Doctor of Professional Studies
The Doctor of Professional Studies (or sometimes awarded as Doctorate in Professional Practice) (most commonly DProf, but also available as ProfD and DPS) is a doctorate degree for working professionals. The Doctor of Professional Studies is less common than other terminal degrees, such as the PhD. The DProf has been available to graduate students in the United Kingdom since the 1980s. The first Doctor of Professional Studies program was started in 1972 at Pace University.
The D.Prof is the same level of qualification as a PhD, but it has a different focus. Whilst PhDs are largely based on in-depth study in a single discipline, the D.Prof is by its very nature interdisciplinary, and recognises that real world problems are dynamic, multi-faceted and complex.
The first professional doctorate program was established in 1972 by Pace University in the State of New York in the United States. Other universities (see #List of Schools Offering Doctor of Professional Studies Degrees) around the world now offer the professional doctorate degree. Doctoral studies researchers, Gill and Hoppe, have reported rapid growth in professional doctorate degree programs outside of the United States.
In the United Kingdom, professional doctorate degrees became established in the 1980s, when it was recognised that high-level programmes were needed that were designed for experienced professional practitioners rather than for academic researchers. Many professional doctorate degrees in the United Kingdom are profession-specific and contain a mix of taught modules, research and a dissertation. Several universities that offer professional doctorate degree programs in the United Kingdom allow students to study part-time. In 2005, Powell and Long found that most professional doctorate degrees awarded in the UK were in the fields of engineering, educational and clinical psychology. They found that professional doctorate degrees in business and nursing were also emerging at that time. In 2010, Brown and Cooke reported an "explosion" of professional doctorate programs in fields such as the arts, architecture and computer science.
In the United States, the DPS was once considered by the United States Department of Education and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to be a research doctorate equivalent to the Ph.D. Along with the Doctor of Education, the Doctor of Social Science, the Doctor of Applied Science, and the Doctor of Library Science, the NSF no longer includes the DPS in its periodic Survey of Earned Doctorates (SEP) report, a statistical report on the number and range of research doctorates awarded in the United States. [See: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/srvydoctorates/ and http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/sed/2012/start.cfm, Appendix Table a1]. The DPS was dropped from the report in 2005. In New York State, the Doctor of Professional Studies is an official degree title applicable to doctoral programs with a professional focus in a variety of disciplines.
In a 2002 report, the Australian Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), states "Doctoral education in Australia is currently under pressure to become more industry focused." Citing this report, Fink suggests "professional doctorates may be able to fulfill [the need to make doctoral education more industry focused] by developing and sustaining close collaboration between universities and industry. The Professional Doctorate (ProfDoc) can be seen as an alternative to the PhD because it can provide an opportunity for the business professional to gain a doctoral qualification, albeit in a different mode."
In some respects the DProf is closer to the PhD than the longer-established modular doctorates, although it has important differences. While PhD theses typically make an original contribution to knowledge, the DProf is more concerned with making a significant contribution to practice: it requires high-level practical action, resulting for instance in significant change or development in an organisation or community of practice. At some institutions, the DProf project is not a purely academic study and may not have to be a research project in the conventional sense. But, the dissertation must make a substantial contribution to the field and be reflective of advanced thinking. In this regard, the effort require to complete a Doctor of Professional Studies degree is at least equivalent to that required for a PhD.
Specific degree characteristics vary by country and institution. In 2011, the UK's Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education published an overview of degree characteristics for all doctoral level degrees.
List of Schools Offering Doctor of Professional Studies Degrees
- In the United Kingdom
- Anglia Ruskin University (DProf) - In Laws 
- Bournemouth University (DProf) - In digital media  and creative industries 
- London Metropolitan University (ProfDoc) - In health psychology  and Policing, Security and Community Safety 
- Middlesex University (DProf) - Interdisciplinary.
- Swansea University (DProf) - Health, Social Work and Higher Education 
- University of Central Lancashire (DProf) - In health. 
- University of Chester (DProf) - A terminal degree program for working professionals offered through the Centre for Work Related Studies. The Chester Centre for Work Related Studies
- University of East London (ProfDoc) - In counseling psychology 
- University of Derby (DProf) - In business. 
- University of Middlesex (DProf) - A work-based, professional doctorate for working professionals 
- University of Salford (ProfDoc) - In the built environment 
- University of Sunderland (DProf) - Interdisciplinary 
- University of Westminster (DProf) - In Health Sciences 
- In the United States
- Albany Medical College (DPS) - In bioethics, with concentrations in health ethics and policy. 
- Carnegie Mellon University (DPP) - In Architecture. 
- New York University (DPS) - In occupational therapy with specializations offered in pediatrics and upper quadrant care.
- Pace University (DPS) - The first executive doctoral program in the world.
- Syracuse University (DPS) - In Information Management.
- Shenandoah University (DProf) - In Organizational Leadership.
- In other countries
- Doctor of Philosophy
- Doctor of Business Administration
- Doctor of Education
- Doctor of Music
- Doctor of Psychology
- Doctor Liberalium Artium
- Gill, Grandon; Hoppe, Uwe (2009). "The Business Professional Doctorate as an Informing Channel: A Survey and Analysis" (PDF). International Journal of Doctoral Studies 4: 27–57. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- Powell, Stuart. "Professional Doctorate Awards in the UK, 2005" (PDF). https://www2.le.ac.uk. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- Brown, Kathryn. "Professional Doctorate Awards in the UK, 2010" (PDF). http://www2.le.ac.uk. Retrieved 5 March 2015.
- McWilliam, E (2002). "What can be learned from professional doctorates".
- Fink, Dieter (2006). "The Professional Doctorate: Its Relativity to the PhD and Relevance for the Knowledge Economy" (PDF). International Journal of Doctoral Studies 1 (1).
- QAA. "Doctoral degree characteristics" (PDF). http://www.qaa.ac.uk. he Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. Retrieved 31 January 2015.