Dolos (mythology)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Dolos
Personification of trickery, cunning deception, craftiness, treachery and guile
Parents Aether and Gaia (mythology) (Hyginus Preface) or Erebus and Nyx (Cicero De Natura Deorum)
Siblings Achlys, Apate (deity), Eleos, Elpis, Epiphron, Eris, Geras, Hesperides, Hybris (mythology), Hypnos, Ker, Moirai, Momus, Moros, Oizys, Oneiroi, Nemesis, Philotes, Sophrosyne and Thanatos
Roman equivalent Mendacius

In Greek mythology, Dolos or Dolus ("Deception") is the spirit of trickery and guile. He is also a master at cunning deception, craftiness, and treachery. He was the son of Gaia (Earth)) and Aether (Hyginus, Fabulae Theogony 3)[1] or Erebus and Nyx (Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.17)[2].

He is an apprentice of the Titan Prometheus and a companion of the Pseudologi (Lies). His female counterpart is Apate, who is the goddess of fraud and deception. His Roman equivalent is Mendacius. There are even some stories of Dolos tricking gods into lies.

Genealogy[edit]

Hyginus' Account[edit]

Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.)[3] :

"From Aether (Air) and Terra (Earth) [Gaia] [were born] : Dolor (Pain), Dolus (Guile), Ira (Anger), Luctus (Lamentation), Mendacium (Lies), Jusjurandum (Oath), Ultio (Vengeance), Intemperantia (Intemperance), Altercatio (Altercation), Oblivio (Forgetfulness), Socordia (Sloth), Timor (Fear), Superbia (Pride), Incestum (Incest), Pugna (Combat)."

Cicero's Account[edit]

Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 17 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) [4]:

"Their [Aether and Hemera's] brothers and sisters, whom the ancient genealogists name Amor (Love), Dolus (Guile), Metus (Fear), Labor (Toil), Invidentia (Envy), Fatum (Fate), Senectus (Old Age), Mors (Death), Tenebrae (Darkness), Miseria (Misery), Querella (Complaint), Gratia (Favour), Fraus (Fraud), Pertinacia (Obstinacy), the Parcae (Fates), the Hesperides, the Somnia (Dreams) : all of these are fabled to be the children of Erebus (Darkness) and Nox (Night) [Nyx]."

Mythology[edit]

He became known for his skill when he attempted to make a fraudulent copy statue of Aletheia (Veritas), in order to trick people into thinking they were seeing the real statue.[5] He ran out of the clay he was using to create the statue, and had to leave the feet unfinished as he quaked in fear while his skill-master looked over his attempt at deceitfulness. To his surprise, Prometheus was rather amazed at the similarity between the statues, so Dolos then became a master at his crafty and tricky ways.

Aesop, Fables 530 (from Phaedrus Appendix 5) (trans. Gibbs) (Greek fable C6th B.C.)[6] :

"Prometheus, that potter who gave shape to our new generation, decided one day to sculpt the form of Veritas (Truth) [Aletheia], using all his skill so that she would be able to regulate people's behaviour. As he was working, an unexpected summons from mighty Jupiter [Zeus] called him away. Prometheus left cunning Dolus (Trickery) in charge of his workshop, Dolus had recently become one of the god's apprentices. Fired by ambition, Dolus (Trickery) used the time at his disposal to fashion with his sly fingers a figure of the same size and appearance as Veritas (Truth) [Aletheia] with identical features. When he had almost completed the piece, which was truly remarkable, he ran out of clay to use for her feet. The master returned, so Dolus (Trickery) quickly sat down in his seat, quaking with fear. Prometheus was amazed at the similarity of the two statues and wanted it to seem as if all the credit were due to his own skill. Therefore, he put both statues in the kiln and when they had been thoroughly baked, he infused them both with life: sacred Veritas (Truth) walked with measured steps, while her unfinished twin stood stuck in her tracks. That forgery, that product of subterfuge, thus acquired the name of Mendacium [Pseudologos, Falsehood], and I readily agree with people who say that she has no feet: every once in a while something that is false can start off successfully, but with time Veritas (Truth) is sure to prevail." [N.B. This Greek fable is preserved in a Roman compilation so the names have been translated into Latin. Dolos, however, remains Dolus in Latin.]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.)
  2. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 17 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.)
  3. ^ Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.)
  4. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 17 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.)
  5. ^ Moshe Idel, "Golem: Jewish Magical and Mystical Traditions On the Artificial Anthropoid". p. 4.
  6. ^ Aesop, Fables 530 (from Phaedrus Appendix 5) (trans. Gibbs) (Greek fable C6th B.C.)

External links[edit]