Dog appeasing pheromone
Dog appeasing pheromone (DAP), sometimes known as apasine, is a mixture of esters of fatty acids released by the sebaceous glands in the inter-mammary sulcus of lactating female dogs. It is secreted from between three and four days after parturition and two to five days after weaning. DAP is believed to be detected by the vomeronasal organ (Jacobson's organ) and has an appeasing effect on both adults and pups, and assists in establishing a bond with the mother.
Synthetic DAP can be effective at reducing stress-related behaviours in a number of contexts including puppies enrolled in socialization classes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that newly adopted puppies aged 6 to 10 weeks cried less when exposed to synthetic DAP, but only in gun-dog breeds. It has been found to be highly effective in fear behaviours relating to sound sensitivity and fear of noises (e.g. fireworks and thunder).
In 2014, a critical review of studies on the use of synthetic DAP in veterinary hospital wards concluded that there was "little or no robust evidence" of it being effective in this environment.
- USA patent "Pig appeasing pheromones to decrease stress, anxiety and aggressiveness US 6077867 A" 
- USA patent "Polymeric pheromone formulation and method of use to calm stress-related behavior in mammals over an extended period of time US 8871190 B2"
- Pageat, P.; Gaultier, E. (2003). "Current research in canine and feline pheromones". The Veterinary Clinics Small Animal Practice. 33 (2): 187–221. doi:10.1016/s0195-5616(02)00128-6.
- Bowen, J.; Heath, S. (2005). Behaviour Problems in Small Animals: Practical Advice for the Veterinary Team. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 58. ISBN 0702027677.
- VetSci (2011). "Dealing with canine anxiety and phobias". VetSci. Retrieved August 15, 2015.
- Tynes, V.V., Sinn, L. and Koch, C.S. (2015). "Chapter 4 - The relationship between physiology and behavior in cats and dogs". In Emily Weiss; Heather Mohan-Gibbons; Stephen Zawistowski. Animal Behavior for Shelter Veterinarians and Staff. John Wiley and Sons. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-118-92283-5.
- Kim, Y.M., Lee, J.K., Abd El-aty, A.M., Hwang, S.H., Lee, J.H. and Lee, S.M. (2010). "Efficacy of dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) for ameliorating separation-related behavioral signs in hospitalized dogs". The Canadian Veterinary Journal. 51 (4): 380–4. PMC . PMID 20592826.
- Gaultier, E., Bonnafous, L., Bougrat, L., Lafont, C. and Pageat, P. (2005). "Comparison of the efficacy of a synthetic dog-appeasing pheromone with clomipramine for the treatment of separation-related disorders in dogs" (PDF). Veterinary Record. 156 (17): 533–537. doi:10.1136/vr.156.17.533.
- Hewson, C. (2014). "Evidence-based approaches to reducing in-patient stress–Part 2: Synthetic pheromone preparations". Veterinary Nursing Journal. 29 (6): 204–206. doi:10.1111/vnj.12140.
- Miller, L.; Zawistowski, S. (2015). "Chapter 7 - Housing, husbandry and behavior of dogs in animal shelters". In Emily Weiss; Heather Mohan-Gibbons; Stephen Zawistowski. Animal Behavior for Shelter Veterinarians and Staff. John Wiley and Sons. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-118-92283-5.
- Frank, D., Beauchamp, G. and Palestrini, C. (2010). "Systematic review of the use of pheromones for treatment of undesirable behavior in cats and dogs". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 236 (12): 1308–16. doi:10.2460/javma.236.12.1308. PMID 20550445.
- Grigg, E.K.; Piehler, M. (2015). "Influence of dog appeasing pheromone (DAP) on dogs housed in a long-term kennelling facility". Veterinary Record Open. 2 (1): e000098. doi:10.1136/vetreco-2014-000098. PMC . PMID 26392901.
- Denenberg, S.; Landsberg, G.M. (2008). "Effects of dog-appeasing pheromones on anxiety and fear in puppies during training and on long-term socialization". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 233 (12): 1874–1882. doi:10.2460/javma.233.12.1874. PMID 19072600. Retrieved August 15, 2015.
- Taylor, K.; Mills, D.S. (2007). "A placebo-controlled study to investigate the effect of dog appeasing pheromone and other environmental and management factors on the reports of disturbance and house soiling during the night in recently adopted puppies (Canis familiaris)". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 105 (4): 358–368. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2006.11.003. Retrieved August 15, 2015.