Doctor of both laws
|This article is part of the series:|
|Legislation and Legal System of the Catholic Church
|Canon Law Task Force|
A Doctor of Canon and Civil Law, from the Latin doctor utriusque juris, or juris utriusque doctor, or doctor juris utriusque ("doctor of both laws") (abbreviations include: JUD, IUD, DUJ, JUDr., DUI, DJU, Dr.iur.utr., Dr.jur.utr., DIU, UJD and UID) is a scholar who has acquired a doctorate in both civil law and church law. The degree was common among Catholic and German scholars of the Middle Ages and early modern times. Today the degree is awarded by the Pontifical Lateran University in the State of the Vatican City after a period of six years study, by the University of Wuerzburg, and by the University of Fribourg.
Prior to ca. 1800, people who studied law in Europe, studied canon law, Roman law, and feudal law. These laws were the constituent parts of the Ius commune. The Ius commune was a pan-European legal system that held sway over Europe from approximately the twelfth through the eighteenth century. Graduates earned the decree of Doctor of both laws, because they had to study both canon law and civil law, in order to master the Ius commune.
After his second term as President of the United States, Grover Cleveland was given the J.U.D. as an honorary degree by the Augustinian College of St. Thomas of Villanova (Villanova University) in 1902.
Doctors of Civil and Canon Law
- Agliardi, Antonio, Cardinal, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
- Arregui Yarza, Antonio, Metropolitan Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Guayaquil, Ecuador
- Pope Benedict XIV
- Bevilacqua, Anthony, Cardinal, Archbishop Emeritus of Philadelphia (USA)
- Cafardi, Nicholas P., Dean emeritus and Professor of Law of the Duquesne University School of Law (USA)
- Carafa, Pierluigi (iuniore), Cardinal, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Dean of the College of Cardinals
- James Conn, Professor, Boston College
- James Coriden, Dean Emeritus of the Washington Theological Union
- Coughlin, John J., Franciscan priest, New York University Professor
- Luigi Dadaglio, Cardinal, Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary
- Domenico Ferrata, Cardinal, Secretary of State
- Michael J. Fitzgerald, Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of Philadelphia
- Enrico Gasparri, Cardinal, Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
- Pietro Gasparri, Cardinal, Secretary of State, codifier of 1917 Code of Canon Law
- Józef Glemp, Cardinal, Archbishop emeritus of Warsaw (Poland)
- Waldery Hilgeman, Postulator for the Causes of Saints, Ecclesiastical Judge of the Interdiocesan Tribunal of Utrecht.
- Archbishop Filippo Iannone,appointed Vicegerent of the Diocese of Rome 31 January 2012
- Stephan Kuttner, Professor, Catholic University of America, Yale University, and University of California at Berkeley, founder of the Stephan Kuttner Institute of Medieval Canon Law
- Pope Leo XIII
- Alphonsus Maria de Liguori, Bishop of Sant'Agata de' Goti
- Listecki, Jerome Edward, Archbishop of Milwaukee (USA)
- Teodolfo Mertel, last lay cardinal in the Catholic Church
- Rev Denzil Meuli, priest of the diocese of Auckland
- J. K. Paasikivi, President of Finland
- Salvatore Pappalardo, Cardinal, Archbishop of Palermo (Italy)
- Thomas J. Paprocki, Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Springfield in Illinois (USA)
- Peters, Edward N., Catholic University of America, 1991
- Luigi Poggi, Cardinal, Archivist and Librarian Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
- Mario Francesco Pompedda, Cardinal, Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
- Pietro Respighi, Cardinal, Archpriest of the Basilica of St. John Lateran
- K. J. Ståhlberg, President of Finland
- Alessandro Verde, Cardinal, Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (Italy)
- Carlo Maria Viganò, Archbishop at the centre of the Vatileaks scandal
- Gottfried Leibniz held the degree. Ross, G. (1980). Leibniz and Superstition. Delivered to the Northern Association for Philosophy, 26 January 1980. Accessed 29 May 2008.
- Pennington, Kenneth. Course Description: Roman Law and the Ius Commune
- New York Times (1902). To Honor Mr. Cleveland. New York: New York Times.
- John Courtney Murray Citation. http://www.ctsa-online.org/pdf_doc_files/JOHN_COURTNEY_MURRAY_AWARD_2011.pdf
- Official Biography. http://archphila.org/offices/Fitzgerald.php