough of Bromley would convert the branch line to DLR operation. Although Lewisham Council planned to re-route the A20 road and redevelop the area south of Lewisham DLR station, the plans published in 2012 have no safeguarded route for an extension, making one unlikely.
Accidents and incidents
- On 10 March 1987, before the system opened, a test train crashed through buffer stops at the original high-level Island Gardens terminus and was left hanging from the end of the elevated track. The accident was caused by unauthorised tests being run before the correct installation of the wayside safety system had been verified; an omission in the wayside system allowed the train to travel too fast on the approach to the terminus. The train was being driven manually at the time.[page needed][page needed]
- On 22 April 1991, two trains collided at a junction on the West India Quay bridge during morning rush hour, requiring a shutdown of the system and evacuation of passengers by ladder. One train was travelling automatically; the other was under manual control.
- On 9 February 1996, the Provisional IRA blew up a lorry under a bridge near South Quay, killing two people and injuring many others. This 1996 bombing caused £85 million of damage and marked an end to an IRA ceasefire in force at the time. Significant disruption was caused and a train was stranded at Island Gardens, unable to move until the track was rebuilt.
The DLR appears in the video to Sean Paul and Clean Bandit's single "Rockabye". Poplar, Canary Wharf and Heron Quays stations appear, interspersed with scenes of New York in winter, in the official video for the single "Trains and Winter Rains" by Enya, released in 2008.
The DLR also appears in the 2007 film 28 Weeks Later.
- List of Docklands Light Railway stations
- List of tram and light rail transit systems
- Rail transport in the United Kingdom
- Transport in London (overview)
- Crossings of the River Thames
- Tunnels underneath the River Thames
- "Light rail and tram statistics (LRT)". Department for Transport. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- "TfL transparency". Department for Transport. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Docklands Light Railway Capacity Upgrading, United Kingdom". Railway-Technology.com. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Cross, David (1 September 1987). "Enthusiasts flock to busy opening day: Docklands Light Railway". The Times. London.
- "URI". Data.companieshouse.gov.uk. 13 October 2011. Archived from the original on 31 March 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "The closure of the docks: The end of the upstream docks". Barking & Dagenham Council. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- Christopher, John (30 September 2013). The London & Blackwall Railway. Amberley Publishing. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-4456-2187-6.
- Pearce, Alan; Hardy, Brian; Stannard, Colin (November 2000). Docklands Light Railway Official Handbook. Harrow Weald: Capital Transport Publishing. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-185414-223-8.
- Pearce, Hardy & Stannard 2000, p. 6
- Pearce, Hardy & Stannard 2000, p. 7
- "World Report". Railway Age. October 1984. p. 31.
- "Docklands Light Railway (D.L.R.)". Exploring 20th Century London. Archived from the original on 15 March 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
- Ford, Roger (September 1987). "Opening of the Docklands Light Railway". Modern Railways. London.
- "Technology: Signalling & Control". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2007.
- "The Docklands Light Railway, London, UK". BBC – h2g2. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2007.
- McCarthy, Colin; McCarthy, David (2009). Railways of Britain – London North of the Thames. Hersham, Surrey: Ian Allan Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-7110-3346-7.
- "Mayor of London – Transport Strategy – DLR". Greater London Authority. c. 2006. Archived from the original on 12 March 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "New Games transport link marks 20 years of progress". London 2012 Official Blog. 13 January 2009. Archived from the original on 28 May 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Hansard Written Answers". UK Parliament. 6 May 1987. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012.
- "Ben Roskrow reports on Nuttal's extension of the Docklands Light Railway". Construction News. 16 February 1990. Archived from the original on 28 September 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- "DLR history timeline". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
- "Options for the DLR Beckton Extension route". London Docklands Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2008.
- Widdicombe, Gillian (30 March 1994). "Architecture: A driverless train, a blighted destination". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- Wolmar, Christian (25 January 1995). "Crucial links hold key to the future: Docklands, a special report". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Prescott backs DLR airport extension". New Civil Engineer. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- "DLR: Take off for airport link" (Press release). M2 Presswire. 18 February 1999. Retrieved 25 June 2009.[dead link]
- De Haan, Judy (29 August 2000). "Getting Back on the Right Track (letter to the editor)". The Bolton News. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- Withers, Malcolm (8 March 2001). "DLR helps Mowlem ride high at £25 million". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- Muir, Hugh (12 October 2004). "Mayor unveils £10bn scheme for capital's transport". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
- Hamilton, Fiona; Coates, Sam; Savage, Michael (6 December 2005). "Docklands Light Railway reaches City airport". The Times. London. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- "New DLR extension wins approval". BBC News. 26 February 2004. Archived from the original on 16 February 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "AMEC, RBoS jv finalise contract for DLR extension to Woolwich Arsenal". Forbes. New York. 6 January 2005. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Tunnel extending Docklands Light Railway to Woolwich completed" (Press release). Transport for London. 23 July 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 29 June 2008.
- "Mayor unveils DLR Woolwich Arsenal station" (Press release). Transport for London. 12 January 2009. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "DLR extension award". Construction News. 10 June 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Tower Gateway Station – Now Open". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 2 July 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- "DLR Terminal suddenly reopens: Taking passengers by surprise". East London Advertiser. Ilford. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- Christopher 2013, p. 68
- "Docklands Light Railway (DLR) Delta Junction Grade Separation" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- "Docklands Light Railway – West India Quay/Poplar Junction Improvements". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
- "Docklands Light Railway – Development Projects". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
- "Docklands Light Railway – Three-carriage Capacity Enhancement Project". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 3 August 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
- "Longer trains for Docklands Line". BBC News. 31 July 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Docklands Light Railway (DLR) 3 Car Enhancements Project". Arup. Archived from the original on 21 April 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Taylor Woodrow wins £200m Docklands Light Railway project". Contract Journal. 3 May 2007. Archived from the original on 17 January 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Mudchute third platform". London Connections. 11 April 2008. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2008.
- Barrow, Keith (July 2006). "Olympic rail gets a head start". International Railway Journal. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Extra carriage on every DLR train" (Press release). Transport for London. 3 May 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
- "Docklands Light Railway ready for 2012 Games with three-car upgrade completed" (Press release). Transport for London. 10 May 2011. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011.
- "£20m bullet trains to serve Olympic Park" (Press release). London2012.org. 28 September 2004. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2005.
- "Major contract award signals start of work on DLR Stratford International Extension". Transport for London. 10 January 2007. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Government gives green light to key 2012 rail link" (Press release). Transport for London. 25 October 2006. Archived from the original on 14 September 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "New £211m DLR extension connecting Olympic venues opens". BBC News. 31 August 2011. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011.
- "Mayor announces real terms fares freeze | London City Hall". London.gov.uk. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "New DLR station opens at Pudding Mill Lane". Transport for London. 28 April 2014. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "Pudding Mill Lane Station To Be Rebuilt". Londonist. 28 July 2011. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Abbott, James (March 2006). "DLR aims for Charing Cross". Modern Railways. London. p. 54.
- "Increased services for Docklands Light Railway routes". Transport for London. 24 August 2015. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016.
- "About TfL - Culture & heritage - London's transport - a history - Docklands Light Railway (DLR)". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 15 June 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- "Docklands Light Railway". Official London Guide. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "OSI List". oyster-rail.org.uk. October 2014. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- "Docklands Light Railway Franchise Agreement: Appendix A" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 November 2015.
- "DLR was the first fully accessible railway in the UK, making access much easier for everyone". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "Docklands Light Railway draws up public arts strategy" (Press release). Transport for London. 3 July 2007. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "The DLR Public Arts Programme". DLR Art. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- "Alan Williams – Sidetrack". Docklands Light Railway. Archived from the original on 29 August 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- "London jetpack: London Oyster travelcard". studentjetpacks.com. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
- Webster, Ben; Clennell, Andrew (5 January 2004). "Tube errors may cost you dear". The Times. London.
- "Unmanned Train: DLR Respond". The Londonist (blog). 2 November 2007. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Bombardier receives a $94 million US order from Docklands Light Railway for automatic Light Rail cars to be used in London, UK" (Press release). Montreal: Bombardier. 4 May 2005. Archived from the original on 21 August 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
- "TfL opens bidding for 43 new DLR trains". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017.
- "CAF WINS DRIVERLESS TRAINS CONTRACT IN LONDON". CAF. 12 June 2019.
- Christopher 2013, p. 67
- Pearce, Hardy & Stannard 2000, p. 66
- "URI". Data.companieshouse.gov.uk. 13 October 2011. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Acquisition of DRML Shares" (Press release). Serco. 1997. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013.
- "Four Pre-Qualify for DLR Franchise" (Press release). Transport for London. 15 February 2005. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013.
- "Serco appointed preferred bidder for £400m Docklands Light Rail service" (Press release). Serco. 22 November 2005. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013.
- "DLR awards new franchise to Serco" (Press release). Transport for London. 8 March 2006. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013.
- "DLR management". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
- "TfL Subsidiary Company Structure" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2012.
- "TfL expects £250m saving from buying Docklands Light Railway PFI concessionaires". Railway Gazette. London. 6 December 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- "Docklands Light Rail franchise contract". OJEU tender. 13 July 2012.
- "DLR operating contract extended until September 2014" (Press release). Transport for London. 7 January 2013. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "DLR announces short list of bidders for new franchise" (Press release). Transport for London. 17 April 2013.
- Thomas, Natalie (31 August 2013). "Go-Ahead forced to pull out of DLR contest". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
- "French firm wins 7-year Docklands Light Rail franchise". BBC News. 4 July 2014. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- "Docklands Light Railway performance". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 23 January 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Docklands Light Railway carries 60 million passengers" (Press release). Transport for London. 4 April 2007. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- "Client News - DLR now carries more than 10 times the population of London per year". Flagship Consulting. 21 June 2012. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "DLR: resolving the problems". London Docklands Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
- "North Woolwich Research: Changes, 2006–2008 – The influence of Docklands Light Railway" (PDF). Social Research Associates. July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
- "Horses for Courses: The Advantages of Light Rail". Commons Transport Select Committee. UK Parliament. 3 April 2005. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012.
- Flintoff, John-Paul (17 September 2009). "Orbital rail the solution to city congestion?". The Times (Environment blog). London. Archived from the original on 25 September 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
- "Light Rail – the Solution to Inner-City Chaos?". Railway-Technology.com. 22 May 2008. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
- "Bikes on public transport". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Low, Valerie (6 August 2007). "Last one in the water is toast". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- ibikelondon (18 January 2014). "i b i k e l o n d o n: Good news! From today you can take your bike on the Docklands Light Railway". Ibikelondon.blogspot.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Transport for London Financial Statements for the year ended 31 March 2020 (Draft)" (PDF). TfL. 31 May 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- "Transport for London Financial Statements for the year ended 31 March 2020" (PDF). TfL. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "TfL and partners commence feasibility work on extending DLR into Thamesmead". Transport for London. 21 December 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
- Mayor of London (10 October 2016). "East London Crossings (8)". Mayor's Question Time. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "DLR extension to provide 11,500-home Thamesmead boost". Inside Housing. 4 October 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- Leeming, Lachlan. "See DLR extension plans for Thamesmead and Abbey Wood". Bexley Times. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "Workshops about the future of Thamesmead and Abbey Wood opened to public". News Shopper. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "TfL and partners commence feasibility work on extending DLR into Thamesmead". Transport for London. 21 December 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
- "Thamesmead and Abbey Wood Opportunity Area". London.gov.uk. Greater London Authority. 21 December 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
- "Thamesmead and Abbey Wood OAPF - OAPF Transport Strategy" (PDF). London.gov.uk. Greater London Authority. December 2020. p. 25-26. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "Coming soon: a new stop on the DLR". The Royal Docks. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "Improvements and Projects - Silvertown Tunnel". Transport for London. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- Long, Rhiannon. "Chancellor pledges £291million to build homes around the Isle of Dogs and Royal Docks". Newham Recorder. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "Thameside West". Keystone. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "London Infrastructure Plan 2050: Transport Supporting Paper" (PDF). London City Hall. p. 143. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- "TfL scraps projects and cuts jobs". BBC News. 6 November 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "DLR extension planned". New Civil Engineer. 1 March 2003. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "Docklands Light Railway - Dagenham Dock: Key Project Milestones". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 15 June 2009.
- Johnson, Marc (12 September 2017). "In focus: London Overground's Barking Riverside Extension". RailStaff. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "Improvements and Projects - Barking Riverside extension". Transport for London. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- Ove Arup & Partners Ltd. (July 2005). "Bank-Aldwych-Charing Cross (E2)" (PDF). DLR Horizon 2020 Study: Business Case Appraisal. Docklands Light Railway Ltd. p. 34. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- Feather, Clive. "Jubilee Line, A Modern Tube". Clive's UndergrounD Line Guides (CLUG). Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2008.
- "The long and confusing history that explains why Charing Cross and Embankment are so weird | CityMetric". www.citymetric.com. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
- "TfL Moots New DLR Routes, Including Victoria And St Pancras". Londonist. 3 May 2011. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Potential DLR extensions" (PDF). Transport for London. 21 September 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Wilkes, Roger (19 June 2002). "One long picnic, it certainly ain't". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "DLR takes off". Contract Journal. 6 May 2004. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "DLR to Catford". Always Touch Out. 27 October 2007. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
- "Bakerloo line extension. Background to Consultation Summary Report. October 2019" (PDF). Transport for London. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- "Could the DLR or Bakerloo line be coming to Bromley?". This is Local London. 23 January 2012. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Future Rail and Tram Links to Bromley" (PDF). Report No. ES12004. London Borough of Bromley. 18 January 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "Masterplan". Lewisham Gateway: Phase A Consultation. Lewisham Council. December 2012. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "The Past and Future of the Bromley North Branch". London Reconnections. 25 January 2013. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- "London Docklands Light Railway; Northern Line's Dot-Matrix Indicators". RISKS Digest. 5 (29). 13 August 1987. Article 3. Archived from the original on 24 August 2007.
- "Report on the Docklands Light Railway Accident Which Occurred at Island Gardens Station on 10 March 1987". Modern Railways. London. May 1987.
- "'Unauthorised Tests' Caused DLR Crash". Modern Railways. London. June 1987.
- Kamens, Jonathan I. (23 April 1991). "Another commuter train wreck in London". RISKS Digest. 11 (52). Archived from the original on 26 July 2007.
- "Computer-controlled commuter trains collide in east London". UPI. 22 April 1991.
- Batten, Ian G. (25 April 1991). "Trains collide in east London". RISKS Digest. 11 (54). Archived from the original on 22 September 2007.
- Tumposky, Ellen; Gentile, Don (10 February 1996). "Blast shatters London, Adams Presumes IRA's Responsible". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 12 September 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
- "Docklands bomb ends IRA ceasefire". BBC News. 10 February 1996. Archived from the original on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Jolly, Stephen; Bayman, Bob (November 1986). Docklands Light Railway Official Handbook. Harrow Weald: Capital Transport Publishing. ISBN 978-0-904711-80-6.
- Gonsalves, B.F.; Deacon, R.W.; Pilgrim, D; Pritchard, B.P. (October 1991). "Docklands Light Railway and Subsequent Upgrading". 90. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. OCLC 24833359. Cite journal requires
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Docklands Light Railway.|
|West:||Crossings of the River Thames||East:|
between Canada Water
and Canary Wharf
between Island Gardens
and Cutty Sark
|Greenwich Foot Tunnel|
|Woolwich foot tunnel||Woolwich branch,
between King George V
and Woolwich Arsenal
|Dartford Cable Tunnel|