Dog meat consumption in South Korea

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Dog meat consumption in South Korea
Dog Meat.jpg
Dog meat on sale in a South Korean market
Hangul 고기
Revised Romanization Gaegogi
McCune–Reischauer Kaegogi
North Korean name
Hangul 고기
Revised Romanization Dan(-)gogi
McCune–Reischauer Tan'gogi

The consumption of dog meat in South Korea, where it is known as "Gaegogi" (Korean: 개고기, literally "dog meat"), has a long history originating during the Three Kingdoms of Korea period of the first century AD.[1] However, in recent years, it has been controversial both in South Korea and around the world, due to animal rights and sanitary concerns.

According to some sources consumption of dog meat is becoming less common in modern day South Korea, especially among younger South Koreans, and the practice is declining. Estimates of the number of animals vary widely. According to the Korean Animal Rights Advocates (KARA), approximately 780,000 to 1 million dogs are consumed per year in South Korea.[2] The number is lower based on estimates of sales from Moran Market, which occupies 30-40% of dog meat market in the nation.[3] Sales at Moran Market have been declining in the past few years, down to about 20,000 dogs per year in 2017.[4] South Korea’s Statistical Information Service 2015 agriculture census reported a total of 24,671 facilities holding 521,201 dogs, though this figure includes both animals raised for the pet industry and those raised for meat consumption.[5]

History[edit]

As a general practice, dog meat was never a mainstream part of the Korean diet throughout history.[6][7] The consumption of dog meat can be traced back to antiquity in isolated cases, and dog bones were excavated in a neolithic settlement in Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang Province. A wall painting in the Goguryeo tombs complex in South Hwanghae Province, a UNESCO World Heritage site which dates from 4th century AD, depicts a slaughtered dog in a storehouse (Ahn, 2000).[8]

Starting in the Silla Dynasty (57 BC – 935 AD) and then during the Goryeo Dynasty (AD 918-1392), Buddhism was the state religion and eating beef was considered immoral and was at first discouraged and then banned (as cows were regarded as human work companions).[9] In general, animal life was regarded as sacred and eating meat was minimized; although, eating seafood was more common.[10][11] During the latter part of the Goryeo Dynasty, the practice of eating dog meat was introduced by the nomadic Khitans, who as war refugees spilled into Goryeo during the Mongolian invasions. The Mongols invading Korea lifted the beef ban and legalized the consumption of meat during their rule. During the Joseon Dynasty (AD 1392-1910), the minority Khitans eventually assimilated into the social structure as the "Baekjeong," the first butcher class, occupying the lowest class of society.[12] The Joseon government assigned the Baekjeong the task of addressing the feral dog problem, and thus dog meat became a food item for the poor (and low class). During the Joseon Dynasty certain government officials argued that dogs were human companions and wanted to ban the consumption of dog meat.[13]

Approximately In 1816, Jeong Hak-yu, the second son of Jeong Yak-yong, a prominent politician and scholar of Joseon dynasty at the time, wrote a poem called Nongga Wollyeongga (농가월령가). This poem, which is an important source of Korean folk history, describes what ordinary Korean farming families did in each month of a year. In the description of the month of August the poem tells of a married woman visiting her birth parents with boiled dog meat, rice cake, and rice wine, thus showing the popularity of dog meat at the time (Ahn, 2000; Seo, 2002). Dongguk Sesigi (동국세시기), a book written by a Korean scholar Hong Seok-mo in 1849, contains a recipe of Bosintang including a boiled dog, green onion, and red chili pepper powder.[8]

There is a traditional anniversary in South Korea called Sambok (三伏) at which Koreans in the modern day eat Baeksuk, a chicken soup with rice and herbs. However, some South Koreans choose to consume Bosintang instead, a soup containing dog meat.[14]

Current situation[edit]

Dog meat sold at Gyeongdong Market, Seoul, South Korea

In 2014, 329 restaurants served dog meat in Seoul, and the numbers are continuing to decline each year.[15] Some restaurants are reporting declines in consumption of 20-30% per year.[16]

Dog meat is often consumed during the summer months and is either roasted or prepared in soups or stews.[17] The most popular of these soups is Gaejang-guk, a spicy stew meant to balance the body's heat during the summer months. This is thought to ensure good health by balancing one's "ki" or vital energy of the body. A 19th century version of Gaejang-guk (개장국) explains the preparation of the dish by boiling dog meat with green onions and chili powder. Variations of the dish contain chicken and bamboo shoots.[18]

On December 13, 2016, the termination of slaughtering dogs and slaughtering facilities in Moran Market was announced by the local government and vendors' association.[19] Moran Market, located in Seongnam, was the largest dog meat market in South Korea. Annually, it sold over 20,000 dogs and was the source for 30-40% of the dog meat consumption in country.[4] The decision was reached in an effort to mitigate the negative views of the market by remodeling it as part of a city project. All of the dog slaughtering facilities in the market were planned to be removed by May 2017 and the vendors will be aided financially by the government in the process.[19]

Inspired by the decision made concerning the Moran Market in 2016, protesters gathered at Gupo Market in Busan in February 2017 calling for the closure of the dog meat vendors.[20] The Gupo Market is of similar size to the Moran Market and has been around since the Joseon Dynasty. In the recent decades, the number of dog meat vendors in the market has decreased to only 22 vendors due to the efforts of the government trying to improve the image of the city for tourists.[20] As of now, there have been no official statements by the local government involving plans to remove the dog meat vendors.

Dogs used for meat[edit]

The primary dog breed raised for meat is a non-specific landrace commonly named as Nureongi (누렁이), or Hwanggu (황구).[21][22] Nureongi are not the only type of dog currently slaughtered for their meat in South Korea. In 2015, The Korea Observer reported that many different pet breeds of dog are bred to be eaten, including for example, labradors, retrievers and cocker spaniels, and that the dogs slaughtered for their meat often include former pets.[23][24][25]

According to the Korean Animal Rights Advocates KARA, there are approximately 3,000 dog meat farms operating across the country,[4] many of which receive dogs from overflow from puppy mills for the pet industry.[26] With declining demand for dog meat in Korea, a more serious problem now is excess dogs stemming from the puppy mill industry.[26]

The majority of dogs are slaughtered by electrocution, though some are hung or beaten over the head before exsanguination, even though such practices are illegal under the 2007 Animal Protection Act.[23]

In 2015, it was reported that when retrievers are sold as meat dogs, they cost over 200,000 Korean Won (£140 British pounds or $180 US dollars).[23]

Legal status[edit]

Between 1975 and 1978, dogs had the full legal status of livestock animals in South Korea, but the legality of the dog meat trade is now highly disputed. South Korea adopted its first Animal Protection Law in May, 1991.[27]

Currently, Article 7 of the Animal Protection Act does not explicitly prohibit the slaughter of dogs for food, however, it "prohibits killing animals in a brutal way". In addition, it "forbids killing the dogs in open areas such as on the street or in front of other animals of the same species".[23]

The controversy over dog meat has led to lobbying for/against regulation as well as differing interpretations of existing laws.

Dog meat is subject to the Food Sanitation Act/Food Hygiene Act of 1962, which simply defines food" as "all foodstuff, except taken as medicine". However, unlike beef, pork, or poultry, dog meat is excluded from the list of livestock under the Livestock Processing Act of 1962,[note 1] which is "the principal statute governing hygienic slaughtering of livestock and processing of meat." Hence dog meat farming is under-regulated compared to that of other stock animals.[28]

As a result, there are no regulations requiring the humane slaughter of dogs for meat. The controversy over dog meat consumption often centers on the slaughtering methods employed, which include electrocution, strangulation by hanging, and physically beating the dog to death. Some dogs are still alive when they are blow-torched or thrown into boiling water to remove their fur.[29] Some (who?) believe that dog meat should be expressly legalized so that only authorized preparers can deal with the meat in more humane and sanitary ways, while others think that the practice should be banned by law.

In 2008, the Seoul Metropolitan Government proposed a recommendation to the national government to add dogs to the list of livestock whose slaughter is regulated by law.[30] However, activist groups attacked the proposal as legitimizing or legalizing the trade in dog meat.[31][32] The city dropped the proposal, but an official from the national government was quoted as saying “It’s the sole idea of the city. We have not been consulted at all .... I don’t think we are planning to even consider this option.”[33]

In 2018, the city of Bucheon declared illegal the killing of dogs for meat, in a court case brought by the South Korean animal rights group Care against a dog farm operator.[34]

Types of dishes[edit]

Bosintang
Gaegogi Jeongol
  • Bosintang (보신탕; 補身湯); Gaejangguk (개장국) Stew containing boiled dog meat and vegetables.[35]
  • Gaegogi Jeongol (개고기 전골) – An elaborate dog stew made in a large Jeongol pan.
  • Gae Suyuk (개 수육; 개水肉)- Boiled dog meat[35]
  • Gaegogi Muchim (개고기 무침) – Steamed dog meat, Korean leeks (부추), and vegetables mixed with spices[35]
  • Gaesoju (개소주; 개燒酒) – Mixed drink containing dog meat and other Chinese medicine ingredients such as ginger, chestnut, and jujube to invigorate one's health.[36][37]

International scrutiny[edit]

During the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, the South Korean government urged its citizens not to consume dog meat in order to avoid bad publicity during the games, along with a request to butcher shops not to hang dog carcasses in the windows.[38] It also closed all restaurants serving Gaejang-guk to better improve the country's image to Western visitors. A 1998 Salon article reported that despite officially being banned by the government for a decade, nearly 20,000 restaurants at the time were still serving dog meat.[25] South Korea's successful bid to join the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1996 prompted a new wave of criticism against South Korea's dog meat culture. Activists argue that as whale meat consumption declined in Japan after the 1964 Summer Olympics, South Koreans should reduce their consumption of dog meat.[39]

The controversy surfaced again in 2001 during the 2002 FIFA World Cup.[40][41] The organizers of the games, under pressure from animal rights groups such as PETA demanded that the Korean government re-address the issue. Brigitte Bardot, a prominent head of a French animal rights organization which is named after her, launched a campaign during the 2002 FIFA World Cup to have dog meat outlawed in Korea. She prompted people to boycott the games if the government did not outlaw the sale of dog meat in restaurants in Seoul.

Controversy[edit]

In Korea, some people eat Bosintang (literally "invigorating soup"), believing it to have medicinal properties, particularly as relates to virility. In South Korea dog meat is also believed to encourage one's energy or virility and usually consumed during the intense Korean summer, whereas in China dog meat is consumed in the winter months under the belief that it increases warmth. There is no scientific evidence to support any purported health benefits from consuming dog meat.

Many Korean Buddhists consider eating meat, including dog meat, an offense.[42]

In recent years, some South Koreans have changed their attitudes towards eating dog meat from "personal choice" to "unnecessary cruelty." Animal rights activists in South Korea protest against the custom of eating dog meat.[43] Since 1988, international animal welfare activists – most notably, French actress Brigitte Bardot – have campaigned against dog meat consumption in South Korea. However, Korean nationalists on the internet have argued that a double standard exists, accusing non-Korean animal welfare activists of forcing "Westernization" on South Korea.[39][44] A 2007 survey by the South Korean agriculture ministry showed that 59% of South Koreans aged under 30 would not eat dog. Some 62% of the same age group said they regard dogs as pets, not food.[45] Many young Koreans think those who eat dog are anachronists.[46]

In Defense of Animals opposes the consumption and trade of dog meat in South Korea, viewing it as an unregulated industry, with conditions it views as unsanitary and cruel.[47] Korea Animal Rights Advocates (KARA) estimates that approximately 1 million dogs are consumed per year in South Korea.[4] The number is lower based on estimates of sales from Moran Market, which occupies 30-40% of dog meat market in the nation.[3] Sales at Moran Market have been declining in the past few years, down to about 20,000 dogs per year in 2017.[4] Several organizations, such as In Defense of Animals, KARA, Guardians of Rescue, and koreandogs.org[8], are petitioning the South Korean government to ban dog meat consumption. Since 2002, as the outcry has grown, the number of dogs raised as livestock and the number of dog farms have declined rapidly.[5][48]

Korean Americans have used lawsuits against public figures who mention this stereotype regarding South Korean cuisine. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, TV host Jay Leno joked that the South Korean skater Kim Dong-Sung would eat his dog. The MCIC Group filed a class-action lawsuit against Leno on behalf of 50,000 Korean Americans, demanding an apology and monetary damages.[39]

The animal welfare advocacy group, Animal Welfare Institute, has called for letters of protest about the dog meat trade to be sent to the South Korean president and ambassador to the United States prior to South Korea hosting the 2018 winter Olympics.[49] The charity, World Dog Alliance, raised a successful e-petition in 2012, calling for the UK Government to intervene and oppose the cruelty. In 2015, the issue was finally debated in the House of Commons Chamber.[50] A second debate on South Korea’s dog meat trade in the UK Parliament was held[51][52] on September 12, 2016 by the Petitions Committee, following an e-petition which was started on petition.parliament.uk. Change.org has over 450,000 signatures on a petition to boycott the 2018 Winter Olympics.

Numerous activist groups have documented cases in South Korea and China of dogs being beaten, burned, electrocuted, and boiled alive. Some Koreans and Chinese believe in a myth that the more adrenaline a dog produces due to distress just prior to being killed, the more tender the dog meat will be for consumption.[53]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In August 1975, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (now the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) included dog in the legal definition of livestock under the Ministerial Ordinance of the LPA (then the Livestock Hygienic Treatment Act). But in June 1978, “dog” was deleted from the list of livestock. (Kim, R. 2008)

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "개고기는 法규제 자체가 없어 뭐가 얼마나 들었는지 모른다". 
  3. ^ a b "개고기 값은 폭락하는데 보신탕값 그대로". 1 January 2018. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "'초복의 두얼굴' 성남 모란시장 앞에서 '동물위령제'…상인들은 거센 반발". 12 July 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Korean Statistical Information Service: Farm Households Raising Livestock/Total Head, [1]
  6. ^ "개고기 식용, 한국의 전통적 식(食)문화 아니다. - 당당뉴스". 
  7. ^ Kim, Soon Hee; Kim, Myung Sunny; Lee, Myoung Sook; Park, Yong Soon; Lee, Hae Jeong; Kang, Soon-ah; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Young-Eun; Kwon, Dae Young (2016). "Korean diet: Characteristics and historical background". Journal of Ethnic Foods. 3: 26. doi:10.1016/j.jef.2016.03.002. 
  8. ^ a b [2] 2008 Seoul Shinmoon article
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  20. ^ a b Min-kyung, Jung (March 6, 2017). "What will happen to the dog meat market in Busan?". The Korea Herald. 
  21. ^ Podberscek, Anthony L. (2009). "Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South Korea" (PDF). Journal of Social Issues. 65 (3): 615–632. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-19. 
  22. ^ Dog Meat Foods in Korea, Ann, Yong-Geun, Korean Medical Database
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  31. ^ "복날 앞두고 개고기 합법화 반대 시위 열려". 
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  33. ^ [3] "Dogs may be designated as livestock" Brian Lee, Korea Joong Ang Daily. Apr 12, 2008
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  35. ^ a b c "더위 달구는 개고기 열전". 
  36. ^ South Korea's dog day, BBC News, 17 August 1999.
  37. ^ [4] Doosan Encyclopedia
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  41. ^ "S Korea dog meat row deepens". BBC News Asia-Pacific. 2001-11-12. Retrieved 2006-12-01. 
  42. ^ 마성 (6 October 2004). 불교는 육식을 금하는 종교인가 [Is Buddhism a Religion that Restricts Meat Eating?]. The Buddhist Review (in Korean). Seoul, Korea. Retrieved 16 October 2010. 현재 한국의 사찰에서는 관습적으로 육식을 금하고 있기 때문이다. 
  43. ^ Activists protest against dog meat eating, BBC[5]
  44. ^ America’s Dog Meat Double Standard, [6]
  45. ^ Daniel Tieu. "Stop the Dog/Cat Meat Trade in Korea by the 2018 Olympics". Causes website. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  46. ^ Young Koreans turn their noses up at dog dinners By Daniel Jeffreys in Seoul,3 August 2007, independent.co.uk
  47. ^ In Defense of Animals Dogs of South Korea Campaign Archived 2015-11-23 at the Wayback Machine.
  48. ^ As the outcry grows, dog meat sales decline, [7]
  49. ^ Animal Welfare Institute. "The dog meat trade". Animal Welfare Institute. Retrieved July 7, 2016. 
  50. ^ "MPs debate the dog meat trade - News from Parliament". UK Parliament. 
  51. ^ "UK Parliamentary Debate on South Korean Dog-Meat Trade: agreement that UK Representatives will take positive action to address the issue with South Korean Counterparts. - Stop the Dog and Cat Consumption in S. Korea!". Stop the Dog and Cat Consumption in S. Korea!. September 13, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2017. 
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  53. ^ "Winter Olympics: Spotlight shines on Korean dog meat trade". USA TODAY. 7 February 2018. 

Sources[edit]

  • Ahn, Y. (2000). 한국인과 개고기 [Koreans and dog meat]. Seoul: Hyoil. (ISBN 8985768964)
  • Seo, J. (2002). 한국무속인열전 1 [Korean Shamans I]. Seoul: Woosuk Publishing. (ISBN 8936104314)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Dog at Wikibook Cookbooks

Media related to Dog meat at Wikimedia Commons