Dogri language

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Dogri
𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠮, डोगरी, ڈوگری
Native toIndia
RegionJammu region
EthnicityDogras
Native speakers
2.6 million (2011 census)[1]
Dogra Akkhar version of Takri script
Devanagari
Perso-Arabic (Nastaʼlīq)
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ISO 639-2doi
ISO 639-3doi – inclusive code
Individual codes:
dgo – Dogri proper
xnr – Kangri
Glottologindo1311

Dogri (Dogra: 𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠮, Devanagari: डोगरी, Nasta'liq: ڈوگری; pronunciation: [ɖoɡɾi]) is a Northern Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people[3] in India, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir. It is also spoken in western Himachal Pradesh, and the northern Punjab region.[4] It is the ethnic language of the Dogras. Dogri is a member of the Western Pahari group of languages.[5] Unusually for an Indo-European language, Dogri is tonal,[6] a trait it shares with other Western Pahari languages and Punjabi. It has several varieties, all with greater than 80% lexical similarity (within Jammu and Kashmir).[7]

Dogri is one of the 22 official languages of India. It was added in the 8th schedule of the constitution in 2003.

Script[edit]

Dogri was originally written in the Dogra Akkhar script - a modified version of Takri.[8] It is now more commonly written in Devanagari in India.

The Dogra script was standardised from "Parane Ḍogrā Akkhar" (Old Dogra version of Takri script) during the Dogra rule. This script was then called "Namēṁ Ḍogrā Akkhar " (Dogra: 𑠝𑠢𑠳𑠷 𑠖𑠵𑠌𑠤𑠬 𑠀𑠊𑠹𑠋𑠤).[9]

Lilavati (a mathematics treatise originally written in Sanskrit) in Dogri language & Dogra script.
Dogra Script Specimen
Dogri Specimen in Chambeali Takri

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar
Stop/
Affricate
voiceless p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
Nasal m n ɳ (ɲ) (ŋ)
Fricative voiceless (f) s ʃ
voiced (z)
Tap ɾ ɽ
Approximant w l j
  • Gemination occurs in all consonants except the consonants /ɾ ʃ ɽ ɳ/.
  • Retroflex consonants /ɽ ɳ/ rarely occur in word initial position.
  • /f z/ only occur from Perso-Arabic loan words, and /f/ is also heard as an allophone of an aspirated //.
  • /ɾ/ can also marginally be heard as trilled [r] in some speech.
  • In some words, /s/ can become more weakly pronounced, or even eliminated and replaced by a glottal fricative sound [h].
  • A palatal nasal sound [ɲ] typically occurs when a dental nasal precedes a post-alveolar affricate consonant, rarely occurring in words word-initially or medially.
  • A velar nasal sound [ŋ] typically occurs when a dental nasal precedes a velar plosive consonant, and rarely occurs word-initially or medially.[10]

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
High i u
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid e o
Mid ə
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Low ɑ
  • There are nasalized variations of the following vowels [ĩ ʊ̃ ɔ̃ ɑ̃ ɛ̃].
  • Vowel sounds are often nasalized when occurring before a word-medial or word-final /n/, except when /n/ occurs before a word-final vowel.
  • /ʊ/ can have a marginal upgliding allophone [ʊᵛ] when occurring before a /ɑ/ vowel sound.

A word-final /ɑ/ can also be realized as drifting toward a centralized [ä] sound.[10]

Some common words[edit]

Dogra Devanagari Perso-Arabic Transliteration (ISO-15919) English translation
𑠁𑠪𑠵 आहो آہو āho Yes
𑠊𑠝𑠹𑠝𑠴 कन्नै کنّے kanne With
𑠝𑠯𑠊𑠹𑠊𑠬𑠷 नुक्कां نُکّاں nukkāṃ Shoes
𑠛𑠤𑠵𑠁𑠑𑠬 दरोआजा درواجا daroājā Door
𑠊𑠳𑠪𑠹 केह् کَہہ keh What
𑠊𑠮 की کى Why
𑠛𑠵𑠁𑠝𑠬 दोआना دوأنہ doāna Watermelon
𑠛𑠯𑠝𑠭𑠣𑠬 दुनिया دُنيہ duniyā World

Tone rules[edit]

These are rules of writing tones in Dogri using Devanagari Script. They are as follows:-

  • Just like Punjabi, Dogri also uses the letters घ (gʱə), झ (d͡ʒʱə), ढ (ɖʱə), ध (d̪ʱə), भ (bʱə) and ढ़ (ɽʱə) for tonal uses. When at the beginning of the word, it has a high-falling tone; ie:- घ (kə̀), झ (t͡ʃə̀), ढ (ʈə̀), ध (t̪ə̀), भ (pə̀) and ढ़ (ɽə̀). When in the middle and final position of the word, the preceding vowel has a low-rising tone; ie:- अघ (ə́ɡ), अझ (ə́d͡ʒ), अढ (ə́ɖ), अध (ə́d̪), अभ (ə́b) and अढ़ (ə́ɽ). Examples:- घड़ी (kə̀ɽɪ)- clock, and औषध (ɔʃə́d̪),
  • Unlike Punjabi, there is no ह(hə) sound and it is tonal in all positions. So, it has a high-falling tone in the beginning position and in the middle positions when as a consonant conjuct; ie:- हत्थ (ə̀t̪ʰː)- hand; and a low-rising tone elsewhere; ie:- फतूही (pʰətuːí)- shirt.
  • To indicate a low-rising tone in the middle of words, Dogri uses ह् (ह with a halant) to indicate it when the preceding vowel is long; ie:- आ (ɑ), ई (i), ऊ (u), ए (e), ऐ (ɛ), ओ (o) and औ (ɔ). Example:- साह्ब (sáb)- sahab. When the preceding vowel is small; ie:- अ (ə), इ (ɪ) and उ (ʊ); an apostrophe mark (') is used. Example:- ल'त्त (lə́tː).
  • The alphabets mentioned in the first point can also be used to indicate high-falling tone in the middle of the words when between a short vowel and a long vowel.

Some examples are shown below.

Devanagari Script Tone English translation
कोड़ा हा। Equal It was a whip.
घोड़ा हा। Falling It was a horse.
कोढ़ा हा। Rising It was bitter.
दस कीयां? Equal Why is it ten?
द'स कीयां? Rising Tell me how (it happened).

Historical references[edit]

In the year 1317, Amir Khusro, the famous Urdu and Persian poet, referred to Duger (Dogri) while describing the languages and dialects of India as follows: "Sindhi-o-Lahori-o-Kashmiri-o-Duger."[11][12]

Theories on name origin[edit]

Intellectuals in the court of Maharaja Ranbir Singh s/o Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, described 'Duggar' as a distorted form of the word 'Dwigart,' which means "two troughs," a possible reference to the Mansar and Surinsar Lakes.[13]

The linguist George Grierson connected the term 'Duggar' with the Rajasthani word 'Doonger,' which means 'hill,' and 'Dogra' with 'Dongar.'[13] This opinion has lacked support because of the inconsistency of the ostensible changes from Rajasthani to Dogri (essentially the question of how Doonger became Duggar while Donger became Dogra), and been contradicted by some scholars.[14]

Yet another proposal stems from the presence of the word 'Durger' in the Bhuri Singh Museum (in Chamba, Himachal Pradesh). The word Durger means 'invincible' in several Northern Indian languages, and could be an allusion to the ruggedness of the Duggar terrain and the historically militarized and autonomous Dogra societies. In Himachal, Dogri is majorly spoken in Hamirpur, Barsar, Una, Chintpurni, Kangra, and Bilaspur regions.

In 1976, the experts attending the Language Session of the 'All India Oriental Conference' held in Dharwad, Karnataka, could not reach consensus on the 'Dwigart' and 'Durger' hypotheses, but did manage agreement on a Doonger-Duggar connection. In a subsequent 'All India Oriental Conference' held at Jaipur in 1982, the linguists agreed that the culture, language and history of Rajasthan and Duggar share some similarities. It was also suggested that the words 'Duggar' and 'Dogra' are common in some parts of Rajasthan. Specifically, it was asserted that areas with many forts are called Duggar, and their inhabitants are accordingly known as Dogras. The land of Duggar also has many forts, which may support the opinion above. An article by Dharam Chand Prashant in the literary magazine Shiraza Dogri suggested that "the opinion that the word 'Duggar' is a form of the word 'Duggarh' sounds appropriate."[15]

Recent history[edit]

In modern times, a notable Dogri translation (in the Takri script) of the Sanskrit classic mathematical opus Lilavati, by the noted mathematician Bhaskaracharya (b. 1114 AD), was published by the Vidya Vilas Press, Jammu in 1873.[16] As Sanskrit literacy remained confined to a few, the late Maharaja Ranbir Singh had the Lilavati translated into Dogri by Jyotshi Bisheshwar, then principal of Jammu Pathshala.[17]

Dogri has an established tradition of poetry, fiction and dramatic works. Recent poets range from the 18th-century Dogri poet Kavi Dattu (1725–1780) in Raja Ranjit Dev's court to Professor Ram Nath Shastri and Mrs. Padma Sachdev. Kavi Dattu is highly regarded for his Barah Massa (Twelve Months), Kamal Netra (Lotus Eyes), Bhup Bijog and Bir Bilas.[18] Shiraza Dogri is a Dogri literary periodical issued by the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, which is a notable publisher of modern Dogri literary work, another being the Dogri Sanstha. Popular recent songs include Pala Shpaiya Dogarya, Manney di Mauj and Shhori Deya. The noted Pakistani singer Malika Pukhraj had roots in the Duggar region,[19] and her renditions of several Dogri songs continue to be popular in the region. Some devotional songs, or bhajans, composed by Karan Singh have gained increasing popularity over time, including Kaun Kareyaan Teri Aarti.

Dogri programming features regularly on Radio Kashmir (a division of All India Radio), and Doordarshan (Indian state television) broadcasts in Jammu and Kashmir. However, Dogri does not have a dedicated state television channel yet, unlike Kashmiri (which has the Doordarshan Koshur channel, available on cable and satellite television throughout India).[citation needed]

Official recognition of the language has been gradual, but progressive. On 2 August 1969, the General Council of the Sahitya Academy, Delhi recognized Dogri as an "independent modern literary language" of India, based on the unanimous recommendation of a panel of linguists.[20] (Indian Express, New Delhi, 3 August 1969). Dogri is one of the state languages of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. On 22 December 2003, in a major milestone for the official status of the language, Dogri was recognized as a national language of India in the Indian constitution.[21][22]

In 2005, a collection of over 100 works of prose and poetry in Dogri published over the last 50 years was made accessible online at the Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore. This included works of eminent writer Dhinu Bhai Panth, Professor Madan Mohan Sharma, B.P. Sathai and Ram Nath Shastri.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Census India, Statement 1: Abstract of Speakers' Strength of Languages and Mother Tongues 2011
  2. ^ "The Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Bill, 2020". prsindia. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  3. ^ Sharma, Sita Ram (1992). Encyclopaedia of Teaching Languages in India, v. 20. Anmol Publications. p. 6. ISBN 9788170415459.
  4. ^ Billawaria, Anita K. (1978). History and Culture of Himalayan States, v.4. Light & Life Publishers.
  5. ^ Masica, Colin P. (1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 427. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
  6. ^ Ghai, Ved Kumari (1991). Studies in Phonetics and Phonology: With Special Reference to Dogri. Ariana Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-85347-20-2. non-Dogri speakers, also trained phoneticians, tend to hear the difference as one of length only, perceiving the second syllable as stressed
  7. ^ Brightbill, Jeremy D.; Turner, Scott B. (2007). "A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Dogri Language, Jammu and Kashmir" (PDF). SIL International. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  8. ^ Pandey, Anshuman (4 November 2015). "L2/15-234R: Proposal to encode the Dogra script in Unicode" (PDF).
  9. ^ "NammeDograAkkhar" (PDF).
  10. ^ a b Bahri, Ujjal Singh (2001). Dogri: Phonology and Grammatical Sketch. Series in Indian Languages and Linguistics, 24: New Delhi: Bahri Publications.CS1 maint: location (link)
  11. ^ Shastri, Ram Nath (1981). Dogri Prose Writing before Independence (Translated). Dogri Research Centre, Jammu University.
  12. ^ Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 9780836422832.
  13. ^ a b Pathik, Jyoteeshwar (1980). Cultural Heritage of the Dogras. Light & Life Publishers.
  14. ^ Bahri, Ujjal Singh (2001). Dogri: Phonology and Grammatical Sketch. Bahri Publications.
  15. ^ Prashant, Dharam Chand (April–May 1991). "Duggar Shabad di Vayakha". Shiraza Dogri.
  16. ^ Bhāskarācārya (1873). Līlāvatī (Dogri translation). Jammu: Vidya Vilas.
  17. ^ Sharma, B. P. Century Old Printed Dogri Literature. Jammu & Kashmir State Research Biannual.
  18. ^ Jerath, Ashok (1988). Dogra Legends of Art & Culture. Indus Publishing. p. 236. ISBN 978-81-7387-082-8.
  19. ^ Joseph, Suad; Najmabadi, Afsaneh (2003). Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures. Leiden: Brill. p. 75. ISBN 978-90-04-12821-7.
  20. ^ Rao, S. (2004). Five Decades; the National Academy of Letters, India: a Short History of Sahitya Akademi. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 9788126020607.
  21. ^ "Lok Sabha passes bill recognising Dogri, 3 other languages". Daily Excelsior. Jammu and Kashmir. 23 December 2003. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2008. Dogri among other three languages has been included in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution when Lok Sabha unanimously approved an amendment in the Constitution
  22. ^ Tsui, Amy (2007). Language Policy, Culture, and Identity in Asian Contexts. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-8058-5694-1.
  23. ^ "Finally, a boost: Dogri literature now a click away". Indian Express. 19 May 2005. Retrieved 26 February 2013.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gopal Haldar (2000). Languages of India. New Delhi: National Book Trust

External links[edit]