Doi Suthep–Pui National Park

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Doi Suthep-Pui National Park
อุทยานแห่งชาติดอยสุเทพ-ปุย
Doisuthepnationalpark0408b.jpg
Mae Sa waterfall
LocationChiang Mai Province, Thailand
Nearest cityChiang Mai
Coordinates18°48′34″N 98°54′57″E / 18.80944°N 98.91583°E / 18.80944; 98.91583Coordinates: 18°48′34″N 98°54′57″E / 18.80944°N 98.91583°E / 18.80944; 98.91583
Area261.06 km2 (100.80 sq mi)
Established1981
Visitors328,659 (in 2019)
Governing bodyDepartment of National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation (DNP)

Doi Suthep–Pui National Park (Thai: อุทยานแห่งชาติดอยสุเทพ-ปุย) is a national park in Chiang Mai Province in Thailand. It includes Wat Phra That Doi Suthep, a Buddhist temple, and Bhubing Palace, the winter residence of King Bhumibol Adulyadej and family. The park is a protected area for flora, fauna, and habitat.[1]

History[edit]

The former name of the area is Doi Aoi Chang.[citation needed] The name Doi Suthep was inspired by a hermit named Prarusiwasuthep who once lived in the local forest. In 1973, the Royal Forest Department proposed that this and 13 other forests be designated national parks. It became the 24th national park of Thailand in 1981. Today it includes about 261 square kilometers of territory.[1]

Geography and climate[edit]

Mok Fa waterfall (area C on the map)
The total area that forms the park[2]

The mountainous landscape is part of the Thanon Thong Chai Range. The three main peaks are Doi Suthep, Doi Buak Ha, and Doi Pui, the latter of which is tallest at 1,685 metres (5,528 ft). The climate is cool, with an average temperature around 20 to 23 °C (68 to 73 °F). Low winter temperatures can reach 6 °C (43 °F). Late summer is the rainy season, with daily precipitation.[1]

Flora[edit]

The park is forested, with evergreen forest above 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and deciduous forest below. Mixed deciduous-evergreen forest occurs in gullies and along streams. Common trees include oaks, dipterocarps, and trees of the magnolia family.[1] There are many waterfalls.[2]

The forests in the park are divided into two main types of forests. Deciduous forests are found up to about 900-1,000 meters above sea level, while lower montane evergreen forests are found starting from about 900-1,000 meters above sea level.

The dipterocarp deciduous forest is primarily composed of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus, Dipterocarpus obtusifolius, Shorea siamensis, and Shorea obtusa. The oak species Quercus kerrii is also found in the deciduous forest. Other major non-dipterocarp tree species in the deciduous forest are Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Xylia xylocarpa, Terminalia mucronata, Terminalia alata, and Vitex peduncularis.[3][4]

The pine tree Pinus kesiya is found at higher elevations.

The montane evergreen forest primarily consists of Schima wallichii, Castanopsis acuminatissima, Castanopsis tribuloides, Magnolia baillonii, Magnolia garrettii, among other tree species. Tectona grandis and Cassia fistula used to be common, but are no longer widely found due to centuries of logging.[5][6]

Plants used by local people[edit]

At the Hmong village of Doi Pui, located within the park boundaries, plant species utilized by the local people include the following.[4]

Fauna[edit]

Animals in the park include the crocodile salamander (Tylototriton verrucosus). Mammals include the common muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) and wild boar (Sus scrofa). More than 300 species of birds have been recorded in the area, including pheasants, eagles, parrots, bulbuls and minivets.[1][7]

Mammals[edit]

Small mammals found in the lower montane evergreen forest include the ferret-badger (Melogale personata), ground squirrel (Menetes berdmorei), noisy rat (Leopoldamys sabanus), lesser short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus brachyotis), while small mammals found in the deciduous forest include the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis), Burmese striped squirrel (Tamiops mcclellandii), belly-banded squirrel (Callosciurus flavimanus), white-bellied flying squirrel (Petinomys setosus), chestnut white-bellied rat (Niviventer fulvescens), yellow rajah rat (Maxomys surifer), root rat (Rattus rattus), and dark-tailed subspecies of Bower's white-toothed rat (Berylmys bowersi bowersi).[5]

Frugivorous mammals in the park include Pallas's squirrel (Callosciurus erythraeus), red-cheeked squirrel (Dremomys rufigenis), Phayre's flying squirrel (Hylopetes phayrei), Burmese striped squirrel (Tamiops mcclellandii), northern treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri), common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina).[8]

Other small mammals found in the park are Rattus tanezumi, Rattus exulans, Rhizomys pruinosus, Hylomys suillus, and Crocidura vorax.[9]

Birds[edit]

Frugivorous birds include the black-crested bulbul (Pycnonotus flaviventris), mountain bulbul (Ixos mcclellandii), puff-throated bulbul (Alophoixus pallidus), and ashy bulbul (Hemixos flavala).[8]

Reptiles and amphibians[edit]

Reptiles in the park include Platysternon megacephalum, Calotes emma alticristata, Pseudocalotes kakhienensis, Pseudocalotes microlepis, Gekko gecko, Ptychozoon kaengkrachanense, Tropidophorus thai, and the recently described gecko species Cyrtodactylus doisuthep.[10]

Invertebrates[edit]

Thousands of insect species are found in the park, including 561 species of butterflies.[11]

Recreation[edit]

Activities in the park include walking and hiking, cycling, camping, tours of caves, waterfalls, and other features, observation of plants, birds, and butterflies, cultural and historical sightseeing, and stargazing.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Doi Suthep–Pui National Park". Department of National Parks (Thailand). Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  2. ^ a b c "National Parks in Thailand: Doi Suthep–Pui National Park" (PDF). Department of National Parks (Thailand). pp. 30–31. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  3. ^ Khamyong, Nuttaluck, Prasit Wangpakapattanawong, Sutthathorn Chairuangsri, Angkhana Inta, and Pimonrat Tiansawat (2018). Tree Species Composition and Height-diameter Allometry of Three Forest Types in Northern Thailand. CMU J. Nat. Sci. (2018) Vol. 17(4).
  4. ^ a b Yarnvudhi, Arerut, Sarawood Sungkaew, Sutheera Hermhuk, Pasuta Sunthornhao, Surin Onprom (2016). Plant Diversity and Utilization on Ethnobotany of Local People at Hmong Doi Pui Village in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai Province. Thai J. For. 35(3): 136-146 (2016).
  5. ^ a b Putiyanan, Somporn and J.F. Maxwell (2006). Survey and Herbarium Specimens of Medicinal Vascular Flora of Doi Suthep-Pui. CMU Journal (2006) Vol. 5(2).
  6. ^ Marod, Dokrak, Sarawood Sangkaew, Aumporn Panmongkol, Atchara Jingjai (2014). Influences of Environmental Factors on Tree Distribution of Lower Montane Evergreen Forest at Doi Sutep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai Province. Thai J. For. 33 (3) : 23-33 (2014).
  7. ^ Elliot, Stephan; Cubitt, Gerald (2001). THE NATIONAL PARKS and other Wild Places of THAILAND. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd. pp. 72–77. ISBN 9781859748862.
  8. ^ a b Rueangket, Apisada, Prateep Duengkaea, Sathid Thinkhampang, Dokrak Marod (2019). Utilization of fruit by frugivores in lower montane forest at Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai province. Agr. Nat. Resour. 53 (2019) 457–464.
  9. ^ Saosoong, Sutasinee, Prateep Duengkae1, and Dokrak Marod (2014). Species diversity and abundance of small mammals in hill evergreen forest at Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai Province. Journal of Wildlife in Thailand Vol.21 No.1 2014.
  10. ^ Kunya, Kirati, Aumporn Panmongkol, Olivier S. G. Pauwels, Montri Sumontha, Jiraporn Meewasana, Woraphot Bunkhwamdi & Siriwat Dangsri. 2014. A New Forest-Dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Zootaxa. 3811(2): 251–261. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3811.2.6
  11. ^ Inayoshi, Y. & A. Giudici. Basic list of Butterflies in Chiang Mai province, Thailand.