Dodecane

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Dodecane
Skeletal formula of dodecane
Skeletal formula of dodecane with all implicit carbons shown, and all explicit hydrogens added
Ball and stick model of dodecane
Names
IUPAC name
Dodecane[1]
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
1697175
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.607
EC Number 203-967-9
201408
KEGG
MeSH n-dodecane
RTECS number JR2125000
UNII
Properties
C12H26
Molar mass 170.34 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Gasoline-like to odorless
Density 0.7495 g mL−1 at 20 °C[2]
Melting point −10.0 to −9.3 °C; 14.1 to 15.2 °F; 263.2 to 263.8 K
Boiling point 214 to 218 °C; 417 to 424 °F; 487 to 491 K
log P 6.821
Vapor pressure 18 Pa (at 25 °C)[3]
1.4 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
1.421
Viscosity 1.34 mPa s
Thermochemistry
376.00 J K−1 mol−1
490.66 J K−1 mol−1
−353.5–−350.7 kJ mol−1
−7901.74 kJ mol−1
Hazards
Safety data sheet hazard.com
GHS pictograms The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
H304
P301+310, P331
NFPA 704
Flammability code 2: Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38 and 93 °C (100 and 200 °F). E.g., diesel fuelHealth code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g., turpentineReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
2
1
0
Flash point 71 °C (160 °F; 344 K)
205 °C (401 °F; 478 K)
Explosive limits 0.6%
Related compounds
Related alkanes
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Dodecane (also known as dihexyl, bihexyl, adakane 12 or duodecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10CH3 (or C12H26), an oily liquid of the paraffin series. It has 355 isomers.

It is used as a solvent, distillation chaser, and scintillator component. It is used as a diluent for tributyl phosphate (TBP) in reprocessing plants.[4]

Combustion reaction[edit]

The combustion reaction of dodecane is as follows:

C12H26(l) + 18.5 O2(g) → 12 CO2(g) + 13 H2O(g)
ΔH° = −7513 kJ

One litre of fuel needs about 15 kg of air to burn, and generates 2.3 kg (or 1.2 m3) of CO2 upon complete combustion.

Jet fuel surrogate[edit]

In recent years, n-dodecane has garnered attention as a possible surrogate for kerosene-based fuels such as Jet-A, S-8, and other conventional aviation fuels. It is considered a second-generation fuel surrogate designed to emulate the laminar flame speed, largely supplanting n-decane, primarily due to its higher molecular mass and lower hydrogen to carbon ratio which better reflect the n-alkane content of jet fuels.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "n-dodecane - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 September 2004. Identification and Related Records. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  2. ^ https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/dodecane#section=Solubility
  3. ^ https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=8182#x400
  4. ^ Rydberg, Jan (2004). Solvent Extraction Principles and Practice. Marcel Dekker. p. 524. ISBN 0-8247-5063-2.

External links[edit]