Dog appeasing pheromone
Dog appeasing pheromone (DAP), sometimes known as apasine, is a mixture of esters of fatty acids released by the sebaceous glands in the inter-mammary sulcus of lactating bitches. It is secreted from between three to four days after parturition and two to five days after weaning. DAP is believed to be detected by the vomeronasal organ (Jacobson's organ) and has an appeasing effect on both adults and pups, and assists in establishing a bond with the mother.
Synthetic DAP can be effective at reducing stress-related behaviours in a number of contexts including puppies enrolled in socialization classes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that newly adopted puppies aged 6 to 10 weeks cried less when exposed to synthetic DAP, but only in gun-dog breeds. It has been found to be highly effective in fear behaviours relating to sound sensitivity and fear of noises (e.g. fireworks and thunder).
In 2014, a critical review of studies on the use of synthetic DAP in veterinary hospital wards concluded that there was "little or no robust evidence" of it being effective in this environment.
- USA patent "Pig appeasing pheromones to decrease stress, anxiety and aggressiveness US 6077867 A" 
- USA patent "Polymeric pheromone formulation and method of use to calm stress-related behavior in mammals over an extended period of time US 8871190 B2"
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