Doctor Who missing episodes

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Material from missing Doctor Who serials has seen release in books and in audio form on CD, and several episodes have been animated for DVD release. DVDs have also been released of surviving episodes from otherwise-missing serials, and tele-snaps exist of many missing episodes.

The Doctor Who missing episodes are the instalments of the long-running British science-fiction television programme Doctor Who with no known film or videotape copies. They were destroyed by the BBC during the 1960s and 1970s for economic and space-saving reasons.[1] There are 26 incomplete Doctor Who serials, with 97 of 253 episodes from the first six years of the programme missing. Many more were thought to be lost until copies were recovered from various sources, mostly overseas broadcasters.

Doctor Who is not unique in this respect, as thousands of hours of programming of all genres were destroyed by the BBC until 1978, when the corporation's archiving policies were changed. Other high-profile series affected included Dad's Army, Z-Cars, The Wednesday Play, Steptoe and Son, and Not Only... But Also.[2] The BBC was not the only British broadcaster to carry out this practice; ITV regional franchise companies also destroyed programmes, including early videotape episodes of The Avengers.[3]

Doctor Who is rare, however, in that all of its many missing episodes survive in audio form, recorded off-air by fans at home.[4] Stills or short video clips have been found for several missing episodes. All 1970s episodes also exist visually in some form, which is not the case for several other series.

Efforts to locate missing episodes continue, both by the BBC and by fans of the series. Extensive restoration has been carried out on many recovered 1960s and 1970s episodes for release on VHS and DVD. The surviving soundtracks of missing episodes have been released on cassette and CD. Fan groups and the BBC have released reconstructions of missing episodes, using surviving footage and matching photographs from the episodes with the soundtracks. The BBC has also commissioned a number of animated reconstructions of episodes from serials that are fairly complete, where the episode soundtrack has been put together with a specially animated version of the episode; these have been released alongside the surviving episodes on DVD.


Between approximately 1967 and 1978, large quantities of videotape and film stored in the BBC's Engineering department and film libraries, respectively, were destroyed or wiped to make way for newer programmes.[1] This happened for a number of reasons, the primary one being the belief that there was no reason for the material to be kept.

The actors' union Equity had actively fought against the introduction of TV recording since it originally became a practical proposition in the 1950s. Prior to the development of workable television recording, if a broadcaster wished to repeat a programme (usually a one-off play), the actors would be re-hired for an additional fee to perform it again live. Equity's concern was that if broadcasters were able to record the original performances, they would be able to repeat them indefinitely, which would cut down on the levels of new production and threaten the livelihoods of its members. Although Equity could not prevent recording altogether, it was able to add standard clauses to its members' contracts that stipulated that recordings could only be repeated a set number of times within a specific timeframe, and the fees payable for further use beyond that were deliberately so high that broadcasters would consider it unjustifiable to spend so much money repeating an old programme rather than making a new one. Consequently, recordings whose repeat rights had expired were considered to be of no further economic use to the broadcasters.[5][6]

BBC Enterprises Film can containing a 16mm film telerecording print of The Evil of the Daleks, Episode 2.

Most Doctor Who episodes were made on two-inch videotape for initial broadcast and then telerecorded onto 16mm film by BBC Enterprises for further commercial exploitation.[1] Enterprises used 16mm for overseas sales as it was considerably cheaper to buy and easier to transport than videotape. It also circumvented the problem of different countries' incompatible video standards, as film was a universal medium whereas videotape was not.[7] The BBC had no central archive at the time – the Film Library kept programmes that had been made on film, while the Engineering Department was responsible for storing videotapes.[1] BBC Enterprises kept only copies of programmes they deemed commercially exploitable. They also had little dedicated storage space and tended to keep piles of film canisters wherever they could find space for them at their Villiers House property.[1]

The Engineering Department had no mandate to archive the programme videotapes they held, although they would not normally be wiped or junked until the relevant production department or BBC Enterprises had indicated that they had no further use for the tapes.[8] The first Doctor Who master videotapes to be junked were those for the serial The Highlanders, which were erased on 9 March 1967, a mere two months after Episode 4's original transmission.[7] Further erasing and junking of Doctor Who master videotapes by the Engineering Department continued into the 1970s. Eventually every single master videotape of the programme's first 253 episodes (1963–69) was destroyed or wiped, with the final 1960s mastertapes to be erased being those for the 1968 serial Fury from the Deep, which were authorised for wiping in late 1974.[8]

Despite the destruction of these masters, BBC Enterprises held a near-complete archive of the series in the form of their 16mm film telerecording copies until approximately 1972.[9] From around 1972 to 1978, BBC Enterprises also disposed of much of their older material, including many episodes of Doctor Who.

The end of the junkings[edit]

Doctor Who junkings at BBC Enterprises ceased following the intervention of Ian Levine, a record producer and fan of the programme.[9] Enterprises' episodes were usually junked because their rights agreements with the actors and writers to sell the programmes abroad had expired.[9] With many broadcasters around the world now switching to colour transmission, it was not deemed worthwhile extending agreements to sell the older black-and-white material.[10]

The BBC Film Library had no responsibility for storing programmes that had not been made on film, and there were conflicting views between the Film Library and BBC Enterprises over who had the responsibility of archiving programmes.[1] These combined factors resulted in the erasure of large quantities of older black-and-white programming from the Corporation's various libraries, as each body believed it to be the other's responsibility to archive the material and consequently destroyed their own copies. While thousands of other programmes have been destroyed in this way around the world, the missing Doctor Who episodes are probably the best-known example of how the lack of a consistent programme archiving policy can have long-term effects.[11]

The degree of incompleteness varies, and is concentrated on the First and Second Doctor stories. Although two stories have only one episode missing (The Tenth Planet and The Web of Fear), others are lost altogether, with Patrick Troughton's Second Doctor being particularly badly affected—of the fourteen stories comprising his first two seasons, only The Tomb of the Cybermen and The Enemy of the World are complete, and these only exist due to copies of episodes being returned from Hong Kong[1] and Nigeria, respectively.

All stories starring Jon Pertwee as the Third Doctor are complete,[12] though many episodes no longer survive on their original videotapes and have needed to be restored to colour using other methods. In order of original transmissions, the very last Doctor Who master videotapes to be wiped were the first episodes of the 1974 serials Invasion of the Dinosaurs and Death to the Daleks. The latter was recovered from overseas, initially from a tape in the NTSC format, and later in the original PAL format on a tape returned from Dubai.[13]

For a few years Episode 1 of Invasion of the Dinosaurs was the only Pertwee episode to be entirely missing from the archives, until a black-and-white 16mm copy was returned to the Corporation in the early 1980s.[12] The story was released on DVD with a partially recolourised version of Episode 1, alongside a higher-quality monochrome transfer of the episode, in The UNIT Files box set.[14] Archival holdings from Death to the Daleks Episode 2 onwards are complete on the original broadcast videotapes, with the exception of the final shot of The Deadly Assassin Episode 3 (1976); this shot was removed from the master copy after its initial UK transmission following complaints from Mary Whitehouse of the National Viewers' and Listeners' Association.[12] Subsequent repeats and commercial releases have restored the shot from off-air video copies.[12]

The First Doctor (William Hartnell) collapses before his regeneration in The Tenth Planet, Episode 4.

The wiping policy officially came to an end in 1978, when the means to further exploit programmes by taking advantage of the new market in home video cassette recordings was beginning to become apparent. In addition, the attitude became that vintage programmes should, in any case, be preserved for posterity and historical and cultural reasons. The BBC Film Library was turned into a combined Film & Videotape Library for the preservation of both media.[1] The Film Library at the time held only 47 episodes of 1960s Doctor Who; they had once held 53, but six episodes had either been junked or gone missing.[13] Following the transfer of episodes still held by Enterprises, there were 152 episodes of Doctor Who no longer held by the BBC, although subsequent efforts have reduced that number to 97.

Arguably, the most sought-after lost episode is Episode 4 of the last William Hartnell serial, The Tenth Planet, which ends with the First Doctor regenerating into the Second. The only portion of the sequence still in existence, bar a few poor-quality silent 8mm clips, is the regeneration itself and a few seconds before it, which had been shown in a 1973 episode of Blue Peter.[1]

Serials from Seasons 22–26 were shown in Germany, with soundtracks dubbed into German language; some of these episodes no longer exist in German television archives.[15]

Continuing search[edit]

On 20 April 2006 it was announced on Blue Peter that a life-sized Dalek would be given to anyone who found and returned one of the missing episodes.[16][17]

In January 2007 ITV began a campaign called "Raiders of the Lost Archive" and although the campaign was run by ITV, they were also looking to find Doctor Who episodes and other BBC shows.[18] One episode of the Raiders of the Lost Archive show aired in January 2007 and a further two episodes in July 2009.[19]

In December 2012 the Radio Times listings magazine announced it was launching the hunt for more Doctor Who episodes, to tie-in with the show's 50th anniversary.[20] The Radio Times issued its own list of missing episodes.[21] The magazine has also set up an email address specifically for Doctor Who missing episodes that the public can use to contact it if they have any information.[20]

Compared with other series[edit]

Compared with many BBC series broadcast in the 1960s, Doctor Who is well-represented in terms of existing episodes.[22] 156 of the 253 episodes broadcast during the 1960s are still in existence, mainly due to wide overseas sales which have aided in recovery of episodes (see below). This is reflected in the nature of the surviving episodes – Seasons 1 and 2, the most widely-sold abroad of the 1960s era, are missing only nine and two episodes respectively. By contrast Season 4 has no complete serials and Season 5 has only two complete serials (The Tomb of the Cybermen and The Enemy of the World).

Of all the series shown by the Corporation throughout the 1960s which had runs of significant length, only Steptoe and Son has a better survival record, with all episodes existing, though some only as early domestic videotape copies made by the writers of the programme.[23] Other programmes have few or no episodes in existence; United!, a football-based soap opera which broadcast 147 episodes between 1965 and 1967, has no episodes surviving at all.[24] The Newcomers and Compact are other examples of popular sixties British soaps of which very little survives – 2 out of 375 episodes for The Newcomers and 7 episodes of Compact out of 430. Doctor Who's popularity and high profile has also helped to ensure the return of episodes which, for other less well-remembered programmes, might never have occurred.[11]

Doctor Who is also comparatively rare amongst contemporaries in that all of the 1970s episodes exist as masters or telerecordings, while other series such as Z-Cars and Dixon of Dock Green have episodes from as late as 1975 missing.[25][26]

List of missing episodes[edit]

As of January 2015, there are 97 episodes unaccounted for from 26 serials, including 10 full serials. By far the majority of the missing episodes are from seasons 3, 4, and 5, which have a total of 79 episodes currently missing. Of the 26 serials which comprised seasons 3-5, only five (The Ark, The Gunfighters, and The War Machines from season 3, and The Tomb of the Cybermen and The Enemy of the World from season 5) exist in their entirety in the TV archives, leaving a total of 21 with at least one episode missing. By contrast, seasons 1, 2, and 6 have only 18 episodes missing in total from a total of 5 serials, with 19 of them complete. All but three of the missing stories have clips of various lengths surviving from different sources, with Marco Polo, "Mission to the Unknown", and The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve having no surviving footage whatsoever. While the Patrick Troughton era has more episodes missing (53 as compared to 44 for the William Hartnell era), there are more Hartnell stories completely missing (6 as compared to 4). Serials highlighted in  red  are missing all episodes. Serials highlighted in  yellow  are missing more than half of their episodes. All others listed are missing at least one, but no more than half, of their episodes.

Doctor Missing Season Missing Story Serial Missing / Total Missing Episode(s)[27]
First 44 1 9 004 Marco Polo 7 / 7 All
008 The Reign of Terror 2 / 6 4, 5
2 2 014 The Crusade 2 / 4 2, 4
3 28 018 Galaxy 4 3 / 4 1, 2, 4
019 "Mission to the Unknown" 1 / 1 All
020 The Myth Makers 4 / 4 All
021 The Daleks' Master Plan 9 / 12 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12
022 The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve 4 / 4 All
024 The Celestial Toymaker 3 / 4 1, 2, 3
026 The Savages 4 / 4 All
4 33 028 The Smugglers 4 / 4 All
029 The Tenth Planet 1 / 4 4
Second 53 030 The Power of the Daleks 6 / 6 All
031 The Highlanders 4 / 4 All
032 The Underwater Menace 2 / 4 1, 4
033 The Moonbase 2 / 4 1, 3
034 The Macra Terror 4 / 4 All
035 The Faceless Ones 4 / 6 2, 4, 5, 6
036 The Evil of the Daleks 6 / 7 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
5 18 038 The Abominable Snowmen 5 / 6 1, 3, 4, 5, 6
039 The Ice Warriors 2 / 6 2, 3
041 The Web of Fear 1 / 6 3
042 Fury from the Deep 6 / 6 All
043 The Wheel in Space 4 / 6 1, 2, 4, 5
6 7 046 The Invasion 2 / 8 1, 4
049 The Space Pirates 5 / 6 1, 3, 4, 5, 6
26 incomplete serials 97 missing episodes

Orphaned episodes[edit]

Serials that are over 50% complete (e.g., The Reign of Terror, The Tenth Planet) are issued as standalone releases, with the missing episodes bridged using animation, visual reconstructions, or narration to the camera. Surviving episodes which form 50% or less of a complete story – referred to as "orphaned" episodes[28] – have been released by the BBC in compilations (e.g., Lost in Time), or as extras on releases of complete serials. A few four-episode serials of which 50% remain (e.g., The Underwater Menace, The Moonbase) have also been issued as standalone releases.

Doctor Season Story Serial VHS DVD
First 1 008 The Reign of Terror Ep 1-3, 6: The Reign of Terror box set Ep 1-3, 6: The Reign of Terror DVD
2 014 The Crusade Ep 3: The Hartnell Years
Ep 1, 3: The Crusade box set
Ep 1, 3: Lost in Time[29]
3 018 Galaxy 4 Ep 3: N/A Ep 3: The Aztecs: Special Edition
21 The Daleks' Master Plan Ep 2: N/A
Ep 5, 10: Daleks – The Early Years
Ep 2, 5, 10: Lost in Time[29]
24 The Celestial Toymaker Ep 4: The Hartnell Years Ep 4: Lost in Time[29]
4 29 The Tenth Planet Ep 1-3: The Tenth Planet VHS Ep 1-3: The Tenth Planet DVD
Second 032 The Underwater Menace Ep 2: N/A
Ep 3: The Missing Years
Ep 3: Lost in Time[29]
Ep 2, 3: The Underwater Menace DVD
033 The Moonbase Ep 2, 4: Cybermen – The Early Years Ep 2, 4: Lost in Time[29]
Ep 2, 4: The Moonbase DVD
035 The Faceless Ones Ep 1, 3: The Reign of Terror box set Ep 1, 3: Lost in Time[29]
036 The Evil of the Daleks Ep 2: Daleks – The Early Years Ep 2: Lost in Time[29]
5 038 The Abominable Snowmen Ep 2: The Troughton Years Ep 2: Lost in Time[29]
039 The Ice Warriors Ep 1, 4-6: The Ice Warriors VHS Ep 1, 4-6: The Ice Warriors DVD
041 The Web of Fear Ep 1: The Reign of Terror box set
Ep 2, 4-6: N/A
Ep 1: Lost in Time[29]
Ep 1-2, 4-6: The Web of Fear DVD
043 The Wheel in Space Ep 3, 6: Cybermen – The Early Years Ep 3, 6: Lost in Time[29]
6 046 The Invasion Ep 2-3, 5-8: The Invasion VHS Ep 2-3, 5-8: The Invasion DVD
049 The Space Pirates Ep 2: The Troughton Years Ep 2: Lost in Time[29]

Unaired missing episodes[edit]

In addition to the official list of missing episodes, also missing is the original Episode 1 of The Daleks. At some point after the recording, it was discovered that a technical problem had caused backstage voices to be heard on the resulting videotape; in early December 1963, the episode was remounted with a different costume for Susan.[30] The only surviving portion is the reprise at the beginning of Episode 2.

Planet of Giants is another odd example, having originally been recorded as four episodes, with the first three directed by Mervyn Pinfield, and the last one by Douglas Camfield. To create a faster-paced climax, Episodes 3 & 4 were combined and reduced to form a single episode, which was credited to Camfield only.[31] This decision, made by then-Head of Drama Sydney Newman, resulted in a gap at the end of the second production block (and the creation of "Mission to the Unknown"); the unused portions of Episodes 3 and 4 are believed to have been destroyed. The 2012 DVD release featured a reconstruction of the episodes as originally intended by adding the deleted scenes using CGI, footage from elsewhere in the serial, and re-recorded dialogue from Carole Ann Ford, William Russell, and actors impersonating the rest of the cast. The reconstructions were directed by Ian Levine.[32]

Doctor Season Story Serial Lost Episodes Details
First 1 002 The Daleks 1 Remounted. The reprise at the beginning of Episode 2 contains footage from the original version, which is otherwise missing.
2 009 Planet of Giants 3, 4 Edited together into a single episode prior to the original broadcast, airing as episode 3. There is no official 4th episode for this serial. The unaired versions are missing.


When the BBC's complete holdings (both the BBC Film & Videotape Library and BBC Enterprises) were first audited in 1978, the following 50 episodes were absent from their collective archives, but have subsequently been returned to the Corporation through various methods.[1][9][33] The nine stories  highlighted  have all episodes existing as a result. Except where indicated, all episodes were returned as 16 mm telerecording negatives or prints.

Doctor Season Story no. Serial Total Eps In archive Returned Eps Recovered from
Source Country/Territory Year
First 1 008 The Reign of Terror 6 4 4 (1-3, 6) PIK (ep. 1-3)[a] Cyprus 1985
Private collector (ep. 6) United Kingdom 1982
2 014 The Crusade 4 2 1 (1) Private collector New Zealand 1999
017 The Time Meddler 4 4 3 (1, 3-4) NTV Nigeria 1985
3 018 Galaxy 4 4 1 1 (3) Private collector United Kingdom 2011
021 The Daleks' Master Plan 12 3 3 (2, 5, 10) Private collector (ep. 2) United Kingdom 2004
LDS Church (ep. 5 & 10) 1983
024 The Celestial Toymaker 4 1 1 (4) ABC Australia 1984
027 The War Machines 4 4 4 (1-4) NTV (ep. 1, 3, 4) Nigeria 1985
ABC (ep. 2) Australia 1978
First Doctor Totals 7 serials 17 episodes
Second 4 032 The Underwater Menace 4 2 1 (2) Private collector United Kingdom 2011
035 The Faceless Ones 6 2 1 (3) Private collector United Kingdom 1987
036 The Evil of the Daleks 7 1 1 (2) Private collector United Kingdom 1987
5 037 The Tomb of the Cybermen 4 4 4 (1-4) ATV Hong Kong 1991
038 The Abominable Snowmen 6 1 1 (2) Private collector United Kingdom 1982
039 The Ice Warriors 6 4 4 (1, 4-6) BBC[b] United Kingdom 1988
040 The Enemy of the World 6 6 5 (1-2, 4-6)[c][34] NTV Nigeria 2013
041 The Web of Fear 6 5 5 (1-2, 4-6) Unknown (ep. 1)[d] Unknown
NTV (ep. 2, 4, 5, 6)[e] Nigeria 2013
043 The Wheel in Space 6 2 1 (3) Private collector United Kingdom 1984
6 044 The Dominators 5 5 1 (3)[f] BFI United Kingdom 1978
047 The Krotons 4 4 1 (4) BFI United Kingdom 1978
050 The War Games 10 10 6 (1, 3-4, 6-7, 10) BFI United Kingdom 1978
Second Doctor Totals 12 serials 31 episodes
Third 11 071 Invasion of the Dinosaurs 6 6 1 (1) Private collector United Kingdom 1983
072 Death to the Daleks 4 4 1[g] (1)[h] Unknown TV station (as NTSC) Canada 1981
Dubai 33 (as PAL) Dubai 1991[i]
Third Doctor Totals 2 serials 2 episodes
Totals 21 serials 50 episodes

Sources of recovered episodes[edit]

In the years since the BBC archive was first audited in 1978, a number of episodes then absent have been returned from various sources.

BBC holdings[edit]

Film Library oddities[edit]

When the archive was first checked in 1978, 47 episodes were held by the BBC Film Library in addition to those still held by BBC Enterprises. These Film Library copies were a combination of random viewing prints created for various episodes down the years which had subsequently found their way into the Library's holdings, and seven of the nine episodes which had originally been telerecorded onto film for editing and/or transmission, rather than recorded onto videotape. These film-recorded masters had been stored in the Film Library, rather than in the Engineering Department with the videotapes.[1]

However, despite the Film Library's remit, not all of these originally film-recorded episodes exist. On the other hand, there were also some unexplained items in the Library, such as 16mm copies of The Tenth Planet Episodes 1–3, presumably viewing prints which were mistakenly returned to them at some point instead of BBC Enterprises.[9] Most surprisingly of all, they also still held a 16mm telerecording copy of the original untransmitted pilot, presumably a viewing print made in 1963 and subsequently lodged at the Library.[8]

The Film Library also held high-quality original film sequences made for insertion into videotaped episodes. Some of these, such as those from Episodes 1–2 of The Daleks' Master Plan, survive to this day.[1] For many years it was rumoured among Doctor Who fans that some film inserts were considered to be of lesser value than complete programmes and were junked as late as the early 1980s. However, this was inaccurate speculation based on data relating to already-destroyed material which had been mistakenly entered into a film library computer system.[35]

Villiers House[edit]

Some of the surviving episodes were always held at the BBC, although the Corporation was not necessarily aware of this. In August 1988, Episodes 1 and 4–6 of the six-part story The Ice Warriors, which up to that point had been completely missing, were discovered in a cupboard at Villiers House when the Corporation was in the process of moving out of the building.[1]

National Film and Television Archive[edit]

Shortly after the junking process came to an end and the Corporation was first taking stock of how much material was missing from its archives, inquiries were made to the National Film and Television Archive, held by the British Film Institute, as to whether they held any copies of BBC programmes which the BBC did not. These inquiries resulted in the return of three complete Second Doctor serials – The Dominators, The Krotons, and The War Games.[9] These were all standard 16mm film telerecordings with the exception of The Dominators Episode 3, which was a 35mm print.

Episodes 4 and 5 of The Dominators originated from a foreign broadcaster and had been slightly edited; the missing material was subsequently restored, either from copies held by private collectors or through the discovery of censor clips.[1]

Overseas broadcasters that purchased missing episodes[edit]

An appeal to broadcasters in other countries who had shown the programme (notably Australia and African nations such as Nigeria) produced "lost" episodes from the archives of their television companies.[1] The Tomb of the Cybermen, for example, was recovered in this manner from Rediffusion Television in Hong Kong in 1992.[36] Of the 50 episodes recovered since the original BBC audit of its holdings, 25 have been returned from overseas broadcasters:

Country TV Network(s)[37] Eps
 Australia ABC 2
 Barbados CBC 0
 Bermuda ZFB-TV 0
 Canada CBC 0
 Cyprus CyBC 3
 Dubai Dubai 33 1
 Ethiopia ETV 0
 Ghana GTV 0
 Gibraltar GBC 0
 Hong Kong RTV 4
 Iran NIRT 0
 Jamaica JBC 0
 Kenya VoK 0
 Malta Xandir Malta 0
 Mauritius MBC 0
 New Zealand NZBC 0
 Nigeria RKTV 15
 Rhodesia RBC 0
 Sierra Leone SLBS 0
 Singapore RTS 0
 Thailand HAS-TV 0
 Trinidad & Tobago TTT 0
 Uganda UTV 0
 Venezuela RCTV 0
 Zambia ZNBC 0

Note that on occasion some broadcasters purchased Doctor Who telerecordings (usually 16 mm) but subsequently cancelled the order.

Private collectors[edit]

The following episodes have also been returned by private film collectors who had acquired copies from various sources:

The Abominable Snowmen and Invasion of the Dinosaurs[edit]

Roger Stevens was working for the BBC as a film editor in the 1980s, and one morning, as he was travelling to work by train, he bumped into a BBC co-worker and they began to talk about Doctor Who episodes.[38] The BBC projectionist mentioned that he had nine episodes of Doctor Who that Stevens could buy for £25.[38] In the summer of 1981, Stevens bought The Space Museum episode one, The Abominable Snowmen episode two, The Moonbase episode four, Invasion of the Dinosaurs episode one, and three episodes of Carnival of Monsters.[38] Stevens then contacted Ian Levine to find out what was missing from the BBC archive; Levine confirmed that The Abominable Snowmen episode two and Invasion of the Dinosaurs episode one were currently missing.[38]

Stevens gave these prints to Levine, who returned The Abominable Snowmen to the BBC in February 1982, although he held back Invasion of the Dinosaurs from the BBC for a while.[38] This was later returned to the BBC by Levine in June 1983, who then made a copy and returned the original to Levine.[39]

The Reign of Terror[edit]

The Reign of Terror was recovered by Bruce Campbell when he attended a film fair in the 1980s and began chatting to a stall holder who informed him that one of his regular customers had in their possession The Reign of Terror episode six.[40] Campbell got in contact with the customer, bought the missing episode for £50, and then, in May 1982, donated it to the BBC through Ian Levine.[40]

The Wheel in Space[edit]

The Doctor Who Magazine (April 1984, issue 87) ran a story about a rumour of a missing Doctor Who episode that was in Portsmouth; this led to The Wheel in Space episode three being returned to the BBC in April 1984 by David Stead to allow for a copy to be made.[41] The original was returned to Stead and released on VHS in 1992 with poor results.[41] Later the print was borrowed again and a new copy made using D3 videotape. Stead recollects that he purchased the episode for £15.[41]

The Faceless Ones and The Evil of the Daleks[edit]

In December 1983, film collector Gordon Hendry purchased two film cans that were labelled as episodes of Doctor Who for £8 each at a car boot sale. The purchase of the two films was out of mild curiosity for the programme, as Hendry was unaware that the two episodes, 16mm telerecordings of episode 3 of The Faceless Ones and episode 2 of The Evil of the Daleks, were not only missing from the BBC archive, but as rare as they were (only a single episode of The Faceless Ones, and none at all of The Evil of the Daleks, were in existence at that time). Once this was clear, copies were immediately returned to the BBC.[42]

The Crusade[edit]

The Crusade episode 1 was acquired by collector Bruce Grenville at a New Zealand film fair in 1998. Grenville had bought the 16mm film from a stall that contained other material that had been rescued from a rubbish tip.[43] Although The Crusade was never actually shown in New Zealand, the 16mm film of episode 1 was never returned to the BBC or destroyed by the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation.[43] The episode was eventually returned to the BBC in January 1999.

Galaxy 4 and The Underwater Menace[edit]

In December 2011, Galaxy 4 episode 3 and The Underwater Menace episode 2 (the only extant episode from the former and one of two from the latter) were returned to the BBC by Terry Burnett, a former ITV engineer who had purchased them in the mid-1980s without realising that the BBC did not hold copies.[44] Both had been previously returned from Australia to the BBC and disposed of, but were presumably rescued from destruction by a Doctor Who enthusiast.

Other sources[edit]

The Daleks' Master Plan[edit]

The Daleks' Master Plan was a serial which was never sold abroad.[1] Only Australia ever requested viewing copies (except for Episode 7, "The Feast of Steven"), eventually electing not to purchase the serial.[1] It is unknown what happened to these viewing copies.

Nevertheless, 16mm copies of three episodes have been recovered. Episodes 5 and 10 were returned under unclear circumstances in the early 1980s, with fan rumour stating they had been found in the basement of a Mormon church. Episode 2 was returned in 2004 by former BBC engineer Francis Watson, who had taken the film home in the early 1970s after being instructed to dispose of junk material from a projector testing room at the BBC's Ealing Studios; instead of throwing the film away, Watson kept it and eventually returned it to the Corporation when he realised the value of the material.[45]

The Enemy of the World and The Web of Fear[edit]

Following months of rumours,[46][47][48] a BBC press conference in October 2013 announced that a total of 11 episodes (two of which had previously existed in the BBC archives) had been found by Philip Morris from Television International Enterprises Archives at a television relay station in the city of Jos in Nigeria:[34] episodes 1-6 of The Enemy of the World and episodes 1, 2, and 4-6 of The Web of Fear.[49][50][51][52] The return of the nine missing episodes is the largest single recovery of Doctor Who episodes in 25 years.[53] However, in 2015, Morris revealed that he had found episode 3 of The Web of Fear as part of the set of episodes recovered in Jos, but that by the time negotiations for the return of the film cans were completed (a process that took six months), the episode had disappeared from the cache.[54] The discovery made The Enemy of the World the second Troughton serial from his first two seasons as the Doctor to be fully restored to the BBC. Both serials were promptly released on iTunes, with episode 3 of The Web of Fear included as a tele-snap reconstruction. The Enemy of the World was released on BBC DVD on 25 November 2013,[55] and The Web of Fear on 24 February 2014.[56]

Nigerian television has been a fruitful source for the recovery of missing episodes, as a total of 15 out of the 50 episodes recovered since 1978 have been obtained from Nigeria, which has led to three serials (The Time Meddler, The War Machines, and The Enemy of the World) once again being complete in the BBC Library.[1]

Incomplete recovered episodes[edit]

Of the 50 recovered episodes, several have short segments missing from them due to either overseas censorship or damage to the film print of the episode. The following table shows all the episodes affected, along with the duration of the missing material.[44][57][58][59][60]

Doctor Story no. Serial Eps Incomplete Episode Missing (mm:ss) Reason missing
First 017 The Time Meddler 4 Episode 4 00:12 Overseas censorship
018 Galaxy 4 4 Episode 3 00:27 Film damage
024 The Celestial Toymaker 4 Episode 4 Unknown Unknown
027 The War Machines 4 Episode 3 01:00 Overseas censorship
Episode 4 00:08 Overseas censorship
First Doctor Totals 4 serials >1 minute 47 seconds
Second 032 The Underwater Menace 4 Episode 2 00:02 Film damage
035 The Faceless Ones 6 Episode 3 00:20 Film damage
Second Doctor Totals 2 serials 0 minutes 22 seconds
Totals 6 serials >2 minutes 9 seconds


Of the 26 serials that have one or more episodes missing, a total of 17 have had short clips recovered outside of any complete episodes that have been returned to the BBC from the various sources outlined. This includes 7 serials that do not have any episodes currently in the BBC archive (these serials are  highlighted  in the table below). The following table shows all of the footage that has been recovered, together with which episodes are affected, the format and the source of recovery.[61]

Doctor Season Story no. Serial No. Eps Recovered from
From Ep. Recovered (mm:ss) Format Source Country/ Territory Total (mm:ss)
First 1 008 The Reign of Terror 6 Ep. 4 00:10 8mm cine Private individual Australia 00:21
Ep. 5 00:11
3 018 Galaxy 4 4 Ep. 1 00:10 8mm cine Private individual Australia 06:03
05:23[j] 16mm telerecording Private collector United Kingdom
00:30[k] BBC
020 The Myth Makers 4 Ep. 1 00:21 8mm cine Private individual Australia 00:56
Ep. 2 00:20
Ep. 4 00:15
021 The Daleks' Master Plan 12 Ep. 1 01:43[l] 35mm film insert BBC United Kingdom 04:19
Ep. 3 01:38[m] 16mm telerecording
Ep. 4 00:58[n]
026 The Savages 4 Ep. 3 00:03 8mm cine Private individual Australia 00:44
Ep. 4 00:41
4 028 The Smugglers 4 Ep. 1 00:23 16mm telerecording National Archives Australia 00:47
Ep. 3 00:24
Ep. 4 00:03
029 The Tenth Planet 4 Ep. 4 00:51 8mm cine Private individual Australia 01:18
00:27[o] 16mm telerecording BBC United Kingdom
First Doctor Totals 7 serials 14 minutes 28 seconds
Second 4 030 The Power of the Daleks 6 Ep. 1 00:35 8mm cine Private individual Australia 02:53
00:19[p] 16mm telerecording BBC United Kingdom
Ep. 2 00:24 8mm cine Private individual Australia
Ep. 4 00:10[q] 16mm telerecording ABC Australia
00:21[r] 16mm film insert BBC United Kingdom
Ep. 5 00:18[s] 16mm telerecording ABC Australia
00:40[t] 16mm film BBC United Kingdom
Ep. 6 00:06[u] 16mm film BBC United Kingdom
031 The Highlanders 4 Ep. 1 00:13 16mm telerecording National Archives Australia 00:13
032 The Underwater Menace 4 Ep. 1 00:14 16mm telerecording National Archives Australia 00:17
Ep. 4 00:03
034 The Macra Terror 4 Ep. 2 00:26 16mm telerecording National Archives Australia 01:20
Ep. 3 00:02
00:52 8mm cine Private individual
035 The Faceless Ones 6 Ep. 2 00:03 8mm cine Private individual Australia 00:03
036 The Evil of the Daleks 7 Ep. 7 00:03 16mm film Private collector United Kingdom 00:03
5 038 The Abominable Snowmen 6 Ep. 4 00:08[v] 16mm film BBC United Kingdom 00:08
042 Fury from the Deep 6 Ep. 1 00:19[w] 16mm telerecording BBC United Kingdom 02:15
Ep. 2 00:54 National Archives Australia
Ep. 4 00:31
Ep. 5 00:31
043 The Wheel in Space 6 Ep. 1 00:04[x] 16mm telerecording BBC United Kingdom 00:13
Ep. 4 00:03 National Archives Australia
Ep. 5 00:06 Private collector New Zealand
6 049 The Space Pirates 6 Ep. 1 01:05[y] 35mm film insert BBC United Kingdom 01:05
Second Doctor Totals 10 serials 8 minutes 30 seconds
Totals 17 serials 22 minutes 58 seconds

Sources of recovered clips[edit]

Censor clips[edit]
Bill Burridge as Mr. Quill, in a scene censored by the Australian Film Censorship Board from the missing serial Fury from the Deep

Some portions of the overseas copies were physically excised prior to transmission in the 1960s by the Australian and New Zealand censors for being too violent or frightening for the programme's early time slot and younger audience. Hence, episodes recovered from these sources are missing these segments.

In October 1996, Australian Doctor Who fans Damian Shanahan and Ellen Parry discovered a collection of the censored clips—several from missing episodes which do not exist in their entirety—in the records of the National Archives of Australia.[13] The clips had been sent by the Commonwealth Film Censorship Board (now the Classification Board) to the Archives as evidence of the required edits having been made. These clips were of later William Hartnell stories (such as The Smugglers) and Patrick Troughton stories (such as The Macra Terror and Fury from the Deep). In an interview for the fanzine The Disused Yeti, Shanahan stated that although he and Parry had found paper records relating to the censoring of early William Hartnell stories (such as Marco Polo and The Reign of Terror), the actual film had been destroyed some time prior to Shanahan and Parry's investigation.

In 2002, New Zealand fan Graham Howard uncovered censored clips from The Web of Fear and The Wheel in Space.[13]

8mm clips[edit]

Small excerpts have also been recovered on 8mm cine film taken by a fan in Australia, who filmed certain scenes directly from a television screen during repeat showings of various episodes (including some that are intact); the clips from missing episodes range from Episode 4 of The Reign of Terror to Episode 2 of The Faceless Ones.[62]

From other Doctor Who episodes[edit]

Clips from missing episodes have appeared in other Doctor Who serials. Episode 2 of The Daleks used a prefilmed reprise from the original recording of Episode 1, which later had to be remounted; the original version of Episode 1 is presumed to have been destroyed.

A brief clip from Episode 4 of The Crusade was discovered to exist when fans who had an audio recording of that episode noted an off-camera cough that was also heard at the very beginning of The Space Museum. Episode 1 of the latter serial began with the characters in period costume, briefly frozen in place, proving that it was a filmed insert from the previous (and currently missing) episode.

Clips from Fury from the Deep (the TARDIS landing on the sea in Episode 1) and The Wheel in Space (a model shot from Episode 1) were discovered to have been used in Episode 10 of The War Games.

A short clip from the end of The Evil of the Daleks episode 1 was found to have been used in The Wheel in Space episode 6 when it was discovered that the clip, previously thought to have been from the reprise in the existing episode 2 of Evil, contained three frames not present in the reprise.[63]

From other television programmes[edit]
A short film sequence from The Power of the Daleks, Episode 5. It survived through a 1968 edition of Whicker's World which featured an interview with Dalek creator Terry Nation.

Clips from some missing episodes also survive where they were used in other programmes, with these other shows surviving. For example, scenes from the missing Episode 4 of The Daleks' Master Plan exist through a 1973 edition of Blue Peter, while an Australian programme called Perspective: C for Computer yielded extracts from The Power of the Daleks.[1]

A lengthy excerpt from the 1965 serial Galaxy 4 was returned by Doctor Who fan Jan Vincent-Rudzki in the 1990s. The sequence had originally been taken from a viewing print of Episode 1 by the production team working on a 1977 Doctor Who documentary, Whose Doctor Who. After they had selected the short clip they wished to use from the extract, they discarded the rest; Vincent-Rudzki, who was working as an adviser to the production team, was allowed to keep the film.[64] At a total of 5m 53s, this is the longest piece of existing footage from an otherwise missing episode, accounting for a quarter of the total running time.[65]

Behind-the-scenes footage was discovered for The Smugglers, The Evil of the Daleks, The Abominable Snowmen, and Fury from the Deep. Also from the latter serial was some raw footage from the filming of Episode 6, featuring some alternate camera angles from what was eventually broadcast; despite the alternate angles, the "Lost in Time" DVD boxset edited the trims and added the extant audio to present as footage from the episode. (The original film trims were also included on the same disc.)

In 2005, two further short clips from The Power of the Daleks – along with a higher-quality version of one of the extant scenes – were discovered in a 1966 episode of the BBC science series Tomorrow's World. The clips, lasting less than 10 seconds each and on film (as opposed to film recordings), only came to light when the Tomorrow's World segment was broadcast as part of the 11 September 2005 edition of the clip-based nostalgia show Sunday Past Times on BBC Two. Several sharp-eyed fans noticed that these clips were not among those already known to be extant in the archives and informed the Corporation.[66] Paul Vanezis from the Doctor Who Restoration Team managed to track down the uncut version of the clip.[66]

Audio soundtracks[edit]

Though numerous episodes are still missing, full-length audio soundtracks for all missing episodes are held by the BBC.[22] These come from off-air recordings made by fans, often made by use of a microphone placed close to the television set.[67] While the quality of these off-air recordings varies greatly, multiple fan recordings exist for every episode.

Starting in the early 1990s, the BBC began to release existing audio of serials with missing episodes, with linking narration provided by former series actors such as Jon Pertwee, Tom Baker, Colin Baker, Peter Purves, and Frazer Hines. By December 2005, the soundtracks for all of the missing episodes had been released,[68] albeit with copyright-uncleared music replacements where necessary (e.g., a Beatles song in Evil of the Daleks), slightly rejigged sequences for reasons of clarity, and with overdubbed narration.

Between 2010–12 BBC Audiobooks collected the individual narrated soundtracks in a series of five CD box sets, entitled "Doctor Who: The Lost TV Episodes."[69][70][71][72] For the sets, some serials (such as The Evil of the Daleks) were re-released with improved audio restoration, changed linking narration, and in some instances with scenes unavailable in the first release. In addition to the soundtracks, the sets include special features such as the Archive on 4 documentary, "Doctor Who - The Lost Episodes"[73] and high-quality scans of the original camera scripts in PDF format.


For the first eleven seasons of Doctor Who, often the surviving materials are in a very different format or condition from their original broadcast masters. Surviving 1960s material is recorded on film stock of varying quality, while early 1970s material is available in a patchwork of professional and consumer formats. To present the material in a form approximating its original masters requires extensive technical work, and a certain amount of invention.

Motion restoration[edit]

In its original form, the videotape used to record Doctor Who captures images at 50 interlaced fields per second, resulting in a smooth, "live" feel to motion. To transfer the episodes to film, the film camera is timed to combine two video fields in each frame, converting 50 fields to 25 frames per second; on playback, the omission of in-between images results in a choppier "film" style motion. To recreate the original "live" video feel, early telerecorded episodes are processed through a digital tool known as VidFIRE, which approximates the missing motion between film frames.[74]

In addition to the telerecorded material, some early 1970s material survives only, or in color only, on NTSC videotapes produced for North American transmission (e.g., TV Ontario and CKVU in Vancouver). NTSC runs at a different framerate than PAL video, and has a different number of scanlines. The conversion process used in the 1970s was primitive by modern standards, resulting in a noticeable amount of picture and motion loss. Converting the NTSC tapes back to PAL introduces more artifacts, creating a blurry picture and juddering motion. To rectify the problem, in 2005 a new Reverse Standards Conversion process, which attempts to unpick the original video conversion, was introduced for the DVD release of The Claws of Axos.[75][75]

Season Story Serial Total Episodes NTSC Episodes Episode Source
7 054 Inferno 7 1-7 CKVU (Vancouver)
8 057 The Claws of Axos 4 2-3 TV Ontario (TVO)
058 Colony in Space 6 1-6 CKVU (Vancouver)
9 061 The Curse of Peladon 4 1-4 TV Ontario (TVO)
062 The Sea Devils 6 1-3 CKVU (Vancouver)
063 The Mutants 6 1-2 TV Ontario (TVO)
064 The Time Monster 6 1-6 TV Ontario (TVO)

Colour restoration[edit]

Several early 1970s colour serials, starring Jon Pertwee, were retained only as black-and-white film prints. In addition to the motion issue shared by all telerecorded episodes, for years the loss of colour presented a major challenge for restoration.

Season Story Serial Total Episodes B&W Episodes Colour source
7 052 Doctor Who and the Silurians 7 1-7 Off-air colour NTSC
053 The Ambassadors of Death 7 2-7 Chroma dot colour recovery & off-air colour NTSC
8 055 Terror of the Autons 4 1-4 Off-air colour NTSC
056 The Mind of Evil 6 1-6 Chroma dot colour recovery & colourisation
059 The Dæmons 5 1-5 Off-air colour NTSC
10 068 Planet of the Daleks 3 1 Chroma dot colour recovery & colourisation
11 071 Invasion of the Dinosaurs 6 1 Chroma dot colour recovery & colourisation

Some of the telerecorded Pertwee episodes also survive on NTSC colour videotapes, recorded over-air on consumer hardware. In the early 1990s, an early form of the Doctor Who Restoration Team attempted to pair the low-resolution colour signal from these sources with the high-resolution black-and-white signal from the black-and-white film recordings.[76] In this way, several Jon Pertwee stories were returned to a rough form of colour: Doctor Who and the Silurians, Terror of the Autons, and The Dæmons.[76] Off-air NTSC colour tapes were also recovered for all of The Ambassadors of Death, but were considered of too poor a quality to permit more than a partial restoration.[77]

Colour recovery[edit]

In 2007, BBC archive specialist James Insell established the Colour Recovery Working Group,[78] an online project to find new ways of restoring black-and-white telerecordings to colour. In 2008, Reverse Standards Conversion inventor Richard Russell, developed a technique involving the use of chroma dots embedded in the black-and-white signal to recreate the missing color. The technique was pioneered, enhanced by traditional computer colourisation, on episode 3 of Planet of the Daleks.

Subsequently, chroma dots were used to restore the colour to Episodes 2–4, 6, and 7 of The Ambassadors of Death and episodes 2–5 of The Mind of Evil. Episode 1 of Invasion of the Dinosaurs presented a unique challenge, in that the chroma dots only contained red and green colour information, requiring that blue be added manually. Given the rough result, the DVD includes both the reconstructed colour and the black-and-white version.

Unfortunately, episode 1 of The Mind of Evil contains no colour information. In principle, BBC engineers were supposed to filter out the chroma dots upon telerecording, to create a cleaner picture. In most cases they failed to do so, allowing the Colour recovery process to work. For this one episode, the filter had been correctly applied — so there was no colour to recover. To complete the serial for DVD, the episode was manually colourised by Stuart Humphryes and Peter Crocker[79] — thereby returning the final Pertwee episode to its original colour presentation.


An example of a Loose Cannon reconstruction from The Invasion, with rolling subtitles to indicate action not obvious from the audio track.

In addition to short video clips and audio soundtracks, for many episodes off-screen photographs − known as "tele-snaps" − exist, taken by photographer John Cura. From the 1940s to the 1960s, Cura was hired by various interested parties to document the transmission of many popular TV programmes, including Doctor Who.[22] Typically the photographs were used for promotion, or as keepsakes for cast and crew in the days before home video recorders. In many cases, they form the only remaining visual record of missing television programmes.[80]

Since the late 1990s, fan groups such as Loose Cannon Productions have reconstructed the missing episodes, using original camera scripts to match Cura's tele-snaps and other visual material to the surviving audio tracks.[81][81][82] Although technically infringing copyright, these "recons" generally have been tolerated by the BBC, provided they are not sold for profit.[81]

"Official" high-quality recons have also been used on commercial releases, including cut-down reconstructions – The Ice Warriors VHS (a 12-minute "highlights" reconstruction bridging the missing Episodes 2 and 3); and Marco Polo (a 30-minute reconstruction on The Beginning DVD box set) – and full-length presentations, including The Tenth Planet VHS (containing a full reconstruction of the missing Episode 4).;[83][84] Galaxy 4 (a reconstruction of the three missing episodes to accompany the recently recovered episode 3, "Air Lock," presented on The Aztecs Special Edition DVD); The Web of Fear digital and DVD releases (containing a reconstruction of Episode 3, alongside the rest of the newly rediscovered serial).[85]

In June 2005, BBC Audio released a reconstruction of The Power of the Daleks as part of their "MP3 CD" line. When played on a home PC, the disc contained the same audio content as the previous audio CD release, synchronized with a Macromedia Flash slideshow of tele-snaps and publicity photographs. For technical reasons, the surviving clips could not be included. Due to poor sales, future planned releases in this format were abandoned.[86]

Although not strictly a missing serial, production of the 1979 Tom Baker story Shada was curtailed by a technician's strike partway through recording. To prevent the half-finished material from being junked, incoming Doctor Who producer John Nathan-Turner placed a preservation order on it with an intention to later finish the production. Although repeated attempts to remount the serial failed, a clip from Episode 1 was later used in the 1983 story The Five Doctors after Tom Baker declined to reprise his role. Eventually in 1992, the surviving material was released on home video, accompanied by in-camera narration by Tom Baker to bridge the unrecorded content.[87] In later years, Shada would be reinterpreted in several forms including an audio play featuring Eighth Doctor Paul McGann (also presented on the Web, accompanied by basic Flash animation) and a novelization by Gareth Roberts.

Animated episodes[edit]

In many cases to "complete" serials with only one or two missing episodes, producers of the Doctor Who DVD range have commissioned original black-and-white animation, synced to the programme's original audio tracks.

Doctor Season Story Serial Total Eps Missing Eps Animator DVD Release
Region 2 Region 1 Region 4
First 1 008 The Reign of Terror 6 2 (4,5) Big Finish/Planet 55 28 Jan 2013 12 Feb 2013 6 Feb 2013
4 029 The Tenth Planet 4 1 (4) Planet 55 14 Oct 2013 19 Nov 2013 30 Oct 2013
Second 033 The Moonbase 4 2 (1,3) Planet 55 20 Jan 2014 22 Jan 2014 11 Feb 2014
5 039 The Ice Warriors 6 2 (2,3) Qurios Entertainment 26 Aug 2013 17 Sep 2013 28 Aug 2013
6 046 The Invasion 8 2 (1,4) Cosgrove Hall 6 Nov 2006 6 Mar 2007 3 Jan 2007
Screenshot from the animated Episode 1 of The Invasion

The first such effort, Cosgrove Hall's animation of The Invasion episodes 1 and 4, was released to DVD alongside the surviving episodes in November 2006.[74] The animation had been paid for by an earlier surplus in the Doctor Who website budget, allowing it to be used in the DVD release as a test for the concept, at no extra cost. Despite the DVD's success, the sales were not high enough to offset the animation cost for any future collaboration.[88]

Eventually other animation studios were commissioned to continue the reconstruction. In June 2011, 2 Entertain announced that the missing episodes 4 and 5 of The Reign of Terror would be animated by Planet 55 Studios, using the "Thetamation" process.[89] The serial was released on DVD in January 2013. Planet 55 would later go on to animate Episode 4 of The Tenth Planet (November 2013),[90][91] and episodes 1 and 3 of The Moonbase (January 2014).[92][93][94]

In August 2013, BBC Worldwide announced that episodes 2 and 3 of The Ice Warriors would be animated by Qurios Entertainment for a DVD release later that month.[95]

In December 2013, 2|Entertain commissioning editor Dan Hall mentioned that Planet 55 had again been commissioned to complete The Underwater Menace, for what he hoped would be an early 2014 release.[94][96] However, in September 2015 Doctor Who Magazine confirmed that the much-delayed DVD, now scheduled for October 26, was instead to contain telesnap reconstructions of the missing episodes 1 and 4.

Unreleased and unofficial animations[edit]

In 2008, 2 Entertain was approached by David Busch of US animation studio Titmouse, Inc., who said that they would be able to do the work more cheaply as a result of the favourable exchange rate between the UK and the US, and put together a test trailer of scenes animated from various missing serials, including The Power of the Daleks, The Moonbase, The Macra Terror, The Web of Fear, and Fury from the Deep.[97] While 2 Entertain decided not to commission anything from Titmouse, the trailer was eventually seen by Ian Levine, who offered to try and raise the money for a full episode reconstruction to serve as a prototype. The episode chosen was "Mission to the Unknown", as it was a self-contained episode featuring the Daleks with a limited number of characters and sets, thus keeping the budget down.[88] Although completed, the animated version of "Mission to the Unknown" has never been officially released, although it has been posted on various video streaming sites.

With the advent of ever-more-powerful home computers and more specialist programs for them, many fans are also working on unofficial animations of the missing episodes, and this is widespread with many clips being shown online.[98]


Although the BBC has invested in the reconstruction of episodes using animation, it has never attempted to do anything in the way of complete re-staging of missing episodes; the closest that it has come to this was the recreation of parts of various serials, including the completely missing Marco Polo, in the docudrama An Adventure in Space and Time produced for the 50th anniversary in 2013.[99] However, in 2012 a reimagined version of The Power of the Daleks, written by, directed by, and starring Nick Scovell, was released on YouTube in three parts[100] prior to being shown in its entirety at the Power:Reimagined convention in September 2012.[101]

Further research[edit]

Books and periodicals[edit]

Between 1973 and 1994, each missing Doctor Who serial was novelized and published by Target Books.

Richard Molesworth's Wiped! Doctor Who's Missing Episodes (Telos Publishing, 2010) explores in detail the paper trail and recovery efforts surrounding the hunt for missing episodes. A revised edition was published in March 2013.[102][103]

Nothing at the End of the Lane[edit]

  • Issue #1 of "Nothing at the End of the Lane" (July 1999) includes articles about fan-made reconstructions of the missing episodes, audio of missing episodes, and the archive status of footage from Seasons 1-3.[104]
  • Issue #2 (June 2005) includes articles about John Cura (the photographer behind Doctor Who's Tele-snaps), recent discoveries of missing episodes, Junking of videotapes in the 1960s and 70's, a look at telerecordings, and the archive status of footage from Seasons 4-6.[104]
  • Issue #3 (January 2012) includes articles about the 26 off-screen photographs taken by Chris Thompson (Production Designer) from The Evil of the Daleks episode one, and new location photographs.[104]

Doctor Who Magazine[edit]

  • Issue #444 of Doctor Who Magazine (February 2012), titled "How the Daleks Exterminated Doctor Who's History", examines the overseas sales of the missing episodes and the chances of their survival.[105]
  • Issue #466 (October 2013) focuses on the rediscovery of The Enemy of the World & The Web of Fear by Philip Morris.[106]
  • Three special editions of Doctor Who Magazine (#34-36), titled "The Missing Episodes – The First Doctor", "The Missing Episodes – The Second Doctor Volume 1", and "The Missing Episodes – The Second Doctor Volume 2", were released between March–December 2013; each issue features a 100+ page guide to the missing episodes which exist in telesnap form, with details how they came to be wiped.[107][108]


  • Doctor Who – Missing in Action (1993) – a documentary about the missing episodes, featuring Ian Levine.[109]
  • The Missing Years (1998) – a documentary about the lost Doctor Who episodes and recovery attempts, available on Doctor Who: The Missing Years VHS[110] and (in an updated form) on the Lost In Time DVD box set.[111]
  • Time Shift – Missing Believed Wiped (2003) – a general documentary about archive television, featuring some clips and discussions about Doctor Who.[112]
  • WOTAN Assembly (2008) – a short DVD featurette about restoring The War Machines, which shows how the Doctor Who Restoration Team manages to create a near-complete version this serial using clips from various sources around the world. Narrated by Anneke Wills.[113]
  • Colour Silurian Overlay (2008) – a DVD featurette about restoring Doctor Who and the Silurians, using the surviving 16mm telerecordings and an off air NTSC Betamax recording as a colour source.[114]
  • Multi-Colourisation (2009) – a DVD featurette about how chroma dots were used to restore Planet of the Daleks episode three back to full colour.[115]
  • The One Show (2013) – the 11 October edition of the show featured a short documentary about how Doctor Who episodes became lost, the recovery of audio from episodes, and the finding of episodes from The Enemy of the World and The Web of Fear.[116]
  • "Restoring Doctor Who" (2014) – a 4-minute documentary by "Paul Vanezis" of the Doctor Who Restoration Team, which shows the process of cleaning and restoring the nine episodes recovered in 2013.[117]


  1. ^ Copies of episodes 4 and 5 were also held by PIK, but were destroyed during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
  2. ^ Recovered from a store cupboard in the BBC Enterprises building at Villiers House in Ealing
  3. ^ A complete set of the serial was recovered, including a redundant copy of episode 3.
  4. ^ There is some debate over whether this episode is a recovered one. It is has been stated that it was recovered as part of a cache of material returned to the BBC from ATV in Hong Kong in 1978–79. However, a 1976 partial listing of material then in existence at the BBC includes a copy held at BBC Enterprises (Bignell, Nothing at the End of the Lane). It is unclear if this is an error, a different copy, or if the can was misplaced at the time of the 1978 audit and subsequently rediscovered.
  5. ^ A redundant copy of episode 1 was found as part of this cache. Additionally, a copy of episode 3 was also part of this cache, but subsequently disappeared prior to being returned to the BBC.
  6. ^ Returned as 35mm telerecording negative
  7. ^ Initially returned as a 525-line NTSC master videotape; the BBC subsequently received a 625-line PAL master videotape.
  8. ^ Returned as 2-inch colour videotape
  9. ^ An edited PAL videotape copy had previously been returned to the BBC from Australia in 1985.
  10. ^ Longest single piece of extant footage from a currently missing episode
  11. ^ Broadcast as part of Whose Doctor Who, 3 April 1977
  12. ^ Held by the BBC Film Library
  13. ^ Broadcast as part of Blue Peter, 25 October 1971
  14. ^ Broadcast as part of Blue Peter, 5 November 1973
  15. ^ Broadcast as part of Blue Peter, 5 November 1973
  16. ^ Broadcast as part of a trailer on BBC1, 5 November 1966
  17. ^ Broadcast as part of Perspectives:C for Computer, 29 May 1974
  18. ^ Broadcast as part of Tomorrow's World, 28 December 1966
  19. ^ Broadcast as part of Perspectives:C for Computer, 29 May 1974
  20. ^ Broadcast as part of Whicker's World, 27 January 1968
  21. ^ Broadcast as part of Tom Tom, 26 November 1968
  22. ^ Broadcast as part of Late Night Line-Up, 25 November 1967
  23. ^ Broadcast as part of Doctor Who - The War Games, 21 June 1969
  24. ^ Broadcast as part of Doctor Who - The War Games, 21 June 1969
  25. ^ Held by the BBC Film Library


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See also[edit]

External links[edit]