Doctor of Medicine
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The Doctor of Medicine (Latin: Medicinae Doctor, meaning "teacher of medicine," abbreviated M.D.) is a terminal medical degree for practitioners of medicine. The meaning of the degree varies between different countries. In countries that follow the United States system, the M.D. denotes a first professional graduate degree awarded upon initial graduation from medical school. In countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom, the M.D. denotes a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or advanced clinical coursework degree restricted to medical graduates. In those countries, the title of the equivalent first professional degree is Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery.
- 1 History
- 2 Academic degrees for physicians by country
- 2.1 United States and Canada
- 2.2 UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries
- 2.3 Denmark
- 2.4 France
- 2.5 Germany
- 2.6 Netherlands and Belgium
- 2.7 South Korea
- 2.8 Sweden
- 2.9 Australia
- 2.10 China
- 2.11 Malaysia
- 2.12 Argentina
- 2.13 India
- 2.14 Indonesia
- 2.15 Iran
- 2.16 Israel
- 2.17 Pakistan
- 2.18 Philippines
- 2.19 Romania
- 2.20 Sri Lanka
- 2.21 Taiwan
- 2.22 Singapore
- 2.23 Thailand
- 2.24 Tunisia
- 2.25 Cambodia
- 2.26 Equivalent degrees in other countries
- 2.27 Other postgraduate clinical degrees
- 3 References
University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, and in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees (MB BS/MBChB/MB BChir/BM BCh etc.). North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century. The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York (which at the time was referred to as King's College of Medicine) was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB.
Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Penn, Harvard, Maryland, and McGill. These first few North American medical schools that were established were (for the most part) founded by physicians and surgeons who had been trained in England and Scotland.
Academic degrees for physicians by country
United States and Canada
In the United States, MDs are awarded by medical schools as "Professional Doctorate" and is accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), an independent body sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the American Medical Association (AMA).
Admission to medical schools in the United States and Canada is highly competitive, and in the United States about 17,800 out of approximately 47,000 applicants received at least one acceptance to any medical school in recent application years. Before entering medical school, many schools require that students complete a four-year undergraduate degree and take the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT); however, some medical schools require only a certain amount of undergraduate coursework (but not degree completion) before the start of the medical curriculum. Before graduating from a medical school and achieving the Doctor of Medicine degree, most schools require their students to take the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and both the clinical knowledge and clinical skills parts of Step 2. The MD degree is typically earned in four years. Following the awarding of the MD, physicians who wish to practice in the United States are required to complete at least one internship year (PGY-1) and pass the USMLE Step 3. In order to receive board eligible or board accredited status in a specialty of medicine such as general surgery or internal medicine, they undergo additional specialized training in the form of a residency. Those who wish to further specialize in areas such as cardiology or interventional radiology then complete a fellowship. Depending upon the physician's chosen field, residencies and fellowships involve an additional three to eight years of training after obtaining the MD. This can be lengthened with additional research years, which can last one, two, or more years.
The Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine or DO degree allows similar practice in the United States and Canada to the M.D. degree and Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine are fully licensed physicians. The M.D. degree is awarded only by the 137 Medical Schools in the United States and holders of the M.D. degree must pass M.D. level board exams while D.O. can pass either D.O. or M.D. examinations. Similarly, M.D.'s must attend M.D. rated residency and fellowship programs while D.O.'s can attend either type of program. On average, M.D. physicians score 31.4 on MCAT examinations while D.O. score 27.33 and pre-M.D.'s have an average GPA of 3.70 versus 3.53 for D.O. students and therefore Medical School admission is considered more difficult than Osteopathic Medical School admission (This data is directly from the AAMC and the AACOM which are the organizations for the two degrees). The American M.D. degree is also recognized by most countries in the world. While the D.O. degree is getting more widely accepted in other countries as fully licensed physicians, some places still allow Osteopathic physicians to do Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine only.
In Canada, the MD is the basic medical degree required to practice medicine. McGill University Faculty of Medicine is the only medical school in Canada that continues to award the MD, CM degrees (abbreviated MDCM). MDCM is from the Latin "Medicinae Doctorem et Chirurgiae Magistrum" meaning "doctor of medicine and master of surgery". Upon graduation, students enter into a residency phase of training. Prior to obtaining independent practicing license from a provincial regulatory body, students must complete the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination to obtain the Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada (LMCC) qualifications.
Even though the MD are first professional degrees and not doctorates of research (i.e., a PhD), many holders of the MD degree conduct clinical and basic scientific research and publish in peer-reviewed journals during training and after graduation; an academic physician whose work emphasizes basic research is called a physician-scientist. Combined medical and research training is offered through programs granting MD-PhD. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) through its Medical Scientist Training Program funds MD-PhD training programs at many universities. Some MDs choose a research career and receive funding from the NIH as well as other sources such as the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. A few even go on to become Nobel Laureates. The United States Department of Education and the National Science Foundation do not include the MD or other professional doctorates among the degrees that are equivalent to research doctorates.
UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries
The entry-level first professional degree in these countries for the practice of medicine is that of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MB, MB BCh BAO, BMBS, MBBChir, or MBChB). This degree typically requires between four and six years of study and clinical training, and is equivalent to the North American MD degree. Due to the UK code for higher education, first degrees in medicine comprise an integrated programme of study and professional practice spanning several levels. These degrees may retain, for historical reasons, "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" and are abbreviated to MBChB, MBBS or BMBS.
In the UK, Ireland and many Commonwealth countries, the MD is a postgraduate research degree in medicine. At some universities, this takes the form of a first doctorate, analogous to the Ph.D., awarded upon submission of a thesis and a successful viva. The thesis may consist of new research undertaken on a full- or part-time basis, with much less supervision (in the UK) than for a Ph.D., or a portfolio of previously published work.
In order to be eligible to apply for an MD degree from a UK or Commonwealth University one must hold either a "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" (MBBS, MBChB, BMBS for example) degree, or an equivalent US-MD degree and must usually have at least five-years of postgraduate experience. Therefore, graduates from the MBBS/MBChB/BMBS degrees do not hold doctorates; however, physicians holding these degrees are referred to as "doctor" as they are fully licensed as medical practitioners. In some commonwealth nations, these interns are designated as "house officers".
At some other universities (especially older institutions, such as Oxford, Dublin, Cambridge and St Andrews), the MD is a higher doctorate (similar to a DSc) awarded upon submission of a portfolio of published work representing a substantial contribution to medical research. The University of Cambridge is proposing to introduce a new degree of MedScD (more akin to the ScD degree) awarded on the basis of a career's contribution to the science or art of medicine, rather than a thesis, for which a candidate may be awarded the MD degree.
In the case where the MD is awarded (either as a first or higher doctorate) for previously published research, the candidate is usually required to be either a graduate or a full-time member of staff, of several years' standing of the university in question.
In Denmark, basic medical education and training is available at four universities: the University of Copenhagen, Aarhus University, the University of Southern Denmark and Aalborg University. The duration of basic medical education and training is six years and the course leads to the degree of Candidate of Medicine (rated equally to master's degree). Students are qualified as "medical doctor" (MD) after swearing the Hippocratic Oath upon graduation.
Medical school is usually followed by a year of residency called basic clinical training (Danish: Klinisk basisuddannelse or KBU) which upon completion grants the right to practice medicine without supervision.
Medical studies in France are organised as follows:
Right after graduating from high school with a Baccalaureat, any student can register at a university of medicine (there are about 30 of them throughout the country). At the end of first year, an internal ranking examination takes place in each of these universities in order to implement the numerus clausus. First year consists mainly of theoretical classes such as biophysics and biochemistry, anatomy, ethics or histology. Passing first year is commonly considered very challenging, requiring hard and continuous work. Each student can only try twice. For example, the Université René Descartes welcomes about 2,000 students in first year and only 300 after numerus clausus.
The second and third year are usually mainly quite theoretical although the teachings are often accompanied by placements in the field (e.g., internships as nurses or in the emergency room, depending on the university).
During fourth, fifth and sixth years, medical students get a special status called "externe" (In some universities, such as Pierre et Marie Curie, the externe status is given starting in the third year). They work as interns every morning at the hospital plus a few night shifts a month and study in the afternoon. Each internship lasts between three and four months and takes place in a different department. Med students get five weeks off a year.
At the end of the sixth year, they need to pass a national ranking exam, which will determine their specialty. Indeed, the first student gets to choose first, then the second, et cetera. Usually, students work hard during fifth and sixth years in order to train properly for the national ranking exam. During these years, actual practice at the hospital and some theoretical courses are meant to balance the training. Such externs' average wage stands between 100 and 300 euros a month.
After that ranking exams, students can start as residents in the specialty they have been able to pick. That is the point from which they also start getting paid.
Towards the end of the medical program, French medical students are provided with more responsibilities and are required to defend a thesis; however, unlike a PhD thesis, no original research is actually necessary to write an MD thesis. At the conclusion of the thesis defense, French medical students receive a State Diploma of Doctor of Medicine (MD) or diplôme d'Etat de docteur en médecine. Every new doctor must then proceed to a Diploma of Specialised Studies (Diplôme d'Etudes Spécialisées or DES) to mark their specialty. Some students may also receive a Diploma of Complementary Specialized Studies (Diplôme d'Etudes Spécialisées Complémentaires or DESC).
After at least six years of medical school, the students graduate with a final federal medical exam (Zweiter Abschnitt der ärztlichen Prüfung). Graduates receive their license to practice medicine and the professional title of physician (Arzt). The academic degree Doctor of Medicine (Dr. med.) MD is a postgraduate research degree in medicine., It is awarded if the graduate has, in addition, successfully completed a scientific study and dissertation. Many medical students opt to perform their thesis during their studies at medical school but are only allowed to finish the dissertation process after their studies.
Netherlands and Belgium
In the Netherlands and Belgium, medical students receive six years of university education prior to their graduation.
In the Netherlands, students receive three years of preclinical training, followed by three years of clinical training (co-assistentschappen, or co-schappen) in hospitals. At one medical faculty, that of Utrecht University, clinical training already begins in the third year of medical school. After 6 years, students graduate as Basisartsen (comparable to Doctors of Medicine). As a result of the Bologna process, medical students in the Netherlands now receive a bachelor's degree after three years in medical school and a master's degree upon graduation. Prospective students can apply for medical education directly after finishing the highest level of secondary school, vwo; previous undergraduate education is not a precondition for admittance.
The Belgian medical education is much more based on theoretical knowledge than the Dutch system. In the first three years, which are very theoretical and lead to a university bachelor's degree, general scientific courses are taken such as chemistry, biophysics, physiology, biostatistics, anatomy, virology, etc. To enter the bachelor course in Flanders, prospective students have to pass an exam, as a result of the numerus clausus.
After the bachelor courses, students are allowed to enter the 'master in medicine' courses, which consist of three years of theoretical and clinical study. In general, the first two master years are very theoretical and teach the students human pathology, diseases and pharmacology. The third year is a year full of internships in a wide range of specialities in different clinics. The seventh, final year serves as a kind of 'pre-specialization' year in which the students are specifically trained in the specialty they wish to pursue after medical school. This contrasts with the Dutch approach, in which graduates are literally 'basic doctors' (basisartsen) who have yet to decide on a specialty.
In South Korea, there is a Medical Doctor (MD) license.
The medical educations in South Korea (Republic of Korea) are 6 or 4 years in duration, 6-year courses starting right after high schools, and 4-year course starting after 4-year's university education(To start the 4-year course, the student needs a bachelor's degree). The first 2 years in the 6-year system is composed of basic sciences and liberal art courses.
Medical education in Sweden begins with a five-and-a-half-year undergraduate university program leading to the degree "Master of Science in Medicine" (Swedish: Läkarexamen). Following this, the National Board of Health and Welfare requires a minimum of 18 months of clinical internship (Swedish: Allmäntjänstgöring) before granting a medical license (Swedish: Läkarlegitimation) to be fully qualified as the Swedish equivalent to Medical Doctor (MD).
This internship consists of surgery (3–6 months), internal medicine (3–6 months), psychiatry (three months) and family medicine (six months). Upon receiving a license to practice, a physician is able to apply for a post to start specialist training. There are currently 52 recognised medical specialties in Sweden. The specialist training has a duration of minimum five years, which upon completion grants formal qualification as a specialist.
Historically, Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine (MD) for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's (Extended) degrees which permits the use of the term 'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have also renamed their previous medical research doctorates. The University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, and has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science (DMedSc).
In China, the degree system is very similar to the UK. Students can enter medical schools after graduating from high school. Lengths of the studies vary, there are 5-year Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS), 6-year Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) with one year of hospital internship, 7-year (Masters of Medicine), and 8-year (Doctor of Medicine) programs. After a degree is acquired, one needs to pass the certification exam to be allowed to practice.
In Malaysia, M.D. are awarded by both private and public universities, mostly are trained as a 5 years course, however with the establishment of Perdana University, it became the first university in Malaysia to provide a 4-year graduate entry course. Examples of universities in Malaysia offering the M.D degree. are University Sains Malaysia, National University of Malaysia, University Putra Malaysia, UCSI University, etc..
In Argentina the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate (Título de Médico) is equivalent to the North American M.D. Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by usually three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation.
The MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery) degree represents the first (undergraduate) level of training required to be licensed as a physician, and the MS or MD degree is a postgraduate degree, representative of specialty training. The equivalent training in the US or Canada would be the completion of a medical (post-graduate) degree. Eligibility for the MS or MD course is restricted to medical graduates holding the MBBS degree.
The MBBS course is for five and a half years, and training imparted is as follows:
- Pre-clinical (Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry)
- Para-clinical (Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Forensic Medicine and Community Medicine)
- Clinical (Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, General Medicine, General Surgery, Pediatrics and Obstetrics/Gynecology; with specialty rotations such as Orthopaedics, Radiology, etc.).
After three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a non-surgical nature [e.g. Anatomy (since the subject deals with study of anatomy through dissecting cadavers, thus given an MD degree), Physiology, Pharmacology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology] the candidate receives MD degree, whereas in a clinical subject of a surgical nature (e.g. General Surgery, Orthopaedics, Obstetrics/Gynaecology, Ophthalmology), the candidate receives the equivalent degree Master of Surgery (MS).
A second alternate qualification termed DNB [Diplomate of National Board], is considered equivalent to the MD and MS degrees. This can be obtained by passing the exam conducted by the National Board of Examinations after completing 3 years of post-MBBS residency training in teaching hospitals recognised by the board. The College of Physicians & Surgeons of Bombay, India (Established 1912) also awards higher postgraduate degrees in clinical and pre-clinical specialties, called FCPS; it involves three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, and a research thesis and a viva. The FCPS is representative of specialty clinical training, and equivalent to MD/MS/DNB in India, or Ph.D. or Professional Doctorates in other parts of the world. Until 2007, the Government of India and the Medical Council of India recognised the FCPS qualification - since then, this is being done by State Medical Councils.
After obtaining the first postgraduate degree, that is MD/MS/FCPS/DNB, one can go for further specialisation in medical or surgical fields. This involves a highly competitive entrance examination. Course has three years of additional training and study and then after passing an examination, both theory and practical, the degree awarded is DM (Doctor of Medicine), like DM in Cardiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Gastroenterology, Neuroradiology, Critical Care, Pulmonology, Hematology, Medical Oncology, Cardio-anaesthesia, Clinical Pharmacology and Neuroanaesthesia. For surgical superspecialities the degree awarded is MCh (Magister Chirurgiae), like MCh in Cardio-thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Endocrine Surgery, Neurosurgery, Surgical Gastroenterology, Urology, Plastic Surgery, Pediatric Surgery etc. DM and MCh are Doctorate degrees. A third alternate qualification is DNB (superspecialties), offered by National Board of Examinations, like DNB in Cardiology, Neurology, Cardiac Surgery, Neurosurgery.
Following DM or MCh, one can further go for a third postdoctorate degree that is, postdoctoral fellowship programs of one-year duration in specific subspecialties like Cardiac Electrophysiology, Invasive cardiology, Pediatric cardiology, Epilepsy, stroke, electroencephalography, movement disorders, neuromuscular disorders, cerebrovascular surgery, skull base surgery, pediatric cardiac surgery etc. offered by prestigious government institutes.
In Indonesia, the title of "dokter" (dr.) is awarded after a Medical student received their Bachelor in Medicine (Sarjana Kedokteran; S. Ked) after 3-3.5 years of study (at least) and 1.5–2 years of clinical course in university hospitals. After a medical student finished those five years of study and take Hippocrates Oath, The title of Dokter (dr.) is entitled before their name. Then they need to take Ujian Kompetensi Dokter Indonesia (UKDI, test to get license to practice medicine as general practitioner) then take a year-long internship course in primary health care clinics (also known as Puskesmas) or primary hospitals all over the country to practice as general practitioner under supervision of senior doctors. Those who wished to further their study into specialties can take graduate course of medicine of their preference and will be entitled with "Specialist of ..." after their name (e.g.: Sp.A for Spesialis Anak = Pediatrician). Graduate course of medicine is equal with residency program which is required the candidates to study for four years and hospital internship. (Note: dr. (dokter) is used for medical graduates, while Dr. (Doktor) is used for PhD holders.)
In Iran, Medical education begins after high school. No pre-med course or BSc degree is required. The eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam being held every year throughout the country. The entry to medical school is competitive and only students with the highest rank are accepted into medical program. The primary medical degree is completed in 7-7.5 years. On the final years (last 1–2 years) medical students need to do a research on a medical topic and provide thesis as part of their trainings. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, called "Professional Doctorate in Medicine" validated by the "Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran". All physicians will obtain license and medical council registration number from the "Medical Council of Iran" before they officially begin to practice. They may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications.
There are five university medical schools in Israel, including the Technion in Haifa, Ben Gurion University in Be'er Sheva, Tel Aviv University, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Medical school of the Bar-Ilan University in Safed. They all follow the European 6-year model except Bar-Ilan University, which has a four-year program similar to the US system. However, as of 2009, Tel Aviv University has introduced a four-year program similar to the US system for students with a bachelor's degree in certain biological sciences. The entrance requirements of the various schools of medicine are very strict. Israeli students require a high school Baccalaureate average above 100 and psychometric examination grade over 740. The demand for medical education is strong and growing and there is a lack of doctors in Israel. The Technion Medical School, Ben Gurion University, and Tel Aviv University Sackler Faculty of Medicine offer 4-year MD programs for American students who have American college degrees and have taken the MCAT interested in completing rigorous medical education in Israel before returning to the US or Canada. The degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD) is legally considered to be equivalent to master's degree due to Israeli Educational System .
In Pakistan the MD is a higher doctorate, awarded by medical universities based on successful completion of a residency program of four to six years' duration in a university hospital.
In the Philippines, the MD is a first professional degree in medicine.
Romanian medical schools lasts for 6 years (including clinical practice) and concludes with a final licensing examination (licența), which is based on the dissertation of the student's original research. The degree awarded is that of Doctor-medic (Medical Doctor), abbreviated as "MD", or more commonly "Dr."
In Sri Lanka, the MD degree is a higher postgraduate degree that is awarded by the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine after completion of a postgraduate course, examinations and speciality training. The MD degree in Sri Lanka is representative of specialty training in clinical, para clinical and preventive medicine (e.g., General Medicine, Cardiology, Nephrology, Oncology, para clinical such as microbiology, haematology and preventive such as Community Medicne .). Entry for the MD course open only for medical graduates holding the MBBS degree (with a duration of five and a half years), and training is obtained in medical disciplines that are non-surgical in nature (e.g., Internal Medicine, Radiology, Pathology, etc.). After three or four years of study and the successful completion of an examination with written as well as cases and viva examinations, the MD degree in the respective field of Study is awarded. In Community medicine and Medical Administration, part I examination consists of a theoretical exam while the degree is cofered after completion of a thesis as n PhD. This thesis has to be completed within a period of five years. After successfully defending the academic thesis, MD degree is conferred to the candidate, The MD degree holder is certified as a Board certified specialist by the respective board of study of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine after he/she undergoes 2–4 years of local and foreign training depending on the specialty/subspecialty selected.
In Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery B.A.M.S in Unani, Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery BUMS in Sidha, Bachelor of Sidha Medicine and Surgery BSMS are the basic qualification for practicing Ayurveda, Unani,&Sidha. The B.A.M.S, B.U.M.S, and B.S.M.S are 6-year degree (including internship) courses accepted by the University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka). M.D (Ayu)(Ayurveda vachaspati) can be done after B.A.M.S, as a specialty, and it takes 3 years (including submission of a thesis) to complete the course. Ayurveda M.D (Ayu) (Ayurveda vachaspati) is a master's degree accepted by University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka), after completion of MPhil can follow Ph.D. level programmes in Sri Lanka.
In Taiwan, the MD is a first profesional degree.
The American Duke University has a medical school based in Singapore (Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School), and follows the North-American model of styling its first professional degree "Doctor of Medicine" ("MD"), consid. By contrast, the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore confers MB BS as the first professional degree.
The Thai medical education is 6 years system, consisting of 1 year in basic-science, 2 years in pre-clinical training, and 3 years for clinical training. Upon graduation, all medical students must pass national medical licensing examinations and a university-based comprehensive test. After medical school, newly graduated doctor are under contract to spend a year of internship and 2 years of tenure in rural areas before they are eligible for any other residency positions or specialized training. The students will receive Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. However, the degree is equivalent to master's degree in Thailand.
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In Tunisia, education is free for all Tunisian citizens and for foreigners who have scholarships. The oldest Medical school is a faculty of the University of Tunis. There are four medicine faculties situated in the major cities of Tunis, Sfax, Sousse and Monastir. Admission is bound to the success and score in the baccalaureate examination. Admission score threshold is very high, based on competition among all applicants throughout the nation. Medical school curriculum consists of five years. The first two years are medical theory, containing all basic sciences related to medicine, and the last three years consists of clinical issues related to all medical specialties. During these last three years, the student gets the status of "Externe". The student has to attend at the university hospital every day, rotating around all wards. Every period is followed by a clinical exam regarding the student's knowledge in that particular specialty. After those five years, there are two years on internship, in which the student is a physician but under the supervision of the chief doctor; the student rotates over the major and most essential specialties during period of four months each. After that, student has the choice of either passing the residency national exam or extending his internship for another year, after which he gains the status of family physician. The residency program consists of four to five years in the specialty he qualifies, depending on his score in the national residency examination under the rule of highest score chooses first. Whether the student chooses to be a family doctor or a specialist, he has to write a doctoral thesis, which he will be defending in front of a jury, after which he gains his degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD).
After 6 years of general medical education (a foundation year + 5 years), all students will graduate with Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSc) បរិញ្ញាប័ត្រ វិទ្យាសាស្រ្តវេជ្ជសាស្ត្រ. This degree does not allow graduates to work independently as Physician, but it is possible for those who wish to continue to master's degrees in other fields relating to medical sciences such as Public Health, Epidemiology, Biomedical Science, Nutrition...
Medical graduates, who wish to be fully qualified as physicians or specialists must follow the rule as below:
- General Practitioner's (GP) course is of 8 years (BMedSc + 2-year internship). Clinical rotation in the internship is modulated within 4 main disciplines (general medicine, surgery, gynecology, pediatrics).The medical degree awarded is Doctor of Medicine (MD) សញ្ញាប័ត្រ វេជ្ជបណ្ឌិត (equivalent to master's degree).
- After graduating with BMedSc; any students, who wish to enter Residency Training Programs, are required to sit for a rigorous and Entrance Exam. The duration of residency programs lasts from 3 to 4 years after BMedSc (BMedSc + 3– 4 years of specialization). Once the graduates, after successfully defending their practicum thesis, are officially awarded the Degree of Specialized Doctor (MD-with specialization) សញ្ញាប័ត្រវេជ្ជបណ្ឌិតឯកទេស "Professional Doctorate".
All Medical graduates must complete Thesis Defense and pass the National Exit Exam ប្រឡងចេញថ្នាក់ជាតិក្នុងវិស័យសុខាភិបាល to become either GPs or Medical or Surgical Specialists.
Equivalent degrees in other countries
- In Kosovo, there are Medicine High schools when students from elementary school choose the medicine high-school and its 3 years when they finish the 3 years they practice 4 months and then after the promotion they can be a nurse or they can go ahead to medicine faculties in Pristina and the education there is around 6 years including practice.
- In Russia, medical Universities in Russia offer a 6-year curriculum leading to award Doctor of Medicine (MD) "Physician".
- In Ukraine, medical Universities in Ukraine offer a 6-year curriculum leading to award Doctor of Medicine (MD) "Physician"
- In the Dominican Republic, it is known as "Doctor en Medicina" (Doctor in Medicine). In 1511 the Spanish Catholic church founded the first university of the Americas in Santo Domingo present capital of modern-day Dominican Republic and name it Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino (today Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo). In 1630 this university graduated the first medical doctors of the Americas and amongst the graduates some Native Americans included.
- In Guyana, Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree is awarded after the completion of 4 years or 5 years of study. Texila American University, Green heart university, American International School of Medicine, Alexander American University provides Medicine programs
- In Bangladesh, the basic medical degree is the MBBS. After completing the intermediate level of education (12 years) the candidate must undergo 5 years of medical training in any medical college to achieve the MBBS degree. After obtaining the degree, the candidate needs to undergo one year of internship to obtain BMDC (Bangladesh medical and dental council) accreditation in order to practice in the country.
- In Italy, the title of "Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia" (literally Doctor in Medicine and Surgery) is awarded after completion of a Master's course in Medicine and Surgery (lasting six years) in a University. After obtaining this degree, graduates have to pass a state examination (called "abilitazione alla professione medica", which translates to habilitation exam to medical practice) through which they acquire the right to work as a medical doctor.
- In Georgia, medical Universities in Georgia offer a 6-year curriculum leading to award Doctor of Medicine (MD) "Physician" "Medical Doctor (MD),a European medical degree which is valid throughout the world.Some of the reputed medical universities include Tbilisi state Medical University and Petre Shotadze Tbilisi Medical Academy
- The Czech and Slovak title MUDr. (Medicinae Universae doctor or doktor medicíny) is a professional doctorate granted upon completion of six years pregraduate Master's study at medical schools. The postgraduate academic research degree in medicine is a PhD degree.
- In Poland the title of lekarz (physician, medic) or "lek." is granted after completing a 6-year Master's medical program (although students apply to it directly after graduating high school). In contrast, a higher doctoral academic research degree in medicine resembling a PhD is named "dr n. med." or doktor nauk medycznych (Doctor of Medical Sciences). Specialization is valued similarly to a specialization in the English system and is a pre-requisite for a "dr. n. med." which is usually defined within the same field.
- The Danish and Norwegian Candidatus medicinae or Candidata medicinae degrees (cand. med.) is awarded after completing a six-year medical programme, to which students apply directly upon finishing secondary school. The programme usually includes a small thesis. However, the cand. med. degree must not be confused with the previous Danish and Norwegian Dr. Med. degree, which is a separate degree from the Ph.D. and represents a higher degree of medical research experience. It typically consists of at least 5–6 original publications.
- In Mexico and Perú, schools of medicine award the "Título de Médico Cirujano" degree after completing either six or seven years of study. This curriculum includes a rotating internship year and a year of social service providing care to an underserved community.
- In Nepal, a MBBS degree is awarded. This is an undergraduate level degree, which is awarded after completion of four and half years of medical school followed by one year of clinical internship. Most medical schools also offer postgraduate M.D and M.S. degrees, which requires three years of further training. Post-doctorate D.M. and M.Ch. terminal degrees are awarded by a few elite institutions after three more years of super-speciality training.
- In Greece, after a six-year study, a medical student acquires his medical degree and the right to use "Δρ.", (Dr.) before his name. This is considered equivalent to the M.D. title.
- In mainland China, some medical schools award MBBS to foreign students while all medical schools award Bachelor of Medicine to nationals. MD is a higher academic research degree.
- In Colombia, the medicine faculties of the universities awards the title of "Medico Cirujano" after taking 10 semesters of studies on "all clinic and surgery discipline a two semester on internship. After receiving the degree there is a mandatory year "obliged social work" were the doctors practice as GP in the countryside. Residency programs last between 3–4 years depends on the specialty.
- In Sudan the awarded degree in most of the medical schools is, Bachelor of Medicine and Basic Surgery (MBBS). In schools that are based on the English system of medical teaching, the degree is granted after six years of studying. As for the schools that are adopting the American system, they grant their students the degree of MBBS in only five years.
- In Turkey, the title of "Tıp Doktoru" (literally "Doctor of Medicine")is awarded upon completion of six years continuous study started with five years university education include three years basic sciences, two years clinical courses followed by one year of internship in university hospitals.
- In Serbia and Croatia, the title of "doktor medicine" (abbreviated "dr. med.") is awarded upon completion of six years of study at a Faculty of Medicine ("medicinski fakultet") directly after high school.
- In Slovenia, the title of "doktor medicine" (abbreviated "dr. med.") is awarded upon completion of six years of study at one of the two Slovenian Faculties of Medicine ("medicinska fakulteta") in Ljubljana or Maribor. Studying at these faculties is only possible if the student has finished a Gymnasium/Grammar School ("gimnazija") with a general dimploma called "splošna matura".
- In Japan, "Doctor of Medicine (MD)" is awarded from the government, after graduating a medical university or college with 6-year curriculum and passing the national examination.
- In Portugal, to practice Medicine, a Masters in Medicine (awarded after a 6-year Integrated Masters Program in Medicine) is mandatory. Before the 2007 Bologna Process, the same course was only a Licentiate Degree. After the 6-year program, students must go through the National Seriation Exam (Prova Nacional de Seriação), and then a year of General Medical Internship (Ano Comum). When the internship ends, the students are placed in their choice of Medical Specialty, according to their ranking in the aforementioned Exam and the vacancies available for each medical specialty. Only when each student finishes the Medical Internship, will they be allowed to practice Medicine without supervision. Entry to the Integrated Masters Program in Medicine is done directly after High School, based on the student's grade - each year there are about 1800 new Medical Students in Portugal, in 8 different Medical Schools.
Other postgraduate clinical degrees
There is also a similar advanced professional degree to the postgraduate MD: the Master of Surgery (usually ChM or MS, but MCh in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and at Oxford and MChir at Cambridge). The equivalence of these degrees, but their differing names, prevents the need for surgeons (addressed as Mr. in the UK) having to revert to the title Dr., which they once held as new MBBS graduates.
In Ireland, where the basic medical qualification includes a degree in obstetrics, there is a similar higher degree of Master of the Art of Obstetrics (MAO). A Master of Midwifery was formerly examined by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London (hence MMSA) but fell into abeyance in the 1960s; in this case, the term Master referred not to a university degree but rather a professional rank that is common among craft guilds.
In East Africa, the medical schools in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda award the degree of Master of Medicine (MMed) degree in both surgical and medical specialty disciplines following a three to six-year period of instruction.
In West Africa, the West African College of Physicians and the West African College of Surgeons award the Fellowship of the West African College of Physicians (FWACP) and the Fellowship of the West African College of Surgeons (FWACS) in medical and surgical disciplines respectively after a minimum of four-year residency training period.
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