Dodol

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Dodol
Dodol Garut Cihampelas Bandung.JPG
Assorted Garut dodols, the most popular variant of Dodol, on display in Bandung
TypeConfectionery
Place of originIndonesia[1]
Region or stateSoutheast Asia and Indian subcontinent
Main ingredientsCoconut milk, jaggery, rice flour

Dodol is a sweet toffee-like sugar palm-based confection commonly found in Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent.[2] Originating from the culinary traditions of Indonesia, it is also popular in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines, South India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Burma, where it is called mont kalama. It is made from coconut milk, jaggery, and rice flour, and is sticky, thick, and sweet.[3][1]

History[edit]

The history of dodol production is closely related to one of its main ingredients, gula aren or palm sugar, a traditional sugar made from the sap of Arenga pinnata plant, and also rice flour. It is a popular sweet treat and one of the oldest indigenous sweets developed in the Maritime Southeast Asia. The exact origin of dodol is unclear; while there is a remarkable diversity in preparations of the product within the island communities of Java and Sumatra, the variants tend to be adaptations of post-colonial crops.[4] "Dodol" is a word of Sundanese origin, whereas in Javanese it is called jenang.

Dodol is believed to have been introduced to Southern India and Sri Lanka by migrants from Indonesia.[5] It has also been attributed to the Portuguese, who occupied parts of the country during the 16th and 17th centuries.[6] Several dodol recipes have been developed in Sri Lanka, such as kalu dodol. Dodol is very famous recipe in kilakarai, Tamil Nadu.It was possibly believed to introduce by Sri Lankan Muslim immigrants.

Cultural significance[edit]

In Muslim majority countries, such as Indonesia and Malaysia, dodol is commonly served during festivals, such as Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha as sweet treats for children.[4][3] The Betawi people take pride in making homemade dodol during the Lebaran (Eid ul-Fitr), where family members will gather together to make dodol. Traditional home made dodol Betawi production center is located in Pasar Minggu area, South Jakarta.[7]

Dodol is also popular among the Roman Catholics from the Indian west coast, also known as the former Estado da Índia Portuguesa, which includes East Indians from Mumbai, the state of Goa, and the city of Mangalore. Dodol Hj Ideris manufactures dodol and the company has now entered the Middle Eastern market, including Iran.[8]

A related dessert in the Philippines is known as kalamay (literally "sugar"), which is made from sugarcane sugar instead of palm sugar. It also has a liquid consistency unlike dodol, since it uses ground glutinous rice rather than rice flour. However, the basic ingredients and preparation is similar.[9] In Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago of the southern Philippines, dodol is more similar to the Indonesian and Malaysian variants and is known by the same name. It is usually prepared into thick cylinders wrapped in corn husks or coloured cellophane that is then cut into disks before serving. Although, like the kalamay, Filipino dodol is made with ground glutinous rice paste and muscovado sugarcane sugar, not palm sugar.[10][11]

Preparation[edit]

Dodol susu, milk-based dodol from Pangalengan, Bandung

Dodol is made from coconut milk, jaggery, and rice flour, and is sticky, thick, and sweet. The cooking process would reduce the contents up to half as the liquid evaporates. It normally takes up to 9 hours to cook. During the entire cooking process, the dodol must be constantly stirred in a big wok. Pausing in between would cause it to burn, spoiling the taste and aroma. The dodol is completely cooked when it is firm, and does not stick to one's fingers when touching it.[1]

Variants[edit]

A sample of durian cake made from durian-flavoured lempok,[12] which is similar, but is not toffee-like dodol.

Indonesia[edit]

There is a diverse variety of dodol recipes found in Indonesia. The town of Garut in West Java is the main production center of dodol in Indonesia. Many flavours of dodol are available, including a durian flavor called lempuk, which is popular in Medan and other Sumatran cities. A major producer of Garut-style dodol incorporates chocolate as an ingredient into a specialized variant product, with the intention of producing edible souvenirs from the city called 'chocodot' or chocolate dodol.[13]

Other variants include:

  • Dodol bengkoang contains jicama.
  • Dodol kacang hijau contains mung beans.
  • Dodol tape contains tapai, a fermented rice product
  • Dodol ubi talam contains yam.
  • Dodol sirsak contains soursop.
  • Dodol nangka contains jackfruit.
  • Dodol lidah buaya contains aloe vera.
  • Dodol apel Malang contains apple, and is a speciality of Malang city, East Java.
  • Dodol susu is from Pangalengan, Bandung, West Java. It contains milk.
  • Dodol tomat contains tomato.
  • Dodol salak contains salak.
  • Dodol rumput laut contains seaweed.
  • Dodol pisang contains banana.
  • Dodol nenas contains pineapple.
  • Dodol mangga contains mango.
  • Dodol China is an Indonesian Chinese version of sweet nian gao with rich coconut sugar.
  • Dodol Betawi is made by the Betawi people in Jakarta from a mixture of white and black glutinous rice.[4]

In culture[edit]

In colloquial Indonesian, dodol can also be used as a slang term for the word 'bodoh' to refer a person as being 'stupid' or 'illogical'. It is impolite to refer a person as 'dodol'.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Wibisono Notodirdjo (7 August 2011). "Sweet treats from the past". The Jakarta Post. Jakarta.
  2. ^ "What Is Dodol?". wiseGEEK.
  3. ^ a b Bhuwon Sthapit; Hugo A.H. Lamers; V. Ramanatha Rao; Arwen Bailey, eds. (2016). Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity: Good Practices for in Situ and On-farm Conservation, Issues in Agricultural Biodiversity. Routledge. ISBN 9781317636229.
  4. ^ a b c Zieman (21 June 2014). "Dodol: Sticky treat for Hari Raya". The Star.
  5. ^ Guruge, Ananda (2003). Serendipity of Andrew George. AuthorHouse. pp. 402–403. ISBN 9781410757029.
  6. ^ Handunnetti, Dilrukshi (28 February 1999). "Hambantota: the kalu dodol capital". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
  7. ^ "Menengok Pabrik Dodol Betawi Haji Tholib, Banyak Dapat Pesanan". Warta Kota (in Indonesian). 25 October 2016.
  8. ^ Market For Dodol Hj Ideris Expands To Middle East
  9. ^ "Calamay from Bohol". marketmanila.com. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  10. ^ Damo, Ida. "Dodol: A Maranao Delicacy Perfect for Ramadan". ChoosePhilippines. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  11. ^ Tan, Kiki. "Discovering 'dodol'". Mindanaw. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  12. ^ Molesworth Allen, Betty (1967). Malayan fruits: an introduction to the cultivated species. Singapore: D. Moore Press. p. 99.
  13. ^ "Sejarah Dodol Garut » Budaya Indonesia". budaya-indonesia.org. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  14. ^ Yusup Priyasudiarja (2010). Kamus Gaul Percakapan Bahasa Inggris Indonesia-Inggris. PT Mizan Publika. ISBN 978-9791284738.

External links[edit]