Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O. or DO) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States. Holders of the D.O. degree have the ability to become licensed as osteopathic physicians who have equivalent rights, privileges, and responsibilities as physicians with a Doctor of Medicine degree (M.D.). D.O. physicians are licensed to practice the full scope of medicine and surgery in 65 countries, including all 50 states in the US, and make up seven percent of the total U.S. physician population. In 2015, there were more than 96,000 osteopathic medical physicians in the United States.
Currently, there are 31 medical schools with 45 locations throughout the United States that offer the D.O. degree, and 141 medical schools that offer the M.D. degree. As of 2015, 25% of graduating medical students in the United States were D.O. students, and this percentage increases every year. The curricula at osteopathic medical schools are very similar to those at M.D.-granting medical schools. Four years in total length, the first two years of medical school focus on the biomedical and clinical sciences, followed by two years of core clinical training in the clinical specialties.
Upon leaving medical school, D.O. graduates may enter internship or residency training programs, which may be followed by fellowship training. Many D.O. graduates attend the same graduate medical education programs as their M.D. counterparts, and then take M.D. specialty board exams, while other D.O. graduates enter osteopathic programs, and take D.O. specialty board examinations.
One notable difference between D.O. and M.D. training is that D.O. training adds 300 – 500 hours studying techniques for hands-on manipulation of the human musculoskeletal system based on pre-scientific notions – a pseudomedical remnant from the early days of 19th century osteopathy that features little in modern practice.
The practice of osteopathy began in the United States in 1874. The term "osteopathy" was coined by physician and surgeon Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO.. Still named his new school of medicine "osteopathy," reasoning that "the bone, osteon, was the starting point from which [he] was to ascertain the cause of pathological conditions." Still founded the American School of Osteopathy (now A.T. Still University of the Health Sciences) in Kirksville, Missouri, for the teaching of osteopathy on 10 May 1892. While the state of Missouri granted the right to award the MD degree, he remained dissatisfied with the limitations of conventional medicine and instead chose to retain the distinction of the DO degree. In 1898 the American Institute of Osteopathy started the Journal of Osteopathy and by that time four states recognized the profession.
The osteopathic medical profession has evolved into two branches: non-physician manual medicine osteopaths who were educated and trained outside the United States and U.S. trained full scope of medical practice osteopathic physicians. The regulation of non-physician manual medicine osteopaths varies greatly between jurisdictions. In the United States, osteopathic physicians holding the D.O. degree have attained the same rights, privileges, and responsibilities as physicians with a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree. Osteopathic physicians and non-physician osteopaths are so distinct that in practice they function as separate professions.
As originally conceived by Andrew Still, the letters "DO" stood for "Diplomate in Osteopathy" and the title conferred by the degree was "Doctor of Osteopathy". Subsequently the degree also came to be entitled "Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine", and in more recent times the AOA has preferred that this title be used exclusively, resolving in a 1960 conference:
Be it resolved, that the American Osteopathic Association institute a policy, both officially in our publications and individually on a conversational basis, to use the terms osteopathic medicine in place of the word osteopathy and osteopathic physician and surgeon in place of osteopath; the words osteopathy and osteopath being reserved for historical, sentimental, and informal discussions only.
In 2015, there were 96,954 osteopathic medical physicians in the United States and 123,075 total DOs and osteopathic medical students. The proportion of females in the profession has steadily increased since the 1980s. In 1985, about 10 percent of D.O. physicians were female, compared with 40 percent in 2015. Between 2008 and 2012, 49 percent of new D.O. graduates were females.
During the 2011-12 academic year, the osteopathic medical student body consisted of: 69 percent white/non-Hispanic, 19 percent Asian or Pacific Islander, 3.5 percent Hispanic, 3 percent African American, and 0.5 percent Native American or Alaskan. The remainder were listed as "other or not entered." The five-year change in osteopathic medical student enrollment by ethnicity has increased by 19 percent for white/non-Hispanic students, 36 percent for Asian-American students, 24 percent for Black/African American students and 60 percent for Hispanic/Latino students. 
Education, training and distinctiveness
Osteopathic medical school curricula are virtually identical to those at schools granting the M.D. degree (Doctor of Medicine). Once admitted to an osteopathic medical school, it takes four years to graduate, and the schooling is divided into the pre-clinical and clinical years. The pre-clinical years, the first and second years, focus on the biomedical and clinical sciences. The clinical years, the third and fourth years, consist of core clinical training and sub-internships in the clinical specialties. Osteopathic medical school accreditation standards require training in internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics, family practice, surgery, psychiatry, emergency medicine, radiology, preventive medicine and public health. According to Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, "the training, practice, credentialing, licensure, and reimbursement of osteopathic physicians is virtually indistinguishable from those of physicians with M.D. qualifications, with 4 years of osteopathic medical school followed by specialty and subspecialty training and board certification."
D.O. schools provide an additional 300–500 hours in the study of hands-on manual medicine and the body's musculoskeletal system, which is referred to as osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM). Historically, osteopaths subscribed to the view that such body manipulation can bring about systemic healing – a belief which is a form of pseudomedicine – but today American osteopathic physicians have largely evolved away from such pre-scientific ideas. Osteopathic physicians who use OMM predominantly use it to treat musculoskeletal conditions, for which there is conflicting evidence in its favor. Particular criticism has been targeted at craniosacral therapy, a component of OMM taught at many D.O. schools that has limited scientific support.
To be considered for entry into a D.O. program, an applicant must complete a national standardized exam called the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT). Some authors note the differences in the average MCAT scores and grade point average of students who matriculate at D.O. schools versus those who matriculate at M.D. schools within the United States. In 2014, the average MCAT and GPA for students entering U.S.-based M.D. programs were 31.4 and 3.69, respectively, and 27.21 and 3.53 for D.O. matriculants, although the gap has been getting smaller every year. D.O. medical schools are more likely to accept non-traditional students who are older and entering medicine as a second career, or coming from non-science majors.
D.O. medical students are required to take the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensure Examination (COMLEX-USA), which is sponsored by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME). The COMLEX-USA is series of four osteopathic medical licensing examinations. The first two steps of the COMLEX-USA are taken during medical school, and are prerequisites for osteopathic residency programs, which are available in almost every specialty of medicine and surgery. The second step exam consists of a written portion and a physical exam evaluation. The physical exam evaluation (COMLEX- PE), is only available at select regions in the country and graded as a PASS/FAIL exam. The step 3 portion of the COMLEX is taken during residency.
In addition to the COMLEX-USA, D.O. medical students may choose to sit for the M.D. licensure examinations, which are called the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). This is typically done if the student desires to enter an M.D. residency. However, this is not always required, as some M.D. residency programs do not require the USMLE from D.O. applicants. USMLE pass rates for D.O. and M.D. students in 2012 are as follows: Step 1: 91% and 94%, Step 2 CK: 96% and 97%, and Step 2 CS: 87% and 97%, respectively (this number may be misleading as only 46 D.O. students compared to 17,118 M.D. students were evaluated for Step 2 CS) Step 3: 100% and 95% (this number may be misleading, as only 16 D.O. students compared to 19,056 M.D. students, were evaluated for Step 3).
Licensing and board certification
To obtain a license to practice medicine in the United States, medical students must pass the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX), the licensure exam administered by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners throughout their medical training. Students are given the option of also taking the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to apply for some Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) residency programs. Those that have received or are in the process of earning an M.D. or D.O. degree are both eligible to sit for the USMLE. Because of their additional training, only holders of the D.O. are eligible to sit for the COMLEX.
Upon completion of internship and residency requirements for their chosen medical specialty, and depending on whether the program attended as ACGME or AOA accredited, holders of the D.O. may elect to be board certified by either a specialty board (through the American Medical Association's American Board of Medical Specialties) or an osteopathic specialty board (through the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists certifying boards). In February 2014, the American Osteopathic Association and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education agreed to unify allopathic and osteopathic Graduate medical education starting in 2020.
Depending on the state, medical licensure may be issued from a combined board (D.O. and M.D.) or a separate board of medical examiners. All of the 70 state medical boards are members of the Federation of State Medical Boards.
Currently, there are no osteopathic programs located outside of the United States that would qualify an individual to practice as an osteopathic physician in the United States. Foreign osteopathic degrees are not recognized by any state in the U.S. as being equivalent to American D.O. degrees.
International practice rights
|Country||Year of Latest Policy||Medical Practice Rights||Requirements for Licensure|
|Argentina||2006||Unlimited||Foreign physicians must submit credentials to various agencies and then appear before any of the National Universities in order to have their diploma recognized.|
|Australia||2013||Unlimited||According to documents published online, the Medical Board of Australia has “agreed to accept the DO USA as a primary medical qualification for the purposes of medical registration provided that the DO USA was awarded by a medical school which has been accredited by the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation.”"|
|Austria||2009||Unlimited||Hospital must have position unable to be filled by Austrian physician.|
|Bahamas||2004||Unlimited||U.S. license recognized.|
|Bahrain||2010||Unlimited||U.S. license recognized.|
|Belize||2009||Unlimited||Must complete a Belizean residency for permanent license eligibility.|
|Bermuda||1997||Unlimited||Required at least 2 years of GME and examination or interview by the Council’s Examination Committee. Non-Bermudans must have approval from the Ministry of Labour & Home Affairs to work on the island.|
|Brazil||2007||Unlimited||Completion of Brazilian board exam, establishing residency & some training in Brazilian hospital is required.|
|Canada||Alberta||Unlimited||Requires at least 2 years of GME accredited by the ACGME or AOA and must have passed the Universities Coordinating Council Exam, a basic sciences exam, and have passed all three parts of the LMCC.|
|British Columbia||Unlimited||Requires at least 1 year of GME approved by the AOA or the ACGME, completed at least 1 year of GME in Canada, passed all three parts of the LMCC.|
|Manitoba||Unlimited||U.S. license recognized.|
|New Brunswick||Unlimited||Requires at least 2 years of GME approved by the AOA or the ACGME and have passed all 3 parts of the LMCC. Reciprocity pathway for D.O. physicians with a Maine license.|
|Newfoundland||Unlimited||The Medical Act 2011 allows full licensure of osteopathic physicians, both for the country’s full registry & its educational registry.|
|NW Territories||Unlimited||U.S. license recognized.|
|Nova Scotia||Unlimited||Requires a Canadian or ACGME residency.|
|Ontario||Unlimited||Requires a Canadian or ACGME residency.|
|Prince Edward Island||Unlimited|
|Quebec||Unlimited||Requires 1 year of GME approved by the AOA or ACGME, 1 year of GME in Quebec passed the written, oral and clinical board examination of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and must speak French fluently.|
|Yukon Territory||Unlimited||U.S. license recognized.|
|Cayman Islands (UK)||1983||Unlimited||U.S. license recognized.|
|Central African Republic||1990||Unlimited||U.S. licensure and annual attendance at the National Congress for Physicians.|
|Chile||2008||Unlimited||A written exam in Spanish is required, besides a series of practical tests involving common procedures (CPR, intubation, lumbar puncture, etc.).|
|China||2009||Unlimited||U.S.-D.O. physicians are permitted to apply for "Short Term Medical Practice."|
|Colombia||1996||Unlimited||Same requirements as other foreign physicians.|
|Costa Rica||2009||Unlimited||Same requirements as other foreign physicians.|
|Dominican Republic||2000||Unlimited||U.S. license & board certification recognized.|
|Ecuador||1990||Unlimited||Same requirements as other foreign physicians. Reciprocity exists with most Latin American countries.|
|Ethiopia||2011||Unlimited||Must renew license every 5 years.|
|Finland||1996||Unlimited||Same requirements as other foreign physicians.|
|France||2009||Limited||OMM only. French government does not recognize full scope of practice osteopathic medicine.|
|Germany||2008||Unlimited||Same requirements as other foreign physicians. Depends on need. Decisions made on individual basis.|
|Greece||2009||Unlimited||Greek citizenship required, unless in rare instances, there exists a crucial need for certain types of specialist physicians. Further, a work permit must be obtained, a difficult task, and speaking Greek is an unwritten requirement. These are the same requirements as other foreign physicians.|
|Grenada||2007||Unlimited||U.S. license recognized.|
|Guyana||1996||Unlimited||Case-by case basis.|
|Honduras||2009||Unlimited||National Autonomous University must accredit all foreign titles. After accreditation is completed, the applicant must seek registration with the Medical College of Honduras (MCH).|
|Hong Kong||1998||Unlimited||Written examination. Personal interview. Training approval.|
|India||2012||Unlimited||Unlimited for short-term work.|
|Indonesia||1992||Unlimited & Restricted||Foreign physicians affiliated with a university project or a mission have unlimited practice rights. No private practice allowed.|
|Iran||2009||Unlimited||Iranian citizens who have received both the DO degree from a US osteopathic school and are board certified in a clinical specialty. Osteopathic degrees from other countries are not accepted. The process of evaluation of the medical education and clinical training is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME).|
|Israel||2007||Unlimited||Same requirements as other foreign physicians. Hebrew required.|
|Italy||2009||Unlimited||Physicians are discouraged from seeking employment in Italy without firm contracts and work permits. If there is a U.S. state law outlining reciprocity with Italy, a statement to this effect from the Italian Consulate will warrant better chances.|
|Jamaica||1994||Limited & Restricted||D.O. physicians were permitted to supply some services while participating in a specific mission project.|
|Lebanon||2004||Unlimited||AOA letter required. Examination required.|
|Lesotho||1990s||Unlimited||Applicants must appear before the Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Council to answer some medical questions and present their credentials. The Council will also make a recommendation about where the applicant’s skills would be most helpful in the country.|
|Liberia||1990s||Unlimited||Same requirements as other foreign physicians.|
|Luxembourg||1987||Unlimited||The practice of medicine in Luxembourg by a doctor who is not an EU national is very rare.|
|Malta||2010||Unlimited||Accepted on a case by case basis, if training meets the minimum educational requirements for physicians in the EU (Article 24 of Directive 2005/36/EC). Examination required.|
|Mexico||2011||Unlimited & Restricted||Health Secretary Quijano of the Yucatán State of Mexico signed a Proclamation recognizing U.S.-trained osteopathic physicians in that state; D.O. physicians can now obtain short-term & long-term licensure through the Health Secretary’s office. All other Mexican states require work permits - only available in conjunction with the association of a short-term medical mission project.|
|Micronesia||1993||Unlimited||Statutes specifically include DOs|
|Nepal||2008||Unlimited||Approval by the Nepal Medical Council & a visa from the Immigration Department.|
|Netherlands||2009||Unlimited||Same requirements as other foreign physicians.|
|New Zealand||2008||Unlimited||Hearing required. Case-by-case basis.|
|Nigeria||2010||Unlimited||U.S. Licensure and completion of specialty training required.|
|Norway||2009||Limited||OMM only, but DOs may apply for recognition as medical doctors.|
|Pakistan||2011||Unlimited||U.S. osteopathic medical schools meet the Medical and Dental Council’s statutory regulations for international medical graduates. Scope is unlimited, but practice setting may be restricted|
|Panama||2009||Unlimited||Panamanian citizenship required.|
|Papua New Guinea||2010||Unlimited||Work permit required. Short-term or a long-term volunteer service license also available.|
|Peru||2011||Unlimited||Process for licensure is the same as for other IMGs.|
|Poland||2009||Unlimited||Examination & Polish required.|
|Qatar||2011||Unlimited||Must possess a valid work visa, and pass written and oral examinations.|
|Russia||2006||Unlimited||Foreign physicians make arrangements to practice through Russian sponsors, such as hospitals or businesses.|
|Saint Lucia||2000||Unlimited||U.S. credentials recognized.|
|Saudi Arabia||2009||Unlimited||Foreign physician must be recruited by a government agency, a corporation or a private health care entity, such as a hospital.|
|Sierra Leone||1993||Unlimited||Notarized U.S. credentials.|
|South Africa||2009||Limited||OMM only|
|Sweden||2005||Unlimited||U.S. license recognized.|
|Taiwan||2008||Unlimited||The ROC government recognizes U.S. D.O. degree. Applicants must take Taiwan Examination Yuan to obtain Taiwanese license.|
|Tanzania||1985||Unlimited||U.S. license & GME recognized. Temporary work permits are available|
|United Arab Emirates||2009||Unlimited||Examination required.|
|United Kingdom||2005||Unlimited||U.S.-trained D.O. physicians are eligible for full medical practice rights. Applicants must pass the PLAB examination and work for one year in the National Health Service. Following that year, the applicants will be able to apply for a license to practice privately. For GMC registration as a specialist, postgraduate training will need to be separately recognized by the Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board (PMETB). GOsC registration is also required.|
|Venezuela||2007||Unlimited||Recognized legal status under the "law of the practice of medical."|
|Vietnam||1995||Unlimited||Foreign physicians can fill vacancies in hospitals that are in need of certain specialists.|
|Zambia||2009||Unlimited||U.S. licensure required.|
|Table data from AOA International Licensure Summary (updated April 2013).|
|OMM: Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine|
Notes and references
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- "DOs Around the World". American Osteopathic Association. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
- "Osteopathic Medical Profession Report" (PDF). Retrieved January 2016.
- "U.S. Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine". AACOM. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
- Directory of Accredited Medical Education Programs, Liaison Committee on Medical Education
- "AAMC Medical Schools". Association of American Medical Colleges. Retrieved 2006-12-13.
- Berger, Joseph (14 August 2014). "The D.O. Is in Now. Osteopathic Schools Turn Out Nearly a Quarter of All Med School Grads" (ED14). NY Times. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "OMP Report: Osteopathic Medical Schools". American Osteopathic Association. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
- Kasper, Dennis L.; Eugene Braunwald; Anthony S. Fauci; Stephen L. Hauser; Dan L. Longo; J. Larry Jameson; Kurt J. Isselbacher (2004). "Chapter 10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine". Harrison's principles of internal medicine (16th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0071391405.
- "Graduate Medical Education Data Resource Book: 2011-12" (PDF). Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. pp. 5, 6, 59, 60. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "Roadmap to Residency: From Application to the Match and Beyond" (PDF). Association of American Medical Colleges. 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
- "AOA Approved Internships and Residencies". American Osteopathic Association. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "Opportunities, Directory of Osteopathic Postdoctoral Education Programs, Supplemental OPTI Affiliation List" (PDF). The DO. October 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
- "AOA Specialty Certifying Boards". American Osteopathic Association. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Swanson ES (2015). "Pseudoscience". Science and Society: Understanding Scientific Methodology, Energy, Climate, and Sustainability. Springer. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-319-21987-5.
- "''Medical Registration for Macon County, MO as of March 27, 1874,'' Missouri Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri". Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "Medical registration for Adair County, MO dated 28 July 1883". Missouri Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri.
- "Early American Manual Therapy".
- "Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation" (PDF). State of New Jersey.
- "Osteopathic Virtual Museum". Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "General Notices". Popular science monthly: 710. Mar 1898. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- Emmons Rutledge Booth (2006). History of Osteopathy. p. 80. ISBN 978-3-936679-04-5.
- Eileen L. DiGiovanna; Stanley Schiowitz; Dennis J. Dowling (2005). An Osteopathic Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7817-4293-1.
- "Terminology for Reporting on Osteopathic Medicine". Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- Allen, TW (1993). "'Osteopathic physician' defines our identity". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 93 (9): 884. PMID 8244784.
- Allen, TW (2010). "Osteopathic medical terminology--redux". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 110 (12): 743–4. PMID 21178160.
- "Osteopathic Medical Profession Report 2012" (PDF). American Osteopathic Association.
- "Osteopathic Medicine Profession Report 2015" (PDF). American Osteopathic Association.
- "Overview of Osteopathic Medical Education/Accreditation/The Four-Year Curriculum (2012 Osteopathic Medical College Information Book)" (PDF). American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012.
- Johnson SM, Kurtz ME, Kurtz JC (1997). "Variables influencing the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment in family practice". J Am Osteopath Assoc 97 (2): 80–7. PMID 9059002.
- Jäkel A, von Hauenschild P (2012). "A systematic review to evaluate the clinical benefits of craniosacral therapy". Complement Ther Med 20 (6): 456–65. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2012.07.009. PMID 23131379.
- Ernst E (2012). "Craniosacral therapy: A systematic review of the clinical evidence". Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 17 (4): 197–201. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7166.2012.01174.x.
- "Table 17: MCAT Scores and GPAs for Applicants and Matriculants to U.S. Medical Schools" (PDF). Association of American Medical Colleges. 2000–2011.
- "AACOMAS Matriculant Profile 2011 Entering Class" (PDF). American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- "Osteopathic Medical College Information Book" (PDF). American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012.
- Madison Park (June 13, 2011). "Never too late to be a doctor". CNN News. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- "United States Medical Licensing Examination | USMLE Bulletin | Eligibility". Usmle.org. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
- Sarko, John; Svoren, Elena; Katz, Eric (February 2010). "COMLEX-1 and USMLE-1 Are Not Interchangeable Examinations". Academic Emergency Medicine 17 (2): 218–220. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00632.x. PMID 20070273.
- Chick, Davoren A.; Harley P. Friedman; Vincent B. Young; David Solomon (22 January 2010). "Relationship Between COMLEX and USMLE Scores Among Osteopathic Medical Students who Take Both Examinations". Teaching and Learning in Medicine 22 (1): 3–7. doi:10.1080/10401330903445422. PMID 20391276.
- "Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Residency Program Director’s Manual" (PDF). Association of Academic Physiatrists. Retrieved May 2011.
- "Program Directors FAQ". NBOME. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
- "2012 Annual Report" (PDF). National Board of Medical Examiners. 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
- "Board Examinations and Licensure" (PDF). Medical College Information Book, 2012 edition. AACOM. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "COMLEX-USA: Bulletin of Information" (PDF). National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "Allopathic and Osteopathic Medical Communities Commit to a Single Graduate Medical Education Accreditation System" (PDF). Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Directory of State Medical and Osteopathic Boards". Federation of State Medical Boards. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- "Federation of State Medical Boards". Federation of State Medical Boards. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- "The Difference Between U.S.-Trained Osteopathic Physicians and Osteopaths Trained Abroad". American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- Frequently Asked Questions regarding International Licensure, Council on International Osteopathic Medical Education & Affairs, American Osteopathic Association. Contact information listed.
- "AOA International Licensure Summary" (PDF). American Osteopathic Association. April 2013.
- "FAQ and Fact Sheets". AHPRA. Medical Board of Australia.
- "Norway: Osteopathic Medicine" (PDF). Osteopathic International Alliance.
- One DO's description on "What Is A DO?"
- Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) - National Institutes of Health